Presentation on theme: "Political Corruption in the Gilded Age. Bell Work: Please respond to the scenario below in your notebook A company wants a road fixed in front of their."— Presentation transcript:
Political Corruption in the Gilded Age
Bell Work: Please respond to the scenario below in your notebook A company wants a road fixed in front of their business because its terrible condition is costing them customers, but getting the repairs approved by the city and finding the money for the project could take years. There are many other roads that need to be fixed in the city. The mayor goes to the business owner and offers to fix the road immediately but only if the owner agrees to vote for him and to donate heavily to his campaign in the next election. Is there anything wrong with this arrangement? Why or why not? The Gilded Age : Pretty on top and rotten underneath (Mark Twain)
Vocabulary Political bosses political leaders who got people to vote for them by giving favors. They also made deals with contractors. Political Machine : The ring of people who made deals and got votes for the political boss. Graft: To get money or political power through illegal or dishonest methods.
Tammany Hall in New York Who is the political boss and what does he do to get votes? What work does the ‘political machine’ do to support the boss? What are 2 examples of “Graft” from the film?
Rise of the Political Cartoon Late 1800s Thomas Nast – artist Favorite Subject- William Tweed (a.k.a. “Boss” Tweed) "Stop them damned pictures. I don't care what the papers write about me. My constituents can't read. But, damn it, they can see pictures.” –Boss Tweed Boss Tweed. “As long as I count the Votes, what are you going to do about it?”
The Real “Boss Tweed” What office did he hold? How would you describe his actions in office? How did the people who lived in New York react to Tweed’s actions? What happens to Tweed?
Directions Read the 4 quotes. Using the quotes and info from the clips create a list of the Pros and Cons of the ‘Political Machine’ on the back of your worksheet. Then answer the final question.
Exit Slip: Analyze with LIE
Bell Work Discuss your answer to the “Final Question” (Wednesday’s assignment) with a partner: Final Question : Do the benefits of the ‘Political Machine’ outweigh the costs? In other words should it be destroyed or left alone? Why destroy it or why leave it? Lastly, do you believe there is a ‘Political Machine’ today? **after discussion you will hand in this worksheet ABSENT? Check the absent box and find out what you missed…..
Vocabulary Urbanization: The movement of people from the country to the city, caused by industrialization and created many problems. Progressive Movement: Reform movement in the early 1900s that wanted to end the corruption in politics and business, better the lives of the poor, protect natural resources and improve American morality. Theodore Roosevelt: US President from 1901-1909, believed that the President was a "steward of the people” and should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution.
Progressive Movement Characteristics Strongest from 1901-1916 Mostly middle class members Main goal is to change the relationship between government and society, (they want government more involved) Protect the rights of organized labor, women, blacks, and consumers in general. Members were both Republicans and Democrats
Goal 1: End Government Corruption Destroy the Political Machine by… Giving the people more power: Initiative: Voters can introduce legislation by signing a petition, it is then put on the ballot for public approval Referendum: Voters can force government to put a recently passed law onto the ballot for approval or a veto by the people Recall: Allows voters to try and remove an elected official through a special election if enough people sign a petition Creating rules for hiring: Merit System: Hire people for government positions based on skills and abilities not the personal preferences of elected officials
Goal 2: End Business Corruption Theodore Roosevelt campaigns for the Presidency on the “Square Deal” "Let the watchwords of all our people be the old familiar watchwords of honesty, decency, fair-dealing, and commonsense."... "We must treat each man on his worth and merits as a man. We must see that each is given a square deal, because he is entitled to no more and should receive no less." The welfare of each of us is dependent fundamentally upon the welfare of all of us." - New York State Fair, Syracuse, September 7, 1903
Goal 2: End Business Corruption “We don’t wish to destroy corporations, but we do wish to make them serve the public good.” Roosevelt is elected 1904 Tells Attorney General to sue a railroad shipping monopoly under 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act Illegal to monopolize market 1904 Supreme Court orders monopoly dissolved
Goal 2 Continued Roosevelt’s “Trust Busting” Campaign 44 more lawsuits filed Size didn’t matter – Good or Bad for public good “We draw the line against misconduct, not against wealth” Sword Says: Public Service
Goal 3: Protecting Natural Resources Complete destruction of the natural environment at the time for profit
Goal 3: Protecting Natural Resources Roosevelt to the rescue again: Creates 5 National Parks Mesa Verde National Park etc. Antiquities Act 1906 President can create National Monuments 18 during presidency (Devils Tower etc)
Goal 4: Improve the lives of the Poor Describe the living conditions in the tenements. How did Jacob Riis try to combat poor living conditions? How does Colonel George Waring affect the lives of all New Yorkers?
