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Progressivism & the Republican Roosevelt 1901 - 1912.

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Presentation on theme: "Progressivism & the Republican Roosevelt 1901 - 1912."— Presentation transcript:

1 Progressivism & the Republican Roosevelt 1901 - 1912

2 Progressive Roots  1900 – 1 in 7 was foreign born –13 million more arrived between 1900 & 1914  Progressivism – use government as an agency of human welfare opposed to hands- off individualism / Laissez-faire –Waged war on many evils, notably monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice

3 Late 19 th Century Social Critics  1894 – Henry Demarest Lloyd –Attacked trust such as Standard Oil –Wealth Against Commonwealth  1899 - Thorstien Veblen –Assailed the new rich & their “conspicuous consumption” & “predatory wealth” –The Theory of the Leisure Class  1890 – Jacob Riis –Exposed the slum conditions of NYC –How the Other Half Lives

4 Critics of Social Injustice  Used religious doctrine to demand better housing & living conditions for the urban poor  Women were committed to improve the lots of families living & working in the festering cities  Urban Pioneers –Jane Adams & Hull House –Lillian Wald

5 Early 20 th Century Muckrakers  1902 - Lincoln Steffens –Articles in McClure’s entitled “The Shame of the Cities” –Unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business & city government  1904 – Ida M. Tarbell –Articles in McClure’s –Exposé of Standard Oil Company  1906 – David G. Phillips –Article in Cosmopolitan –Charged that US Senate represented RR’s & trusts

6 20 th Century Muckrakers conti  1908 – Ray Stannard Baker –Following the Color Line –Spotlighted that 33% of African Americans were illiterate  1906 – John Spargo –The Bitter Cry of the Children –Abuses of child labor

7 Muckrakers & Progressive Reformers  Muckrakers - believed their primary function was to make the public aware of social problems – not propose solutions  Progressive reformers were mainly middle-class people who sought to: –Curb the threats posed by trusts –Stem the threats of Socialists by improving the common person’s conditions of life & labor  Sought to cleanse capitalism not overthrow it! –More democracy was needed to “fix” things

8 Political Progressivism  Direct primary – undercut party bosses  Initiative – voters could directly propose legislation. By passing the boss-bought state legislatures  Referendum – place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people  Recall – enable voters to remove elected officials who were corrupt

9 conti Political Progressivism conti  Campaign spending & contribution laws – evened the playing field & curbed political bribes  Secret ballot – cut down on political bribes  1913 - Direct Election of Senators –17 th Amendment  City-Manager System – designed to take politics out of municipal administration

10 Fighting Bob  Robert M. LaFollette – Wisconsin –Became governor & took control from the crooked corporations & returned it to the people Regulated public utilities –Became an example for others to follow  Hiram W. Johnson – California –Broke the grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad in CA  Charles Evans Hughes – New York –Investigator of malpractices by gas & insurance companies & coal trust

11 Battling Social Ills  Enactment of safety & sanitation codes for industries  Closed harmful trades to juveniles  Workmen’s compensation laws  Maximum hours & minimum wage laws

12 Sweatshops  1911 – Triangle Shirtwaist Company –Fire at the company in NYC incinerated 146 female workers  Legislation was passed that regulated the hours & conditions of toil in such firetraps  Muller v. Oregon 1908 –Louis Brandeis persuaded Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers –Used to discriminate against women workers


14 Courts & Legislation  1905 – Lochner v. New York –Length of workday was increased –Later decreased  Saloons –Alcohol was connected to prostitution –Antiliquor campaigns began

15 Prohibition Movement  Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) –Founded by Frances E. Willard Prayed in saloons –1 million women members Largest women’s organization in the world  Dry laws passed in some states –Controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol  18 th amendment passed in 1919 making alcohol illegal

16 TR’s Square Deal  3 C’s: –Control of the corporations –Consumer protection –Conservation of natural resources

17 TR’s Square Deal & Labor  1902 – Coal Strike in Pennsylvania –Workers demanded more pay & reduction of hours –Owners refused arbitration –TR held a meeting in the White House –TR threatened to use federal force against owners  TR urged Congress to create Dept of Commerce & Labor –Goal achieved in 1903  Bureau of Corporations – branch of Dept –Authorized to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce

