Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK 1.List three reasons why people supported prohibition. 2.What is a bootlegger? 3.What is a speakeasy? 4.How was the suffragist movement linked."— Presentation transcript:
BELLWORK 1.List three reasons why people supported prohibition. 2.What is a bootlegger? 3.What is a speakeasy? 4.How was the suffragist movement linked to the temperance movement? 5.THINKER: Why do you think prohibition was widely ignored? How might this impact the traditional American “culture?”
Prohibition in the Americas
Frances Willard “I call upon you who are here today… to match the drinker’s love of liquor with our love of him!” “The rum power will be as much doomed as was the slave power when you gave the ballot to the slaves.” “We believe that as God led us into this work by way of the saloons, he will lead us out by way of the ballot!”
Willard’s Memorials: Willard statue on display in the National Statuary Hall of the Capitol Building Frances Willard House: Illinois
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Carrie Nation One of the biggest supporters of the prohibition movement Promoted her viewpoint through vandalism On many occasions, she would enter a place that served alcohol and attack the bar with a hatchet Described herself as “a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what he doesn't like”
Prohibition’s Effectiveness The new amendment was widely ignored. It created a bigger contrast between rural and urban areas.
Organized Crime Bootlegger: supplier of illegal alcohol (rum runner) They would produce their own alcohol or smuggle it into the U.S. through Canada and the Caribbean. Speakeasy: bars that operated illegally. Most required membership or connections High profits from alcohol smuggling led to the emergence of organized crime Gangsters: bribed police and other government officials to ignore their illegal operations and forced local businesses to pay a fee for “protection.” Moved into other illegal activities, like gambling and prostitution.
“Some speakeasies are disguised behind florists’ shops, or behind undertakers’ coffins. I know one, right in Broadway, which is entered through an imitation telephone-box; it has excellent beer.” -Paul Morand, 1929
Templeton Rye Al Capone’s favorite drink! Made in Templeton, Iowa during prohibition Main source of income for farmers/citizens Extremely popular in Chicago, Omaha, and Kansas City Capone would send groups of men into Templeton cemetery to retrieve the supply of alcohol and return it to Chicago Hid the supply in the tombstone of my great great grandpa, Franz Roth (married to Amelia Bruggeman) Templeton was a small town of 200, and over 100 were Bruggeman's!
Al Capone Al Capone, nicknamed “Scarface,” was the most famous gangster of Chicago’s organized crime network. Capone bought the cooperation of police, city officials, politicians, and judges. He was finally arrested and imprisoned in 1931 for income-tax evasion.
“All I ever did was supply a demand that was pretty popular” - Al Capone
“When prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be widely supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized. I have slowly and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has generally increased; the speakeasy has replaced the saloon; a vast army of lawbreakers has appeared; many of our best citizens have openly ignored Prohibition; respect for the law has been greatly lessened; and crime has increased to a level never seen before.” John Rockefeller; 1932
The 21 Club http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=E420Ou0JI1o http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=E420Ou0JI1o Start at 1:07
BELLWORK Republican PresidentDomestic PolicyForeign Policy Harding Coolidge Hoover THINKER: What aspect of Harding’s presidency was MOST scandalous? How would it be different if a modern president had similar scandals?
Prohibition in Canada Prohibition….I’m hosed! We have to give up all our whiskey, eh? I know! Such a kerfuffle! I cant believe I’m losing all my mickie!
Timeline of Prohibition The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries: 1907 to 1948 - various provinces in Canada 1914 to 1925 - Russia (USSR) 1915 to 1922 - Iceland (beer was still prohibited until 1989) 1916 to 1927 - Norway 1919 - Hungary 1919 to 1932 - Finland 1920 to 1933 – U.S.
