What is Debate? Debate centers on the discussion of a RESOLUTION. The Proposition side argues in support of the resolution - they argue for the proposed idea. The Opposition side argues against the resolution - they argue for anything but the proposed idea.
What Do Judges Do? In this order, you have 3 jobs to perform: 1.Award individual speaker points. 2.Decide a winning Team. 3.Give feedback (optional). Chairpersons and timekeepers take care of the details
Order of Events( cross-X ) 1st Affirmative Constructive Speech 1st Negative Constructive Speech 2nd Negative Constructive Speech 2nd Affirmative Constructive Speech Affirmative Rebuttal Negative Rebuttal Cross X
1st Proposition Speech 1.Introduction 2.Definition of Essential Terms (should be clear to the average person) 3.Fully Describe Model (If used) 4.Theme / Caseline 5.Outline all of the Proposition Arguments (Expand Arguments using (evidence / proof) 7. Conclusion
1st Proposition (cont) In the first proposition speech over eighty five percent of the speech should be reserved for the constructive matter. The first proposition usually develops two constructive points in their speech, giving each point equal time. For example in a six minute speech: The first minute would be used for introduction and definitions The next two minutes would be used for the first constructive argument The next two minutes would be used for the second constructive argument Last minute would be used for a short summary and conclusion
What is a Model? A model is an extension of the definitions that aims to add increased clarity to the motion. The model answers the four W’s of the debate. Who, What, When, Where. A good model creates more context and make the debate clean, removing much of the debate from the implementing of a policy to the actual policy itself. The model must be fully explained in the first speech. An example of a model for the resolution “ This House would impose a carbon tax” would be: 1.The government of Canada would impose a $40 dollar tax on each ton of carbon that companies produce 2.The money collected will be directed back in the form of subsidies and grants to companies that are investing in green energy and technology 3.The tax will increase at a rate of five dollars each year 4.The tax will come into effect in the year 2010
1st Opposition Speech 1. Introduction 2. Respond to Definition of Essential Terms Most teams will accept the terms as defined (no time, place, set) Can challenge the terms if unreasonable - If this happens, judges decide which terms are more reasonable (still possible for Prop. to win) 2.Opposition theme / Caseline and split 3.Clash with 1st Proposition Arguments 4.Outline Own Arguments for opposing the resolution (Expand Arguments (evidence and proof) 5. Fully describe Counter Model (If used) 6. Conclusion
1st Opposition Speech (cont) In the first opposition speech seventy five percent of the speech should be reserved for the constructive matter. The first proposition usually develops two constructive points in their speech, giving each point equal time. For example in a six minute speech: The first minute & 30 seconds would be used for refutation and rebuilding The next two minutes would be used for the first constructive argument The next two minutes would be used for the second constructive argument Last thirty seconds would be used for a short summary and conclusion
Judges’ Note: Evidence Keep track of arguments and evidence on flow sheet. This will be your record from which to judge. Evidence can be in the form of facts, quotes, examples, or logic – it need not be numbers. You will be making your decision on the evidence, content and rationale of their case. An argument without evidence carries no weight. Evidence must be accurate.
Judges’ Note: Clash Clash is a central principle of debate. Without clash, there is no debate. Debaters are obliged to clash directly and specifically to their opponents’ arguments. Keep track of which arguments have been successfully clashed. ie. Arrows or checks CLASH is the deciding factor of a debate. If a team fails to clash with major points, they should lose the debate.
2nd Proposition Speech 1.Introduction 2.Clash with 1st Opposition Arguments 3. Outline team’s case approach 4.Further Proposition Arguments 5.Conclusion
2nd Proposition Speech (cont) The second proposition about thirty five - forty percent of the speech should be refutation and the rest reserved for construction. For example in a six minute speech: The first thirty seconds would be used for the introduction The next two minutes for refutation of the opposition and rebuilding The next two minutes for construction of a single new argument The final thirty seconds for the conclusion
2nd Opposition Speech 1.Introduction 2.Clash with Proposition Arguments 3.Outline team’s case approach 4.Further Opposition Arguments 5.Conclusion
2nd Opposition Speech (cont) The second opposition speech has about fifty to sixty percent refutation and the rest is reserved for construction. It is good practice in a debate to only introduce a single argument in the second speech. For example in a six minute speech: The first thirty seconds for an introduction The next three minutes would be used for refutation The next two minutes would be used for the last constructive point The final thirty seconds to conclude the opposition side of the debate
Cross-examination This form of questioning is meant to gain valuable admissions and identify weaknesses of the opponents’ case. Questioner’s responsibilities: Be polite Be relevant to the topic Do not browbeat, belittle, intimidate or speechify Provide enough time for the question to be considered and answered.
Cross-examination (Cont.) Questioners cannot demand “yes / no” answers but, they can interrupt verbose or evasive answers. Witnesses must answer all relevant questions. Judges decide relevance. Again, grade debaters in the “Format” section on how well they ask and answer questions
Caseline & Split A case split is simply how the arguments are divided between the two speakers. A theme is a single, concise sentence that explains the main idea behind your case. For example, consider the topic “BIRT Globalization is doing more harm than good”. A theme for the Proposition team might be, “Globalization’s emphasis on economic competition advantages a few developed nations at the expense of the majority of the world’s population.”
Reply Speeches Both teams: Take a step back and summarize the debate Distill the debate into themes and clash on the major ideas of the debate Leave the judges with a clear reason for your side winning the debate During Reply: No new arguments New evidence IS allowed Not advised to use a systematic style of clash
Job 1: Speaker Points Complete the section of the ballot that deals with individual skills with the help of the judging rubric in your package. Rule of thumb: start with 3 as average and go up or down 25 pts - practically impossible 20-24 - excellent debating skills 15-19 - good to very good skills 12-14 - below average skills sub 12 - impossible will be changed to a 12 when we enter the stats. The range of marks for each debater should be between 12 and 22
Job 2: The Decision Judges should review each team’s arguments, evidence, and clash to select the winner. If, and only if neither team meets their obligations, judges can award the debate to the team best demonstrating the skills of debate. No ties. If you can’t decide, Opposition wins because the Proposition has not proved their case. Breaches of courtesy (insulting comments, distracting gestures) can be used as one of the factors in choosing a winning team. ***Mark the winning team on your ballot*** This is usually the team with the most speaker points. If, however, you choose to award the win to the team with less points, be prepared to justify your reasons. Hand in Your Ballot to the ChairTimer.
Job 3: Feedback Share feedback for each debater. (Comments are optional, but very valuable for debaters’ growth) Judges’ comments should be brief (1-2 minutes) Comments should be directed toward evidence and clash. Positively phrased tips on speaking skills may be appropriate. Young egos are fragile. If everything has been said, the last judge need not feel obligated to comment.
Other Considerations Show no bias on the issue - act as though you know nothing but what the debaters present. If you feel you have a conflict of interest in judging a debate, please switch rooms with another judge. Judges should not sit together or discuss their ballots. Decide on your own and submit your ballot to the chairperson. The judge’s decision is always right!