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Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy Susan Gregory & Sue King Teaching Support Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy Susan Gregory & Sue King Teaching Support Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy Susan Gregory & Sue King Teaching Support Unit Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences

2 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy George HarrisonMartin Luther KingIbrahim Al-MarashiMadonna The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources Albert Einstein ( ) US (German-born) physicist Copy from one, it's plagiarism; copy from two, it's research. Wilson Mizner ( ) US screenwriter AND OUR TOPIC IS ….. ?

3 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy THE IMPORTANCE OF ACADEMIC HONESTY Briefly think about the implications of each of these situations. Share your thoughts with your partner. –A medical researcher falsifies the results of a new anti-cancer drug to make his discovery seem more important. –A writer submits an idea for a series to a television company, that turns it down. A few months later, they broadcasts an almost identical programme. The writer never receives any acknowledgement or payment. –A minority of students at a particular university are acquiring essays via the Internet and the university authorities have failed to stop the practice. This has led to a decline in the University’s reputation and all their graduates (even genuinely first-class students) are now having problems finding a job Activity adapted from one given at : 0pack doc

4 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy ACADEMIC FRAUD? ACADEMIC CHEATING? PLAGIARISM? Here is a set of terms that cover the many different types of academic dishonesty. Look at them and then match them to the descriptions you have on your sheet. Plagiarism Syndication Invention Cheating Collusion Falsification Impersonation Copying An exercise for students adapted from Franklyn-Stokes, A and Newstead, SE (1995), Undergraduate Cheating: who does what and why, Studies in Higher Education, 20:2

5 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy ACADEMIC FRAUD? ACADEMIC CHEATING? PLAGIARISM? 1.Allowing own coursework to be copied by another student 2.Taking unauthorised material into an exam 3.Fabricating references or a bibliography 4.Lying about medical/other circumstances to get special consideration 5.Copying another student’s coursework with their knowledge 6.Lying about medical/other circumstances to extend deadline or gain exemption 7.Submitting coursework from an outside source 8.A student taking an exam for someone else or vice versa 9.When peer assessing, agreeing to mark more generously than it merits 10.Continuing to write an exam after the invigilator calls time 11.Copying another student’s coursework without their knowledge 12.Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an exam 13.Inventing data 14.Not contributing a fair share to group work 15.Ensuring the availability of books/journals in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them of cutting out chapters/articles 16.Paraphrasing material from a source without acknowledging the original author 17.Copying material for a piece of coursework – without acknowledging the source 18.Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to share answers in an exam 19.Copying from a neighbour during an exam without them realising it 20.Altering data 21.Doing another student’s coursework for them 22.Submitting jointly-written coursework as an individual piece of work 23.Lifting information form the Internet without sourcing it (Collusion) (Cheating) (Invention) (Falsification) (Cheating) (Falsification) (Plagiarism and/or syndication) (Impersonation) (Collusion) (Cheating) (Copying) (Cheating) (Invention) (Cheating) (Plagiarism) (Plagiarism and Copying) (Collusion and Cheating) (Cheating and Copying) (Falsification) (Collusion) (Syndication) (Plagiarism)

6 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? University of Manchester Definition –Plagiarism is the theft or use of someone else's work without proper acknowledgement, presenting the material as if it were one's own.

7 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy WHY PLAGIARISE? Ten reasons students give for plagiarism. –I got desperate at the last moment. –I could not keep up with the work. –The tutor doesn’t care so why should I? –I have to succeed. Everyone expects me to succeed and I expect it, too. –I don’t understand what I’m expected to do to avoid plagiarism. –I can’t do this! I’ll have to copy. –I want to see if I can get away with it. [Alternative version: I’ll probably get away with it.] –I don’t need to learn this: I just need to pass it. –But you said, “work together”! –But paraphrasing would be disrespectful [Alternatives ….. dangerous/nonsense] Based on material in Plagiarism detection and prevention: final report on the JISC electronic plagiarism project by Gill Chester

8 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy PENALTIES (1) in the event that more than half the entire answer has been plagiarised and the marker recognises the source: fail less than half the answer has been plagiarised/marker recognises the source: deduct 20 marks marker feels that they have read this particular script several thousand times before, but cannot quite remember where or when: no action to be taken in the event that the answer reveals extensive plagiarism of the marker's work: add ten marks (Taylor, 2000). Quote from the JISC website …….