18 TR & Corporations  Interstate Commerce Commission – 1887 –Inadequate because railroad barons could appeal the commission’s decisions on rates –Later extended to include more than railroads –Power to nullify existing rates & stipulate maximum rates  Elkins Act of 1903 –Heavy fines could be imposed both on railroads that gave rebates & shippers that accepted them  Hepburn Act of 1906 –Free passes were restricted

19 The Trustbuster  1902 – attacked Northern Securities Company –Railroad holding company organized by James Hill & J.P. Morgan –Monopoly of the railroads in the Northwest  1904 Courts upheld TR’s suit & ordered the company to be dissolved  Initiated over 40 proceedings against trust  Purpose: TR wanted to prove that the gov’t, not private business, ruled the country –He believed in regulating & not fragmenting

20 Caring for the Consumer  1906 – Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle –Exposed the meat packing industry & its filth –He aimed for the nation’s heart, but hit its stomach  Results: –Meat Inspection Act – 1906 Preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection Sing the song – p.668 –Pure Food & Drug Act – 1906 Prevent mislabeling of foods & drugs

21 Earth Control  Americans overall were wasteful  Desert Land Act of 1877 –Gov’t sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years  Forest Reserve Act of 1891 –Set aside public forests as national parks  Carey Act of 1894 –Distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated & settled

22  Newlands Act of 1902 –Gov’t would sell public lands in the western states & use the funds for irrigation projects  1911 - Roosevelt Dam built on Arizona’s Salt River  Earmarked coal deposits & water resources useful for irrigation & power  Sierra Club & Boy Scouts

23 The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907  1904 - TR elected president –Called for: Regulation of corporations, taxing incomes, & protecting workers –Announced that he would not seek a 3 rd term  Panic of 1907 –Run on banks, suicides, and criminal indictments against speculators –TR was blamed –Aldrich-Vreeland Act – 1908 Authorized national banks to issue emergency currency

24 Election of 1908  William Howard Taft – (R) –Carry out TR’s policies –Wins easily – hand picked by TR  William Jennings Bryan – (D)  Eugene V. Debs – (Socialist)

25 Lasting Impact of TR  Greatly enlarged the power & prestige of the presidential office  Helped shape the progressive movement & the liberal reform campaigns that came later  Square Deal was the grandfather of FDR’s New Deal  Opened the eyes of Americans to the fact that they shared the world with other nations



28 William Howard Taft  Former judge & lawyer  Hostile to labor unions  “foot-in-the-mouth” disease  Definitely not the reformer that TR was

29 Dollar Diplomacy –Taft’s foreign policy  Use American investments to boost American political interests abroad –Gov’t encouraged Wall Street bankers to invest in other countries Especially in the Far East & around the Panama Canal  NY bankers would strengthen American defenses & foreign policies through investments

30 Problems for Taft  Manchuria, China (Open Door Policy) –Wanted Americans to end Japanese & Russian monopoly of RR by buying the RR & returning it to the Chinese Sec of State Philander C. Knox made the proposal Japan & Russia would not sell  Caribbean (Monroe Doctrine) –Americans encouraged to invest in Honduras & Haiti to keep out foreign funds  American forces were sent Nicaragua in 1912 –Stayed for 13 years

31 Taft the Trustbuster  Brought 90 suits against trusts compared to TR’s 44  1911 – Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of Standard Oil –Violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 –“rule of reason” – only those combinations that “unreasonably” restrained trade were illegal  1911 – Taft filed an anti-trust suit against US Steel Corporation –Infuriated TR

32 Taft Splits the Republican Party  1909 – Taft called Congress into special session to lower tariffs –Eventually signed the Payne-Aldrich Bill which did not really lower tariffs  1910 – Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy –Sec of Interior Richard Ballinger opened up public lands in Wyoming, Montana, & Alaska to corporate development –Criticized by Gifford Pinchot – chief of Agriculture Dept of Forestry –Taft dismissed Pinchot for insubordination


34 TR Reappears  1911 – National Progressive Republican League was formed –“Fighting Bob” was the leading candidate (La Follette)  TR lets it be known that he wants to run again  1912 – Taft-Roosevelt explosion –Republican convention – Taft was selected –TR begins third-party crusade

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