A police raid confiscating illegal alcohol, in Elk Lake, Canada (1925)
Prohibition in Canada 1850’s – economic depression…..alcohol industry flourishes 1 bar for every 150 people in Toronto 1 bar for every 70 people in Montreal Highest profits came from Caribbean rum and locally brewed whiskey By the 1870’s, jailhouses throughout Canada are filled with people charged with intemperance (act of excessive drinking)
Prohibition in Canada Effects of alcohol become focus of three temperance groups: Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Canada United Farm Women of Alberta Dominion Alliance for the Total Suppression of the Liquor Traffic Believed that poverty, crime, disease and domestic abuse would stop if alcohol was made illegal. Religious groups (Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Protestants) campaigned heavily Gradually, provincial governments implemented “dry” laws which limited production, sale, distribution, import
Dominion Alliance’s Memorandum; 1876 "The Council of the Alliance has agreed to the following principles as a basis to which they most respectfully but earnestly call your attention: That it is neither right nor politic for the Government to afford legal protection and sanction to any traffic or system that tends to increase crime, to waste the resources of the Dominion, to corrupt the social habits, and to destroy the health and lives of the people Intoxicating liquors are destructive to the order and welfare of society, and ought therefore to be prohibited. That the history and results of all legislation in regard to the liquor traffic abundantly prove, that it is impossible satisfactorily to limit or regulate a system so essentially mischievous in its tendencies. That no consideration of private gain or public revenue can justify the upholding of a traffic so thoroughly wrong in principle, so suicidal in policy, and disastrous in its results, as the traffic in intoxicating liquors. "Deeply convinced of the value of the aid of Christian Ministers and Churches, as such, we solicit your co-operation in the efforts now being made to concentrate the moral and religious energies of the Dominion against the liquor traffic.
Canadian Temperance Act; 1878 Allowed provinces to vote on prohibition (not federal) National poll - 51.3% voted for prohibition & 48.7% against Prohibition had a majority in all provinces except Quebec, 81.2% voted against it. Despite this national electoral majority, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier’s government chose not to introduce a federal bill on prohibition, mindful of the strong opposition in Quebec. During WWI, the prohibition argument said it would benefit the war effort since it would prevent waste and potential inefficiency. It would also make Canada a better place for the soldiers to return to. Following the election of 1917 the federal government introduced national prohibition by Order-in-Council on April 1, 1918. Due to an idea for wartime domestic reform, prohibition became part of the War Measures Act in 1918.
Day before Prohibition is implemented in Canada
Prohibition in Canada Province/TerritoryProvincial Prohibition EnactedRepealed British Columbia19171921 Alberta19161924 Saskatchewan19171925 Manitoba19161921 Ontario19161924 Quebec1919 New Brunswick19171927 Nova Scotia19211929 PEI19011948 Yukon19181920 Newfoundland (not part of Canada until 1949)19171924
Failure of Prohibition in Canada Canadian government had numerous exceptions to prohibition: Wineries were exempt from closure Various breweries and distilleries remained open for the export market Doctors could prescribe alcohol to the ill; heavily abused Aboriginal wines are also exempt Alcohol can still be sold through the government for industrial, scientific, mechanical, artistic and medical uses Appearance of speakeasies Increase in “Canadian Rum Running” Even though there were failures, overall, it was more successful than prohibition in the U.S. Most provinces repealed prohibition in the early 1920’s
Canadian Rum Runners Rum ships from the Caribbean brought alcohol to the US, but it was cheap = low-profit Instead, rum runners begin to smuggle Canadian whiskey, French champagne, & English gin Most brought to northern U.S. cities like Chicago, Boston & NYC The U.S. Coast Guard spends its time policing the Canada-U.S. border and routinely sinks boats carrying booze from Canada. The average rum running ship carried $200,000 of booze!
Rum runner Kirk and Sweeney with contraband stacked on deck
William McCoy McCoy was the most famous rum runner during prohibition (1901-1920) Started his business based on the illegal smuggle of rum from the Bahamas to Florida Could afford his own ships and weapons; business expansion! As profit increased, he expanded his business to supply Canadian whiskey and other fine liquors to Eastern ports from Maine to Florida Some rum runners relabeled products or added water to increase their profits….. McCoy did not! Birth of the phrase “The Real McCoy!” Initiated machine gun fire with U.S. Coast Guard Ships Started the concept of “Rum Row”
U.S. Coast Guard Ship Seneca; sunk McCoy’s last rum running ship in 1923
CLOSURE Compare/contrast prohibition in the United States vs. Canada