9 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy PENALTIES (2) ….. THE REAL ONES! University sanctions Minor plagiarism – School sanctions dealt with by unit coordinator/personal tutor e.g. re-submit work with pass mark as maximum available, written warning from HoD with copy on file. Major plagiarism – Faculty/Institutional sanctions. Hearing before Student Discipline Committee. Formal warning. –UG - loss of one degree class –PG - loss of degree Faculty contact person: Alex Scott, Student Services x65756 University policies on Student Services website

10 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy WHERE DO YOU DRAW THE LINE? Number 1 is plagiarism. Number 6 is not. Where do you draw the line? Note: for this exercise, a bibliography is defined as a list of books relevant to the piece of writing but not necessarily cited in the text; a reference list contains all the sources cited in the text. 1.Copying a paragraph verbatim from a source without any acknowledgement. 2.Copying a paragraph and making small changes – eg replacing a few verbs, replacing an adjective with a synonym; source in the list of references. 3.Cutting and pasting a paragraph by using sentences of the original but omitting one or two and putting one or two in a different order, no quotation marks; in-text acknowledgement eg (Jones, 1999) plus inclusion in the reference list. 4.Composing a paragraph by taking short phrases of 10 to 15 words from a number of sources and putting them together, adding words of your own to make a coherent whole; all sources included in reference list. 5.Paraphrasing a paragraph with substantial changes in language and organisation; the new version will also have changes in the amount of detail used and the examples cited; in text acknowledgement eg (Jones 1999) and inclusion in reference list. 6.Quoting a paragraph by placing it in block format with the source cited in text and list of references. Based on an exercise in Academic Writing for Graduate Students by Swales and Feak, University of Michigan, 1993.

11 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy COMMON TYPES OF PLAGIARISM Cut & Paste Plagiarism –Whenever you take an entire sentence or significant phrase from a source, you must use quotation marks and reference the source. Word Switch Plagiarism –If you take a sentence from a source and simply change around a few words, it is still plagiarism. Style Plagiarism –If you follow a Source Article sentence-by-sentence or paragraph-by-paragraph, it is plagiarism, even though none of your sentences is exactly like those in the Source article or even in the same order. You are copying is the author's reasoning style. Metaphor Plagiarism –Metaphors are used to make an idea clearer than by giving a plain description of the object or process. Metaphors, are an important part of an author's creative style and if you use the metaphor in the Source Article, give the author credit for it. Idea Plagiarism –If the author of the source article expresses a creative idea or suggests a solution to a problem, these must be clearly attributed to the author. This is different from public domain information, which is any idea or solution accepted as general knowledge. For example, what a black hole is and how it is defined is general knowledge. You do not need to reference a general description of a black hole. Based on PLAGIARISM A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It, Dr. C. Barnbaum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valdosta State University

12 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy PARAPHRASING Paraphrasing means to read and understand a section of source material and then rewrite it in your own words. It is necessary to change the grammatical structure, the vocabulary and the order in which information is presented in the original work. Here is an example for you to think about: Source China has long been the world’s most populous nation - but no- one knew exactly how populous it was until last week. Paraphrase Although China has been the world’s most heavily populated country for many years, the exact population was not known until a week ago.

13 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy TIPS FOR PARAPHRASING Structure: the grammatical structure should be changed if this can be done without changing meaning. Often this can be done by joining up sentences or by dividing up long sentences. Meaning: your paraphrase must have the same meaning as the source; it should also have the same relationship between main ideas and supporting details. Words: use different vocabulary when possible, usually more common synonyms/expressions and simpler phrases. Keep specialised vocabulary which has no synonyms (e.g., calcium; plastic; theory; neutron), proper names (e.g., Europe; World Health Organisation), numbers and formulae (e.g. 50%; 2000KW/m; 1984). Length: the length should not vary very much from the length of the original. Style: should be your own and not an imitation of the source, even if your own style seems less perfect to you.

