2 Learning Objectives Continued Explain the FASB conceptual framework. Understand the relationship among the objectives of financial reporting.Identify the general objective of financial reporting.Describe the three specific objectives of financial reporting.Continued2224
3 Learning ObjectivesDiscuss the types of useful information for investment and credit decision making.Explain the qualities of useful accounting information.Understand the accounting assumptions and conventions that influence GAAP.Define the elements of financial statements.
4 The FASB’s Conceptual Framework How do we determine the amount of information tosupply in general-purpose financial statements?In what format?Under what assumptions, principles, andconstraints?
5 The FASB’s Conceptual Framework To guide the FASB in establishing accounting standards.To provide a frame of reference for resolving accounting questions in situations where a standard does not exist.To determine the bounds for judgment in the preparation of financial statements.To increase users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting.To enhance comparability.
6 The FASB’s Conceptual Framework The FASB’a role is to . . .Establish consensus on topical accounting issues.Interpret accounting principles.Keep accounting practice as standardized as possible.
7 The FASB’s Conceptual Framework Accounting standards should be consistent with the framework.New problems can be effectively resolved with reference to the framework.User can benefit from a more comprehensive understanding of the accounting information in financial statements.
8 Charges Given to the FASB To develop a conceptual framework of accounting theory.
9 Charges Given to the FASB To establish standards (GAAP) for financial accounting practices.
10 Relationship of Conceptual Framework and Standard-Setting Process
11 Conceptual Framework Projects for Financial Accounting and Reporting
12 Objectives of Financial Reporting General ObjectiveProvide information that is useful to present and potential investors, creditors, and other users in making rational investment, credit, and similar decisions.
13 SFAC No. 1 Objectives of Financial Reporting by Business Enterprises Target audience . . .External users of financial informationHave a reasonable understanding of business and economic activities and are willing to study the information
14 SFAC No. 1 Financial Reporting Objectives Provide information that . . .Is useful in making rational investment, credit and other related decisions.Helps assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows.Is accurate in reporting the economic resources of the business.Provide information about a company’s comprehensive income and its components.
15 Interrelationship of Final Reports, Useful Information and Decision Making Types of Useful InformationCommunication DocumentsExternal Decision MakingReturn on InvestmentRiskFinancial FlexibilityLiquidityOperating CapabilityBuyHoldSellExtend CreditContinue CreditDeny CreditFinancial Reports
27 SFAC No. 4 Measurement Criteria Continued use of different attributes (historical cost, current cost, market value, etc.).All monetary measurement based on nominal units of money.
28 SFAC No. 4 Environmental Assumptions Separate entity assumptionContinuity assumptionUnit-of-measure assumptionTime period assumption
29 SFAC No. 4 Environmental Assumptions EntityThe entity assumption assumes that a proprietorship, partnership, or corporation’s financial activities are distinguished from other financial organizations in keeping its own financial records and reports.
30 SFAC No. 4 Environmental Assumptions ContinuityThis assumption assumes that the company will continue to operate in the near future, unless substantial evidence to the contrary exists. This assumption is also known as the going-concern assumption.
31 SFAC No. 4 Environmental Assumptions Period of TimeIn accordance with the period-of-time assumption, a company prepares financial statements at the end of each year and includes them its annual report. The period-of-time assumption is the basis for the adjusting entry process at period-end.
32 SFAC No. 4 Environmental Assumptions Monetary UnitThis assumption states that there must be some basis for measuring exchange of goods or services. Currently the dollar is considered to be a stable monetary unit for preparing a company’s financial statements.The FASB encourages companies to prepare supplemental disclosures about the impact of changing prices.
34 SFAC No. 4 Implementation Principles Historical CostUsually, the exchange price is retained in the accounting records as the value of an item until it is removed from the records.Replacement Cost$13,000Market Value$13,500Cost$16,000
35 SFAC No.4 Implementation Principles Which amount should be used? Historical CostWhich amount should be used?Cost$16,000
36 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Principles Realization is the process of converting noncash resources and rights into cash or rights to cash.