Teddy Roosevelt and Reforms Textbook and Worksheet Day
Bell Work The Progressive Movement pursued reforms in 5 Areas. We discussed 4 Friday. Copy the graphic organizer below and use it to describe the goals and actions of the progressive movement as we discussed Friday. USE YOUR NOTES
Directions Quotes: We will read them together and discuss q’s #1-6 Rest of the hour for Terms Terms: Use the textbook to answer #1-13 (dictionary, glossary, chp 19.) #12 should read: City manager form of government (p573): Add #13 = The Wisconsin Idea: *Due Wednesday
Pure Food and Drug Act Bad Medicine Bad Food
Bell Work: What does this advertisement claim? Is this a believable claim? Explain… Could a company use this advertisement today?
[----------------------------------------------------------] 1850 2 nd Industrial Revolution Begins 1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt is President ______ 1904 SC Trust Bust 1872 Boss Tweed arrested 1906 Pure food and drug Act, Meat Inspection Act, 1920 19 th Amendment 1913 16 th /17 th amendment, Underwood Simmons Tariff, Federal Reserve Act 1912 Initiative, Referendum Recall 1914 FTC created, Clayton Anti Trust Act 1903 Direct Primary in WI 1910 Secret Ballot Late 1800s-1920s Progressive Movement Strongest from 1901-1916 1917 US Enters WWI 1919 Prohibition ____ Progressive Era Timeline ____ ________ _____ ____
Bad Medicine… Cure everything health tonics Contained dangerous drugs – alcohol, morphine, cocaine Secret Ingredient??? Cocaine… “Gullible America will spend this year some seventy-five million dollars in the purchase of patent [over the counter] medicines… it will swallow huge quantities of alcohol, an appalling amount of opiate sand narcotics.” - 1904 Journalist Samuel Hopkins Adams
Vocabulary Muckraker: Investigative journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics, hoping to bring about reform Pure Food and Drug Act: 1906 Law that stopped the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food and patented medicine containing harmful ingredients; also required food and medicine containers to carry ingredient labels. Meat Inspection Act: 1906 Federal law that required government inspection of meat shipped across state lines.
Change in the food industry Local food production to mass production of food
[----------------------------------------------------------] 1850 2 nd Industrial Revolution Begins 1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt is President ______ 1904 SC Trust Bust 1872 Boss Tweed arrested 1906 Pure food and drug Act, Meat Inspection Act, 1920 19 th Amendment 1913 16 th /17 th amendment, Underwood Simmons Tariff, Federal Reserve Act 1912 Initiative, Referendum Recall 1914 FTC created, Clayton Anti Trust Act 1903 Direct Primary in WI 1910 Secret Ballot Late 1800s-1920s Progressive Movement Strongest from 1901-1916 1917 US Enters WWI 1919 Prohibition ____ Bell Work: Please add the filled in boxes to your timeline and * HAND in the text assignment from Monday * ____ ________ _____ ____ 1913 16 th /17 th amendment, Underwood Simmons Tariff, Federal Reserve Act 1914 FTC created, Clayton Anti Trust Act
Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” Prepare to Discuss 1.3 Examples of the experience of workers at the slaughterhouse 2.3 Examples of the level of quality of food being produced 3.2 Examples of the company’s interaction with customers 4.3 Examples of information you found to be the most disturbing
Agenda Hand back papers Change in Test Date* Discuss “Jungle” Work time or begin “Modern Issues” Finish assignment that is due today or Test Corrections that are due tomorrow
Quick Write Using all we have learned in the past few weeks: Explain 5 reasons (total) why the public, Roosevelt, and other government officials wanted to regulate trusts and the food and drug industries.
Modern Food Issues
Bell Work : please discuss this prompt with someone near you, you do not need to write anything down. What problems have you heard of regarding the food we eat today?
Directions: is there anything wrong with this practice? Why or why not? How does it compare to the account in the Jungle? ABC Newscast: 3/09/2102
Agenda Correct Text Assignment Finish Food Inc.
