2 The Populist PartyRepresented laborers, farmers, and industrial workers vs. bankers and railroadsAgendaUnlimited coinage of silverto make farm prices ; loan repayment easierDirect election of senatorsTerm limits—President hold a single termGraduated income tax—tax wealthy at higher rateImmigration quotasShorter work days—to 8 hours instead of 10-14
3 William Jennings Bryan 1896, Democrats nominatedDemocratic Party adopted many Populist ideas“Cross of Gold” speechDenounced bankers for “crucifying mankind on a cross of gold”Defeated in 1896 & 1900 by McKinley
7 Populist PartyThe Populist illustrate a role often played by third parties—they provide an outlet for disadvantaged groups to voice grievances and generate new ideas.Populist reforms were later enacted by other political parties.
8 The Progressive Movement Mainly middle-class city dwellers, rather than farmers and workersBelieved government should increase its responsibility for human welfare by taking an active rile in protecting workers and consumers
9 Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry Jacob RiisHe photographed and described the appalling conditions of the urban poor in How the Other Half Lives.
15 Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry Ida TarbellHer book, History of the Standard Oil Company (1902), showed how Rockefeller’s rise was based on ruthless business practices.
17 Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry Lincoln SteffensHe exposed corruption in city and state governments in his book The Shame of Cities (1904).
18 Muckrakers exposed government corruption & the abuses of industry Upton SinclairHis novel, The Jungle (1906), exposed the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry and led to passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
20 Labor Leader Eugene Debs Socialist leader of 1894 Led his union of railway workers in a strike that shut down the western railroads—Pullman StrikeAnti-Debs Cartoon
21 Municipal ReformsBefore, cities were ran by political machines or “bosses.” They would get immigrants jobs, housing, and citizenship in exchange for their vote.The machine would steal from the public treasury through bribes and padded contracts.Progressives replaced “bosses” with public-minded mayors and expanded city services.
22 Boss TweedNew York City political “boss” in the s
23 State Government Reforms led by Robert LaFollette, governor of Wisconsin Secret Ballot—earlier voting was not private, subject to pressure & intimidationInitiatives—allows voters to directly introduce bills in the state legislatureRecall—elected officials could be removed by voters in a special electionReferendum—voters could compel legislators to place a bill on the ballot for approvalDirect Party Primaries—party members decide who they want to represent them in the general election
24 Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Square Deal—proposed new laws to protect consumer health, to regulate some industries, and to conserve the nation’s natural resourcesMeat Inspection Act (1906)—after reading The JunglePure Food and Drug Act (1906)—regulated the preparation of foods and sale of medicinesTrust-buster—revived the Sherman Anti-Trust Act; filed a lawsuit to break of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company
29 Progressive Presidents William H. Taft 1909-1913 Antitrust casesSet aside a great deal of public land for conservation16th Amendment—allowed Congress to tax individual incomes17th Amendment—direct election of US Senators instead of by state legislature
30 Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 “New Freedom”—that would tame big businesses and allow for more competitionLowered tariffs—cheaper goodsUsed the 16th Amendment to introduce a progressive income taxFederal Reserve Act (1913)—reformed the banking industry by establishing the Federal Reserve BanksClayton Antitrust Act (1914)—increasing government’s power to prohibit unfair business practices and established the Federal Trade Commission
32 The Suffrage Movement 1865-1920 Suffrage = the right to voteSusan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked to get women the right to vote19th Amendment (1920)—no state could deny a citizen the right to vote on the basis of gender
38 Role of Women Changes 1870-1914 Free public school for girls Some colleges for womenInventions like the sewing machine, typewriter, and telephone added new jobs for women outside the homeNew labor-saving devices, such as the washing machine and vacuum cleaner reduced housework and provided middle-class women with more leisure time
39 Impact of Progressives on the Nation Watchdog of Businesses—Americans looked to government for protection from unfair business practicesExpansion of Democracy—greater power in the hands of the people (like direct election of senators and primaries) in order to keep it from political bossesRole of Protector—protect consumers, children, women and environment not minoritiesNew Tax Policies—graduated income tax changed how government was financed and helped to correct social inequalities through limited redistribution of wealth