Presentation on theme: "Magruder’s American Government C H A P T E R 7 The Electoral Process."— Presentation transcript:
Magruder’s American Government C H A P T E R 7 The Electoral Process
SECTION 1 The Nominating Process SECTION 2 Elections SECTION 3 Money and Elections Chapter
Chapter 7, Section 1 S E C T I O N 1 The Nominating Process Why is the nominating process a critical first step in the election process? What are self-announcement, the caucus, and the convention nominating methods? Why is the direct primary the principal nominating method used in the United States today? Why do some candidates use the petition as a nominating device?
A Critical First Step In the United States, the election process occurs in two steps: 1. Nomination, in which the field of candidates is narrowed 2. General election, the regularly scheduled election where voters make the final choice of officeholder Chapter 7, Section
Why is nominating Important [*write down somewhere*] 1.It’s a major function of political parties 2.Reason for the decentralized character of major parties 3.Nominations place a real and practical limits on the choices that voters can make in an election
1-4 Years Before Election first steps for potential candidates include broadening their visibility, testing their appeal nationwide, and developing committees to explore their viability as a candidate. If the results are encouraging, the contender will officially announce his or her candidacy. 1-4 Years Before Election The costs of running for office are huge and raising funds is an ongoing effort throughout the campaign. Lack of funds often cause contenders to drop out of the race. January–June of the Election Year Primaries and caucuses help determine the party’s nominee. At this stage, voters choose their party’s frontrunner and many candidates concede defeat. Start the Race Fundraising Primaries and Caucuses
Nominating methods CaucusConvention Direct Primary Petition Self- Announcement
Ways to Nominate 1.Self-Announcement: person who wants to run for office simply announces that fact Oldest form of the nominating process May be used by someone who failed to win a regular party’s nominating or by someone unhappy with the party’s choice Examples: George Wallace of the American Independent Party in 1968 Eugene McCarthy, Independent in 1976 John Anderson in 1980 Ross Perot in 1992 Chapter 7, Section
2. Petition : local level in American politics- candidates are nominated by petitions signed by a certain number of qualified voters in the election district Minor party and independent candidates are usually required by State law to be nominated by petition. Petition is often used at the local level to nominate for school posts and municipal offices.
Caucuses & Primaries Both lead up to the convention 18 months. Before presidential elections: parties send out a “Call to Convention”- asking states to meet to select presidential nominations and select delegates they will send to the national party convention…two methods:
3. Caucuses Caucus: closed meeting of like-minded people who meet to select the candidate they will support, the caucus as a nominating device fell out of favor in the 1820s Held locally and they choose delegates to a local convention the local convention, chose delegates to the state convention the state convention, chose delegates to the national convention Analyzing Political Cartoons The first delegate-selection event in a presidential election by caucus is held in Iowa, followed afterward by the first scheduled primary in New Hampshire.
4. Primaries State convention meetings with 2 Purposes: voters select delegates from their states to attend the national party convention Vote to nominate a presidential candidate for their party or show preference for a presidential candidate This is preferred because it allows people to decide on candidates for presidency and nominees have to work hard to get support. 2008: 40 states used presidential primary system 16 states hold their primaries on ‘Super Tuesday’= February 5 th 3/4ths of states hold their primaries in mid-March
Two kinds of primaries: Winner-Take-All vs. Proportional Representation In winner-take-all states, the delegates are awarded only to the candidate who wins the preference vote. 40% of vote =0 delegates 60% of vote =100% delegate In a state with proportional representation, delegates are awarded to those candidates who win at least 15% of the vote. 40% of vote =40 % delegates 60% of vote =100% delegate In winner-take-all states, the delegates are awarded only to the candidate who wins the preference vote.
Each state/territory has an assigned number of delegates it can send to the convention based on population/voting patterns/ # of congressional representatives and state government officials that are members of that party – Democrats – Send: 5, 552 to national convention – – Republicans – Send: 2,286 to national convention publicans
August–September of the Election Year Delegates to each party’s convention adopt the party platform, nominate their party’s presidential candidate, and ratify his or her choice of vice-presidential running mate. National Conventions September–November of the Election Year Following the conventions, each candidate focuses on his or her opponent. Debates provide opportunities to compare and contrast each candidate’s qualifications and plans for the future. Debates November on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, the voters cast their ballots and the president- elect is determined. Election Day
5. Convention Parties select host city [look for arenas, stadiums, and sporting venues] 2008 Republican NC: wanted seating capacity of 25, Democratic NC: wanted seating capacity of 84,000 Goals of National convention: 1.Name party’s presidential/vice presidential candidate 2.Promote party unity 3.Adopt party platform
Agenda of Convention 1.Choose Vice Presidential candidate- they give acceptance speech 2.“Roll call of the states”= call states in alphabetical order [Alabama to Wyoming] Each complete roll call of states A-Z is called a ballot Each State spokesperson gives a speech about the state’s history/geography/its famous people… then announces its “delegate count” or choice for president Candidate usually wins party’s nomination on the 1 st ballot…if no one gets majority of votes, chairperson calls for a 2 nd ballot 3.Nominee for that party gives Acceptance Speech
Nominating and Electing a Candidate Chapter 7, Section
Section 1 Review 1. The most commonly used method of nomination today is – (a) the caucus. – (b) the direct primary. – (c) self-announcement. – (d) the convention. 2. A runoff primary is held in some States when – (a) no one wins a majority of votes. – (b) there is only one candidate. – (c) not enough voters turn out on election day. – (d) a candidate asks for a recount. Chapter 7, Section 1 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!Click Here!