37 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Principles Realization principle: Two conditions must be met if therevenue principle is to be satisfied.ReasonableAssurance ofCollectionSubstantialCompletion ofEarning Process
38 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Principles Matching PincipleAccrual accounting is the process of relating the financial effects of transactions, events, and circumstances having cash consequences to the period in which they occur rather than to when the cash receipt or payment occurs.
39 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Principles Matching PrincipleThe matching principle states that to determine the income of a company for an accounting period, the company computes the total expense involved in obtaining the revenues of the period and relates these total expenses to the total revenues recorded in the period.Accrual accounting is the process of relating the financial effects of transactions, events, and circumstances having cash consequences to the period in which they occur rather than to when the cash receipt or payment occurs.
42 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Constraints Are benefits greater than costs? Cost-benefit ConstraintAre benefits greater than costs?
43 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Constraints MaterialityThe nature of the item.The relative size rather than absolute size of an item.
44 SFAC No. 5 Implementation Constraints ConservatismThe conservatism convention states that when alternative accounting valuations are equally possible, the accountant should select the one that is least likely to overstate assets and income in the current period.
45 General-Purpose Financial Statements 1. Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet)2. Earnings (Income Statement)3. Cash Flows (Statement of Cash Flows)4. Investment by and Distributions to Owners (Statement of Changes in Equity)
46 SFAC No. 6 Elements of Financial Statements of Business Enterprises Defines 10 elements of financial statements:Revenues, Expenses, Gains, Losses, Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Investment by owners, Distributions to owners and Comprehensive income.All 10
47 It also is called a statement of financial position. Balance SheetA balance sheet is a financial statement that summarizes the financial position of a company on a particular date.It also is called a statement of financial position.
48 Balance Sheet Elements of a balance sheet: Assets are the probable future economic benefits obtained and controlled by a company as a result of past transactions or events.Liabilities are the probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a company to transfer assets or provide services in the future as a result of past transactions or events.Equity is the owners’ residual interest in the net assets of a company.
49 Income StatementAn income statement is a financial statement that summarizes the results of a company’s operations.
50 Income Statement The elements of the income statement are: Continued Revenues are inflows or other enhancements of assets of a company or settlement of its liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that are the company’s ongoing major operation. Revenues increase the equity of a company.Continued
51 Income Statement The elements of the income statement are: Expenses are outflows or other using up of assets of a company or incurrences of liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that are the company’s ongoing major operation. Expenses decrease the equity of a company.Continued
52 Income Statement The elements of the income statement are: Gains are increases in the equity of a company from peripheral or incidental transactions and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances affecting the company, except those that result from revenues or investments by owners. Gains increase the equity of a company.Continued
53 Income Statement The elements of the income statement are: Losses are decreases in the equity of a company, from peripheral or incidental transactions except those that result from expenses or distribution to owners. Losses decrease the equity of a company.
54 Income Statement Expenses decrease the equity of the company Revenues increase the equity of the company
55 Statement of Changes in Equity A statement of changes in equity summarizes the changes in a company’s equity for a period.
56 Statement of Changes in Equity A statement of changes in equity contains two elements:Investments by owners are increases in equity resulting from transfers of something valuable to the company from other entities in order to obtain or increase ownership interest.Distribution to owners are decreases in equity of a company caused by transferring assets, rendering services, or incurring liabilities to owners.
57 Comprehensive IncomeComprehensive income includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting form investments by owners and distributions to owners.
58 Model of Business Reporting Framework of the ModelFinancial and nonfinancial data.Management’s analysis of the financial and nonfinancial data.Forward-looking information.Information about management and shareholders.Background about the company.
59 C1hapterThe EndTask Force Image Gallery clip art included in this electronic presentation is used with the permission of NVTech Inc.