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Teams Mary A. Higby, Ph.D. University of Detroit Mercy.

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1 Teams Mary A. Higby, Ph.D. University of Detroit Mercy

2 Drucker, WSJ, Feb. 11, 1992 “There’s More Than One Kind of Team” Baseball Play on a team; not as a team Have fixed positions they never leave Observations: These teams would do things in sequence Each player trained to be a star and no member has to adjust to anybody else Each member is evaluated individually

3 Drucker, WSJ, Feb. 11, 1992 “There’s More Than One Kind of Team” Football Play as a team but Have fixed positions Observations: Engineering, marketing, and manufacturing would work in parallel These teams have flexibility

4 Drucker, WSJ, Feb. 11, 1992 “There’s More Than One Kind of Team” Tennis Doubles Team Play as a team Have primary rather than fixed positions Observations: The original Saturn team was a tennis doubles team Team performs; individual members contribute

5 Drucker, WSJ, Feb. 11, 1992 “There’s More Than One Kind of Team” Teams are tools Each team has its own: uses, characteristics requirements limitations But teams can be both effective and ineffective

6 EmployeeCustomer Shareholder VISION To be the preferred automotive supplier with an absolute commitment to the customer through focused, empowered employees, technology and global capability. GROWTH INITIATIVES.... Speed and Simplicity: 4Customer Satisfaction 4First to Market 4Lean Practitioners 4Zero Defects 4Global Infrastructure VALUES.... Never Compromising Integrity: 4Customer Focus 4Teamwork / Respect/Empowerment 4Embrace Change and Innovation 4Quality 4Continuous Improvement

7 Teams A team is: a small number of people with complementary skills committed to a common purpose set of performance goals approach for which they hold themselves accountable Katzenbach and Smith, 1993, p. 112

8 Groups Two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person (Shaw, 1993, p. 81)

9 Comparison of Groups and Teams LeadershipManagementManagement/ Leadership TeamIndividualPerformance Evaluation Work collaboration Individual but coordinated Work Approach Joint with management Set by organization Task Definition Individual & jointIndividualAccountability TeamsGroupsCriteria

10 What is a Team? “individuals interacting interdependently” Common goal Differentiated member roles Discretion over how they do the work Dependence on external people and groups Collective responsibility Feedback and rewards given to team, as well as individuals

11 Types of Work Teams Problem-Solving 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet to discuss improving quality, etc. Self-Managed Groups who take on responsibilities of their former supervisor

12 Types of Work Teams Cross-Functional Employees from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a goal Virtual Computer technology ties together physically dispersed members to achieve a common goal

13 Teams No two team experiences are the same. Each has its own unique blend of people, work products and performance results. No two teams ever approach a performance challenge in the same way. Yet all teams that perform well have much in common. Katzenbach and Smith, 1993

14 Characteristics of High Performing Teams Provide quality output. Contribute to personal well-being and development. Enhance team competence and commitment over time. Performance measures People Develop self Provide direction, structure & resources Manage team boundaries Team characteristics Purpose Process Preparation and Practice Standards for team effectiveness Manage type and timing of inter- ventions Leader creates conditions for high performance

15 How do You Design a Task to Inspire High Performance? Meaningfulness (task significance, task identification, skill variety) Clear boundaries Autonomy Feedback Small wins Richard Hackman, Groups that Work (and Those that Don’t)

16 Synergy The whole is greater than the sum of the parts

17 Forming Ambivalence Anxiety Meaning Belonging Competence Control Norming Organizing Focusing Energizing Storming Resistance to task, each other, and leader Conflict Adjourning Relief Nostalgia Pride Performing Task focus Productivity Feedback Energy Team Leadership Get the team off to a good start Stay out of the way Focus on goals Provide resources Remove obstacles Provide meaning Celebrate Transfer learning Cement relationships Stages of Team Life

18 State of Team Life: Forming Forming: Help team members move from dependence on leader to interdependence with each other.

19 Stage of Team Life: Storming Storming: Help team members channel emotional energy productively.

20 Stage of Team Life: Norming Norming: Make team stays focused on goal, provide resources, and stay out of team’s way.

21 Stage of Team Life: Performing Performing: Make team stay focused on goal, provide resources, and stay out of team’s way. Warn of potential problems with excessive cohesiveness.