S E C T I O N 2 Elections How does the administration of elections in the United States make democracy work? What role do precincts and polling places play in the election process? In what ways can voters cast their ballots? What role do voting machines and other innovations play in the election process? Chapter 7, Section
The Administration of Elections Congress has the power to set the time, place, and manner of congressional and presidential elections. Congress has chosen the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of every even-numbered year for congressional elections presidential election being held the same day every fourth year. Help America Vote Act: upgrade voting machines, training of election officials, computerize registration Allow absentee voting: people can vote without going to polling place on election day through the mail Elections are primarily regulated by State law, but there are some overreaching federal regulations.
Precincts and Polling Places Precincts A precinct is a voting district. Precincts are the smallest geographic units used to carry out elections. A precinct election board supervises the voting process in each precinct. Polling Places A polling place is where the voters who live in a precinct go to vote. It is located in or near each precinct. Polling places are supposed to be located conveniently for voters. Chapter 7, Section
Casting the Ballot Voting was initially done orally. It was considered “manly” to speak out your vote without fear of reprisal. Paper ballots began to be used in the mid-1800s. In the late 1800s, ballot reforms cleaned up ballot fraud by supplying standardized, accurate ballots and mandating that voting be secret. Chapter 7, Section History of the Ballot
Office-Group and Party-Column Ballots Chapter 7, Section All candidates of the same Party are grouped together u Under title of office. Lists candidates under Party’s name.
Voting Machines and Innovations Chapter 7, Section Electronic vote counting has been in use since the 1960s that reads ballots like a Scantron machine- machine scans your votes and records them Vote-by-mail elections have come into use in recent years. Online voting is a trend that may be encountered in the near future.
Section 2 Review 1. Elections are held on – (a) the first Wednesday after Halloween. – (b) the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. – (c) the second Thursday after the first Monday in March. – (d) the first Monday in December. 2. The Office-Group Ballot encourages – (a) voter fraud. – (b) split-ticket voting. – (c) voter dissatisfaction. – (d) the Democratic Party. Chapter 7, Section 2 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here!
Chapter 7, Section 3 S E C T I O N 3 Money and Elections What are the issues raised by campaign spending? What are the various sources of campaign funding? How do federal laws regulate campaign finance? What role does the Federal Election Commission have in enforcing campaign finance laws? What loopholes exist in today’s campaign finance laws?
Campaign Spending Chapter 7, Section
Sources of Funding Chapter 7, Section Small contributors: $5- $100 Wealthy supporters: large donations Nonparty groups such as Political Action Committees [PACs]:special-interest groups who support a candidate Temporary fund-raising organizations Candidates: spend own money.. Ross Perot spend $65 to run as independent president in 1992 Government Subsidy: grants of money from the government Private and Public Sources of Campaign Money
The Federal Election Commission The Federal Election Commission (FEC) enforces: the timely disclosure of campaign finance information limits on campaign contributions –Cant give more than $1,000 in a primary –Cant give more than $5,000/yr to a PAC –Cant give more than $20,000 to a party committee limits on campaign expenditures provisions for public funding of presidential campaigns Chapter 7, Section
Loopholes in the Law “More loophole than law…” —Lyndon Johnson Hard money- contributions given directly to candidates for their campaigns for Congress or White House..they’re limited and must be reported Soft money— unlimited money given to State and local party organizations for “party-building activities” [like voter registration] but end up being used for presidential or congressional campaigns… $500 million was given to campaigns in this way in Chapter 7, Section
Independent campaign spending—a person unrelated and unconnected to a candidate or party can spend as much money as they want to benefit or work against candidates. Issue ads—take a stand on certain issues in order to criticize or support a certain candidate without actually mentioning that person’s name. Negative Issue Ad by MoveOn.org: President Bush Can't Think of a Mistake, 2004 (0:29) Negative Issue Ad by MoveOn.org: The Corporation's Choice, 2004 (0:30) Negative Issue Ad by Swiftboat Veterans for Truth: Christmas in Cambodia, 2004 (0:31)
Section 3 Review 1.Sources of campaign funding include – (a) nonparty groups, such as political action committees. – (b) government subsidies. – (c) candidates’ personal funds. – (d) all of the above. 2.Under federal election legislature passed in the 1970s, candidates are not allowed to – (a) take government subsidies. – (b) use their own money in campaigns. – (c) take contributions of more than $1,000. – (d) all of the above. Chapter 7, Section 3 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here!