14 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy STEPS IN PARAPHRASING The following list contains steps which will help you write a good paraphrase. –Read the source. –Understand the source. –Put away the source. –Make a simple list of the main points you remember from the source. –Reread the source quickly to make sure you have included all the important points. –Put away the source again. –Join together the points from your list into proper sentence structure, using suitable grammar to make a continuous piece of writing. –Reread your paraphrase, correcting the grammar and organisation if necessary. –Check your paraphrase against the source. Is it a good paraphrase? A GOOD PARAPHRASE IS…. –Accurate (the ideas in the paraphrase are the same as in the source) –Original (the language use is different from the source) –Grammatical

15 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy EXERCISE (1) Based on PLAGIARISM A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It, Dr. C. Barnbaum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valdosta State University Source Article Especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us, you've all seen on the news or in books, beautiful color pictures of various sights in the cosmos. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? Well, to tackle that question, first we have to consider the nature of light and color. Light is made of waves of electromagnetic radiation. We perceive different wavelengths of visible light as different colors. An Example of Copy & Paste Plagiarism Everyone is interested in astronomical images, especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there?

16 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy EXERCISE (1) MODEL ANSWER Based on PLAGIARISM A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It, Dr. C. Barnbaum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valdosta State University How to use the info without plagiarizing We are all thrilled by the beauty of pictures of the universe taken with space telescopes and other satellites. The pictures display spectacular color and detail, but, as posed in "Source Article" by So-n-so, "is this the way you would see these objects if you went there?“ Source Article Especially since the launch of HST and the unprecedented clarity of the images satellites have given us, you've all seen on the news or in books, beautiful color pictures of various sights in the cosmos. But is this the way you would see these objects if you went there? Well, to tackle that question, first we have to consider the nature of light and color. Light is made of waves of electromagnetic radiation. We perceive different wavelengths of visible light as different colors.

17 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy EXERCISE (2) Based on PLAGIARISM A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It, Dr. C. Barnbaum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valdosta State University Source Article Until now, infrared carbon stars have been classified as such due to either the presence of carbon-rich dust or to their presence in region VII of the Habing diagram. Our visible spectra show conclusively that these stars are true carbon stars and do not have any O-rich molecules in their atmospheres. Their weak Ba lines might indicate an under-abundance of s-process elements. This important result, if true, would certainly separate infrared carbon stars from the optical population. An Example of Idea Plagiarism Infrared carbon stars show weak Ba lines and this might mean that they do not have the normal amount of s-process elements in their atmospheres, making them decidedly a different type of star.

18 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy EXERCISE (2) MODEL ANSWER Based on PLAGIARISM A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It, Dr. C. Barnbaum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valdosta State University Source Article Until now, infrared carbon stars have been classified as such due to either the presence of carbon-rich dust or to their presence in region VII of the Habing diagram. Our visible spectra show conclusively that these stars are true carbon stars and do not have any O-rich molecules in their atmospheres. Their weak Ba lines might indicate an under-abundance of s-process elements. This important result, if true, would certainly separate infrared carbon stars from the optical population. How to use the info without plagiarizing The difference between optical and infrared carbon stars might soon be resolved since So-n-so (Source Article) announced that the weakness of Ba lines might indicate that the infrared group originates from a different population than the optical carbon stars.

19 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy AND FINALLY …. A Final Warning –A new service that can scan 4.5 billion web pages in now online allowing lecturers to check the originality of work submitted by students. BUT –“If in any doubt, ASK!” (Pyper, H) Avoiding Plagiarism, Advice for Students by Dr. Hugh S Pyper

20 Combining the Strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of ManchesterSchool of Physics and Astronomy Thank you


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