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By: Mackenzie Doll and Kathryn Vandenberg

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1 By: Mackenzie Doll and Kathryn Vandenberg
Responding to Classical Liberalism: Ideologies research Project Part: One By: Mackenzie Doll and Kathryn Vandenberg

2 Beginnings of Classical Liberalism
Classical Liberalism definition: the old branch of Liberalism which advocates for liberty, individualism, equal rights, human rationality, limited government involvement, and the laissez-faire economic policy. We first see the beginnings of Classical Liberalism during the 1700’s late in the Industrial Revolution.

3 Principles of Classical Liberalism
Rule of Law Self Interest Individual rights and Freedoms Private Property Economic freedom Competition

4 Laissez-faire Capitalism
Laissez-faire Capitalism is a direct concept of Classical Liberalism. Laissez-faire means “leave alone”, and capitalism is the private ownership of capital goods. Classical Liberalism and Laissez-faire Capitalism go hand in hand because they are both concepts of individualism. In Laissez-faire Capitalism the people want little to no government involvement. The government is only there to protect the individuals private property. Laissez-faire Capitalism supports economic freedom, by not having government involvement. This is supporting a principle of Classical Liberalism which is economic freedom.

5 Industrialization Industrialization is the social and economic change that transformed a group of people from an Agricultural Society to an Industrial society. Middle and Upper class wanted to make a bigger profit on merchandise they were selling. In order to do this they needed to find a way to make more merchandise. The way that they found was to replace the workers with machines. Since there was no government involvement, the Middle to Upper Class were able to replace the workers with machines to make a bigger profit, due to the mass production of merchandise. It is in the Middle to Upper classes’ “Self-Interest” to make a bigger profit which benefits them, without the government involving in the production or selling of merchandise. Having no government involvement in the economy means laissez-faire capitalism. During the Industrial Revolution the working conditions of the people working in the factories were terrible. Children were used to work because they were small, and they had to work over 12 hours a day. There was pollution, workers got very low wages for the long working hours and workers were malnourished.

6 Class System During the 1700’s there was a very distinct difference between the different classes. There was the Upper Class, Middle Class and the working Class. In Classical Liberalism everyone wanted to be equal, have the same rights as the next person, be subject to the same laws( rule of law) as everyone else. So if everyone was to be equal there should be no Class system al all.

7 Limited Government Classical Liberalism is an ideology that benefits the individual the most. During the time of Classical liberalism there was very little government involvement. The government was only supposed to protect the property of individuals. The Middle and Upper Classes only wanted the government to protect their factories because their factories were their source of profit.

8 Capitalist Thinkers Adam Smith contributed to Classical Liberalism because he thought there should be no government involvement at all when it came to the economy especially. He thought that a free market would produce the most goods which would be beneficial for the Middle to Upper Classes. Thomas Malthus thought the government intervention would be detrimental to the economy because the population would increase, due to better working conditions put in place by the government, and with this increase the natural resources would drop because there are to many people to provide for. David Ricardo thought that the natural price of labour was the cost of its production, or the cost of maintaining the labourer. According to Ricardo the poor were having to many children, which resulted in the amount of people able to work in the factories high. Because of high amount of available workers the wages were really low, because factory owners could find people who would work for lower wages.

9 Sources of Information
Social 30-1 textbook Mr. Thain’s Industrial Revolution PowerPoint on the Wiki Wikipedia for Laissez-faire, Capitalism, Classical Liberalism and Industrialization

10 Part Two: Responding to Classical Liberalism (Chartism)

11 Chartism Facts Who: Working Class People
What: it was a movement that focused on political and social reform. Chartism was named after the People’s Charter of 1838. When: Where: In Britain

12 Why Chartism Developed: Goals of the People’s Charter of 1838
Universal Suffrage for men over the age of 21 Equal sized electoral districts Voting done by secret ballot Yearly Elections Pay for the Members of Parliament An end to the need to have property to be a part of Parliament

13 Chartism VS. Classical Liberalism
Chartism challenges Classical Liberalism by having more government involvement. Chartism wants yearly elections, voting by secret ballot, abolishing the qualifications to be a Member of Parliament, and equal sized electoral district. According to Chartism all men of the age of 21 and older were all equal, and should have an equal opportunity to be a Member of Parliament.

14 Chartism Continued Chartism was created to counter the inequality which was created by the Industrial Revolution. In 1842 the chartists went on a strike wanting EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW, so in other words Rule of Law. The Chartists became violent in there ways of protesting for equality, destroying factory machines. In the end some of the demands of the Chartists were implemented in the Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884.

15 Chartism Continued The Ideology of Chartism did provide a better life for those living in the 19th century and beyond because some of the demands that the Chartists wanted were actually implemented by the Middle and Upper Classes as well as the government. There were not yearly elections but there were elections every few years, however there were electoral districts after the 1842 strike. The equality of people improved, men without properties were allowed to be in government. Because of Chartism the Liberal Party was created and the secret ballot was introduced. Chartism improved welfare, upgraded education, introduced freedom of speech, and greater political representation for natives.

16 Sources of Information on Chartism
Wikipedia: Chartism Mr. Thain’s PowerPoint on Chapter 4 on the Wiki.

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