#1-13 Controlling Trusts 1. Sixteenth Amendment: Constitutional Amendment that allowed congress to collect an income tax b)Slowed the mad rush for increased profits, the government would collect money from you and know how much money you made. The public became aware of the money gap. 2. Seventeenth Amendment: Gave voters the power to directly elect senators b)Prior to the 17 th amendment, senators were chosen by those elected to state government often senators were chosen through the political machine. The 17 th amendment gave more power to the people and removed an opportunity for corruption. 3. Pure Food and Drug Act : Stopped the manufacture, transportation, and sale of food or medicine that contained harmful ingredients and required ingredient labels b)Allowed the federal government to investigate how companies made products and made sure they were safe. Kept business honest. 4. Hepburn Act: Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set railroad rates and regulate commerce that occurred across state lines. b)Railroads can’t just set any price they want, the federal government can regulate and oversee business. 5. Nineteenth Amendment: Women get the right to vote b)Women at the time tended to support more laws that controlled business 6. Meat Inspection Act: Federal government can inspect meat sold across state lines b)Business has to sell clean food, the government is watching 7. Underwood-Simmons Tariff: decreased tariffs on certain imported goods and created a progressive income tax. b)With tariffs decreased it eliminated special protection for certain industries, evening the playing field
#1-13 Controlling Trusts 8. Federal Trade Commission : commission with the power to investigate corporations and to try to keep them from conducting unfair practices b)Gave the federal government a ‘watchdog’ over big business 9. Clayton Anti Trust Act : strengthened the Sherman-Anti Trust Act b)Increased power of federal government to break up trusts 10. Federal Reserve Act: created a national banking system b)Strengthened government control over powerful banking interests 11. Direct Primaries: the people have the power to nominate candidates to run in a general election b)The political machine can no longer choose a candidate to run 12. City Manager form of government: using special commissions of people who are experts in their field to deal with particular problems rather than putting party loyalists onto special committees b)Removes the political machine from special projects so they can’t support special business interests. 13. The Wisconsin Idea: the belief that the people should be in control of government not special business interests and that government should regulate public utilities b)Took more power away from the political machine and businesses that wanted to bribe politicians and gave it to the people
Food Inc. Watch What issues does each segment show you about today’s food industry? Main Idea and Examples Discuss The issues. Why do these issues exist? Solutions? Write – The Jungle v. Food Inc. Although 100 years separate these two accounts, there are striking similarities. However, there are also differences. In a well constructed paragraph, describe these differences and similarities between the account in the Jungle and the modern issues in the food industry. In your opinion should the issues of the modern food industry shown in these 5 segments be solved? How? Why or why not?
[----------------------------------------------------------] 1850 2 nd Industrial Revolution Begins 1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt is President 1890 Jacob Riis and photos of poor 1904 SC Trust Bust 1872 Boss Tweed arrested 1906 Pure food and drug Act, Meat Inspection Act, 1920 19 th Amendment 1913 16 th /17 th amendment, Underwood Simmons Tariff, Federal Reserve Act 1912 Initiative, Referendum Recall 1914 FTC created, Clayton Anti Trust Act 1903 Direct Primary in WI 1910 Secret Ballot Late 1800s-1920s Progressive Movement Strongest from 1901-1916 1917 US Enters WWI 1919 Prohibition ____ ________ _____ ____ 1913 16 th /17 th amendment, Underwood Simmons Tariff, Federal Reserve Act 1914 FTC created, Clayton Anti Trust Act Bell Work: Please add the filled in boxes to your timeline
Discuss with someone near you… Have you ever had someone tell you that you needed to change something about yourself? For example how you look, or act, or your values? How did this make you feel? Were you thankful or offended?
The Unfinished Nation: The Progressive Era Based on this video, how do you think immigrants at the turn of the century viewed social reformers like Jane Addams? http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid /2896D817-E30F-4BAF-81BA-E1715908509F http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid /2896D817-E30F-4BAF-81BA-E1715908509F
Rd. pages 503-504 1.What was the Social Gospel movement? 2.How did Settlement Houses reflect the ideas of the Social Gospel movement? 1.Describe the people who worked in Settlement Houses
Activity : What were the attitudes of Progressive social reformers towards immigrants? Split : Groups of 4 people and then Teams A and B: Team A : Argue that progressive social reformers were generous and helpful. Team B : Argue that Progressive social reformers were condescending and judgmental. DIRECTIONS: 30 minutes With your teammate, read the documents. Find three pieces of evidence which support your side. 10 minutes Team A presents. BOTH PARTNERS MUST PRESENT!!! Team B writes down Team A’s arguments and then repeats them back to Team A. 10 minutes Team B presents. BOTH PARTNERS MUST PRESENT!!! Team A write down arguments of Team B and then repeats them back to Team B. 10 minutes Everyone CAN ABANDON their positions. Group of 4 attempts to develop a consensus.
