Presentation on theme: "Ballot Types and Ballot Access Early voting was informal, perhaps oral, otherwise voters had to create own ballots, hardly secret Mass party competition."— Presentation transcript:
Ballot Types and Ballot Access Early voting was informal, perhaps oral, otherwise voters had to create own ballots, hardly secret Mass party competition (1840 on) led to Party Ballots –printed by parties –listing only party candidates –distribution to party supporters –hardly secret (differ- ently colored paper)
Implications of Party Ballots No “ballot access” problem Hard for voters to “split ticket” Enhances influence of party leaders Easy to arrange (even on election eve) “fusion” between (major or minor) parties
Australian Ballot Reform (~1890) Government prints ballots –all voters receive same ballot at polling place –ballot list all candidates for all offices –secures secret ballot
Implications of Australian Ballot “Ballot access” must be regulated –filing fee, deposit, petition, etc. Relatively easy for voter to “split ticket” Reduces influence of party leaders Partisan vs. non-Partisan ballots –U.K. vs. U.S. example –what information listed for each candidate? Harder to “fuse” party tickets; in fact, “fusion” may be prohibited
Fundamental Implication of Partisan Australian Ballot Which candidate is entitled to be listed on the ballot under a given party label? Leads to government (in U.S., state government) regulation of party organiza- tion and nominating procedures –in particular, in U.S. led to primary elections
Two Formats for U.S. [Australian] Ballots Relevant only if –ballot is partisan, and –two or more offices are at stake –especially relevant if many offices at stake [“long ballot”] Party-Column/Line Ballot –arranged by party –in effect, several party ballots placed together –may allow “straight party” vote –does not encourage “split ticket” voting –question of party order on ballot Office-Block Ballot –arranged by office –encourages “split ticket” voting –question of candidate order in each block
Presidential Election Ballots Does ballot make any reference to Presidential electors? Does ballot list Presidential elector candidates individually? Does ballot allow/require voters to vote for electors individually? Does the ballot indicate the candidates to whom the elector candidates are pledged? Does state law allow “fusion” of elector candidate slates?