22 Stage of Team Life: Adjourning Adjourning: Help team members get closure and transfer learning and relationships.

23 Lessons for Leaders Help team get off to a good start Provide direction, structure, resources Plan type and timing of interventions Stay out of the team’s way when possible Leaders are best when people barely know that they lead. Good leaders talk little but when the work is done, the aim fulfilled, all others will say, “We did this ourselves.”

24 Creating Team Norms What is your team’s purpose -- learning, grades, etc.? What will your quality standards be? How will you distribute labor and hold people accountable? How will you manage time? (deadlines, time to be devoted to project)

25 Creating Team Norms How will you manage meetings? How will you manage communication (how and how often?) How will you show respect for each other and manage conflict? How will you work respectfully with the team you observe? (Who will manage contacts?; Will you give them feedback/copy of report?; How will you show appreciation?)

26 The Vision Must Be: Leader initiated Shared and supported by all Comprehensive and detailed (What, why, how, when) Positive and inspiring Must be important so that it feels worth the effort Must stretch skills Everyone must be able to see his or her place in the vision.

27 Leading Teams is Your Job The most important thing to remember about teams is that organizing them is a long hard process, not a quick fix that can change your company in a few weeks. Says Johnsonville’s Stayer, “When I started this business of teams, I was anxious to get it done and get back to my real job. Then I realized that, hey, this is my real job.” Who Needs a Boss?, Fortune Magazine

28 The Diversity Dilemma Although diverse teams are likely to have a broader range of resources available (knowledge, experience, skill, networks), they are also more likely to engage in dysfunctional dynamics that can hinder the teams’ ability to use those resources.

29 Managing Cultural Diversity Diversity calls for managing people who aren’t like you and who don’t aspire to be like you. It’s taking differences into account while developing a cohesive whole. R. Roosevelt Thomas, Jr.

30 The Double Edge Sword: Effects of Diversity on Team Process and Performance Observable Categories Job-related Categories Less visible Categories Similarity- attraction impact Structural barriers Decision- making impact Broader: Perspective Experience Skills Network Inability to identify with the team Cultural ignorance Marginalization Increased uncertainty More Creativity Task conflict Critical thinking Innovation Attention to process External communication Learning Less Cohesion Internal communication Coordination More Stress Censorship Misunderstandings Social Conflict Absenteeism Turnover Quality & timeli- ness Individual growth & well-being Team growth & cohesion

31 Building Diverse Teams: Issues to Consider In what ways are team members similar and different? What are our potential strengths and weaknesses? What are some team dynamics we need to avoid? How can we work together so that we leverage our strengths? (e.g., What norms can we establish to helps us leverage our strengths and minimize potential weaknesses?)

32 Managing Virtual Teams Suddenly, in the blink of an evolutionary eye, people no longer must be in the same place -- co- located -- in order to work together. Now many people work in virtual teams that transcend distance, time zones, and organizational boundaries. Jessica Lipnack and Jeffrey Stamps, Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Time, Space, and Technology

33 Why Virtual Teams? Availability of new technologies Global expansion Shift from production to knowledge work E-commerce Access to and retention of most talented employees Efficient use of brick and mortar Speed and flexibility

34 Ideally, When to Use Face-to-Face Versus Virtual Teams First meetings When there is significant turnover or new members To manage complex/ambiguous issues or negotiations To resolve conflicts To persuade To acknowledge important milestones and successes To protect privacy and confidentiality Fact-finding: To gather preliminary information and opinions To keep people informed between meetings To reduce dysfunctional social dynamics To experiment with technology To increase speed/productivity When people can’t meet face- to-face To gain weight (sending email can result in gain of 1 lb/year Face to FaceVirtual

35 Recommended Team Books The Wisdom of Teams, Katzenbach and Smith (Creating a culture for teams and internal team process) Organizing Genius, The Secrets of Creative Collaboration, Warren Bennis and Patricia Ward Biederman Team Talk, Anne Donnellon Mastering Virtual Teams, Deborah Duarte and Nancy Snyder

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