[----------------------------------------------------------] 1850 2 nd Industrial Revolution Begins 1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt is President 1890 Jacob Riis and photos of poor 1904 SC Trust Bust 1872 Boss Tweed arrested 1906 Pure food and drug Act, Meat Inspection Act, Hepburn Act 1920 19 th Amendment 1913 16 th /17 th amendment, Underwood Simmons Tariff, Federal Reserve Act 1912 Initiative, Referendum Recall 1914 FTC created, Clayton Anti Trust Act 1903 Direct Primary in WI 1910 Secret Ballot Late 1800s-1920s Progressive Movement Strongest from 1901-1916 1917 US Enters WWI 1919 Prohibition Bell Work: Please add the filled in boxes to your timeline
Government Corruption Destroy the Political Machine Direct Primaries: the people choose the candidate that will run for office Direct election of Senators: the people elect Senators At the time chosen by the State Government 17 th Amendment Secret Ballot: Make all ballots look the same different political parties printed their ballots in different colors
Do Now: What do you see here? What year do you think this is? How do you think the public responded?
The American Woman Suffrage Movement 1848-1920 The Right to vote = Suffrage = Enfranchisement = Franchise
Seneca Falls, NY 1848 In early 1800s, women involved in abolition (no slavery), temperance (no alcohol) Group of men and women gather in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848 Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Write Declaration of Sentiments
Fifteenth Amendment, 1871 Grants African-American men the right to vote Disappoints many women who thought African American men and women would be enfranchised together African Americans split over whether men should get vote before women
Frederick Douglass, 1869 “When women, because they are women,...are dragged from their houses and hung upon lamp posts; when their children are torn from their arms, and their brains dashed upon the pavement... then they will have an urgency to obtain the ballot equal to our own.” But was this not true for the black woman? “Yes, yes, yes. It is true for the black woman but not because she is a woman but because she is black!”
Sojourner Truth, 1869 “There is a great stir about colored men getting their rights, but not a word about the colored women... And if colored men get their rights, and not colored women theirs, you see the colored men will be masters over the women, and it will be just as bad as it was before.” Do you agree with Frederick Douglass or Sojourner Truth?
Before 1910 Women’s suffrage movement splits, but then unites in 1890 National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Big leaders: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Two big strategies: Try to win suffrage state-by-state Try to pass a Constitutional Amendment (but this would need to be ratified by 36 states--or three-fourths) Which strategy is smarter?
Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony tried several times to introduce an Amendment bill in the late 1800s, but it was always killed in the Senate.
Anti-Suffragists: Those who opposed suffrage (many “Anti’s”were women)
Arguments of Anti-Suffragists: Women were high-strung, irrational, emotional Women were not smart or educated enough Women should stay at home Women were too physically frail; they would get tired just walking to the polling station Women would become masculine if they voted
Why were some of the Western states open to woman suffrage long before Eastern states?
The Next Generation Elizabeth Cady Stanton died 1902 Susan B. Anthony died 1906 But in the early 1900s many young middle-class women were going to college and joining the suffrage movement Many working-class women also joined the cause, hoping the right to vote would help improve working conditions
NAWSA Carrie Chapman Catt led the National American Woman Suffrage Association. She believed in: Careful state-by-state strategy Support President Wilson even if he doesn‘t outright support suffrage (because Democrats were a safer bet than Republicans) Act ladylike! Don’t embarrass the movement
National Woman’s Party Alice Paul led the National Woman’s Party; believed in more aggressive strategies: Focused on passing a Constitutional Amendment Picked up un-ladylike strategies from British suffragists (e.g., heckling politicians, picketing) Refused to support President Wilson if he wouldn‘t support woman suffrage NWP members were arrested for picketing in front of the White House; they were put in jail, went on a hunger strike and were force-fed Which group do you has the smarter strategy, NAWSA or NWP?
19th Amendment, 1920 “ The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” (Tennessee was the 36th state to ratify and it passed by only 1 vote)