Paper vs. Electronic Paper elections Local attacks Lacks transparency Electronic elections today Global attacks Undetectable Unrecoverable No transparency Ideally No local/global attacks Full transparency
What is Transparency? Anyone can verify that: their vote is cast as intended the votes were counted as cast
Tallying Encrypted votes are mixed by the mixnet. Mixed decrypted votes and proofs of correctness are published in the Bulletin board. Paper votes may be tallied according to policy.
Auditing Auditing the machine (“cast as intended”): Audit by users using Android application. Random audit by designated auditors. Auditing the bulletin board. Android application. Validation of mixnet proofs of correctness: Built-in verifier. 2 Independent verifiers.
Behind the scenes Auditing the booth: cast-or-audit
Behind the scenes Auditing the booth: cast-or-audit Auditing the tally: Verifiable Mixnet
Elections with Wombat IDC Student council elections: May 17-19 2011 Meretz party chairman: February 7, 2012 IDC Student council elections: May 21-23 2012
IDC 2011 Elections Non-profit college with ~6000 students. 28 different races. Students eligible to vote on multiple races. 2097 students voted.
Some Statistics Voting took 1-2 minutes: 30 Seconds for voter identification 30 Seconds for scanning the ballot 579 voters verified ballot at bulletin board Students encouraged to verify with a coveted prize (2 x faculty parking spots).
Questionnaire 403 students answered an on-line survey. 78 answered a random exit survey. Students encouraged to answer by offering prize. High levels of voter satisfaction and confidence. The processes of folding ballots and validating votes should be improved.
Questionnaire “How satisfied are you with your voting experience?” “The Voting Process Was Clear and Simple”
Meretz Party Leader Party leader elected by party council consisting of 950 representatives. Highly diverse set of voters: Age (many over 50), gender, education, ethnicity… 830 (88%) voted. 23 voters verified their vote.
IDC 2012 Elections 2120 Students voted. Only 16 students checked their votes.
Difficulties & Lessons Technical difficulties: Electricity power loss. Printer hanging. Difficulties in folding the ballot. Mitigated by volunteers instructing voters before entering the voting booth.