Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Era 1898-1920. The Populist Party 1891-1896 Represented laborers, farmers, and industrial workers vs. bankers and railroads Agenda Unlimited."— Presentation transcript:
The Populist Party 1891-1896 Represented laborers, farmers, and industrial workers vs. bankers and railroads Agenda Unlimited coinage of silver to make farm prices ; loan repayment easier Direct election of senators Term limits—President hold a single term Graduated income tax—tax wealthy at higher rate Immigration quotas Shorter work days—to 8 hours instead of 10-14
William Jennings Bryan 1896, Democrats nominated Democratic Party adopted many Populist ideas “Cross of Gold” speech Denounced bankers for “crucifying mankind on a cross of gold” Defeated in 1896 & 1900 by McKinley
Populist Party The Populist illustrate a role often played by third parties—they provide an outlet for disadvantaged groups to voice grievances and generate new ideas. Populist reforms were later enacted by other political parties.
The Progressive Movement Mainly middle-class city dwellers, rather than farmers and workers Believed government should increase its responsibility for human welfare by taking an active rile in protecting workers and consumers
Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry Jacob Riis He photographed and described the appalling conditions of the urban poor in How the Other Half Lives.
Ida Tarbell Her book, History of the Standard Oil Company (1902), showed how Rockefeller’s rise was based on ruthless business practices. Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry
Lincoln Steffens He exposed corruption in city and state governments in his book The Shame of Cities (1904). Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry
Upton Sinclair His novel, The Jungle (1906), exposed the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry and led to passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry
Eugene Debs Socialist leader of 1894 Led his union of railway workers in a strike that shut down the western railroads—Pullman Strike Anti-Debs Cartoon Labor Leader
Municipal Reforms Before, cities were ran by political machines or “bosses.” They would get immigrants jobs, housing, and citizenship in exchange for their vote. The machine would steal from the public treasury through bribes and padded contracts. Progressives replaced “bosses” with public- minded mayors and expanded city services.
Boss Tweed New York City political “boss” in the 1850-60s
State Government Reforms led by Robert LaFollette, governor of Wisconsin Secret Ballot— earlier voting was not private, subject to pressure & intimidation Initiatives— allows voters to directly introduce bills in the state legislature Recall— elected officials could be removed by voters in a special election Referendum— voters could compel legislators to place a bill on the ballot for approval Direct Party Primaries— party members decide who they want to represent them in the general election
Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Square Deal—proposed new laws to protect consumer health, to regulate some industries, and to conserve the nation’s natural resources Meat Inspection Act (1906)—after reading The Jungle Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)—regulated the preparation of foods and sale of medicines Trust-buster—revived the Sherman Anti-Trust Act; filed a lawsuit to break of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company
Progressive Presidents William H. Taft 1909-1913 Antitrust cases Set aside a great deal of public land for conservation 16 th Amendment—allowed Congress to tax individual incomes 17 th Amendment—direct election of US Senators instead of by state legislature
Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 “New Freedom”—that would tame big businesses and allow for more competition Lowered tariffs—cheaper goods Used the 16 th Amendment to introduce a progressive income tax Federal Reserve Act (1913)—reformed the banking industry by establishing the Federal Reserve Banks Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)—increasing government’s power to prohibit unfair business practices and established the Federal Trade Commission
The Suffrage Movement 1865-1920 Suffrage = the right to vote Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked to get women the right to vote 19 th Amendment (1920)—no state could deny a citizen the right to vote on the basis of gender
Role of Women Changes 1870-1914 Free public school for girls Some colleges for women Inventions like the sewing machine, typewriter, and telephone added new jobs for women outside the home New labor-saving devices, such as the washing machine and vacuum cleaner reduced housework and provided middle-class women with more leisure time
Impact of Progressives on the Nation Watchdog of Businesses— Americans looked to government for protection from unfair business practices Expansion of Democracy— greater power in the hands of the people (like direct election of senators and primaries) in order to keep it from political bosses Role of Protector— protect consumers, children, women and environment not minorities New Tax Policies— graduated income tax changed how government was financed and helped to correct social inequalities through limited redistribution of wealth