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1 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework C hapter 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework C hapter 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework C hapter 2

2 2  Explain the FASB conceptual framework.  Understand the relationship among the objectives of financial reporting.  Identify the general objective of financial reporting.  Describe the three specific objectives of financial reporting. Objectives

3 3  Discuss the types of useful information for investment and credit decision making.  Explain the qualities of useful accounting information.  Understand the accounting assumptions and conventions that influence GAAP.  Define the elements of financial statements. Objectives

4 4 Charges Given to the FASB To develop a conceptual framework of accounting theory.

5 5 Charges Given to the FASB To establish standards (GAAP) for financial accounting practices.

6 6 FASB Conceptual Framework To guide the FASB in establishing accounting standards. To provide a frame of reference for resolving accounting questions in situations where a standard does not exist. To determine the bounds for judgment in the preparation of financial statements. To increase users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting. To enhance comparability. To guide the FASB in establishing accounting standards. To provide a frame of reference for resolving accounting questions in situations where a standard does not exist. To determine the bounds for judgment in the preparation of financial statements. To increase users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting. To enhance comparability.

7 7 Relationship of Conceptual Framework and Standard-Setting Process Conceptual Framework Objectives and Concepts Terms Identify goals and purpose of accounting Guide the selection of events to be accounted for, the measurement of these events, and the means of summarizing and communicating the information to external users, PurposePurpose Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts Documents to standard setting

8 8 Relationship of Conceptual Framework and Standard-Setting Process Standard Setting Statements of Financial Accounting Standards Standards Establish methods and procedures for measuring, summarizing, and communicating financial accounting information to external users. From conceptual framework

9 9 Conceptual Framework Projects for Financial Accounting and Reporting Objective Project Accounting Projects Reporting Projects continued Qualitative Characteristics Project

10 10 Conceptual Framework Projects for Financial Accounting and Reporting Accounting Projects Reporting Projects Qualitative Characteristics Project Elements Recognition Measurement Financial Statements and Financial Reporting Income Cash Flow and Liquidity

11 11 Objectives of Financial Reporting Provide information that is useful to present and potential investors, creditors, and other users in making rational investment, credit, and similar decisions. General Objective

12 12 Objectives of Financial Reporting Provide information that is useful to present and potential investors creditors, and other users in assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of prospective cash receipts from dividends and interest, and the proceeds from the sale, redemption, or maturity of securities or loans. Derived External User Objective

13 13 Objectives of Financial Reporting Provide information to help investors, creditors, and others in assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of prospective net cash inflows to related company. Derived Company Objective

14 14 Objectives of Financial Reporting Specific Objectives Provide information about a company’s economic resources, obligations, and owners’ equity. Provide information about a company’s comprehensive income and its components. Provide information about a company’s cash flows.

15 15 Other Issues First, financial reporting should provide information about how the management of a company has discharged its stewardship responsibility.

16 16 Other Issues Second, financial statements and other means of financial reporting should include explanations and interpretations by management to help external users.

17 17 Other Issues Third, the FASB made no decision concerning the qualitative characteristics that accounting information should possess in order to be included in financial reports.

18 18 Objectives in Other Countries German accounting principles are affected by legal and income tax requirements. German accounting emphasizes information for creditors and has a conservative balance sheet orientation. German

19 19 Objectives in Other Countries Swedish companies use “income smoothing” in their financial statements to make profits seem uniform from year to year. Some consider such income smoothing to contribute to economic stability. Sweden

20 20 Objectives in Other Countries In France, accounting rules essentially are controlled by law and are influenced by income tax rules. The French legal system makes the officers of a company personally responsible, to a great extent, for the consequences of business bankruptcy. France

21 21 Interrelationship of Final Reports, Useful Information, and Decision Making Financial Reports Return on Investment Risk Financial Flexibility Liquidity Operating Capability Buy Hold Sell Extend Continue Deny (Credit) Communication Documents Types of Useful Information External Decision Making

22 22RelevanceRelevance Hierarchy of Qualitative Characteristics Accounting Information Benefits>Costs Understandability Decision Usefulness Pervasive Constraint User- Specific Quality Overall Quality Primary Decision-Specific Qualities Continued next slide

23 23 Ingredients of Primary Qualities RelevanceRelevance Hierarchy of Qualitative Characteristics Predictive Value Feedback Value Timeli- ness Verifi- ability Representa- tional faithfulness Neu- trality Secondary and Interactive Qualities Materiality Comparability (including Consistency

24 24 Hierarchy of Qualitative Characteristics Accounting information is relevant if it can make a difference in a decision.

25 25 Hierarchy of Qualitative Characteristics Accounting information is reliable when it is reasonably free from error and bias, and faithfully represents what it is intended to represent.

26 26 Hierarchy of Qualitative Characteristics Comparability of accounting information enables users to identify and explain similarities and differences between two or more sets of economic facts.

27 27 Constraints to the Hierarchy Are benefits greater than costs?

28 28 The nature of the item. The relative size rather than absolute size of an item. The nature of the item. The relative size rather than absolute size of an item. Constraints to the Hierarchy Materiality

29 29 Assumptions and Conventions Entity The entity assumption assumes that a proprietorship, partnership, or corporation’s financial activities are distinguished from other financial organizations in keeping its own financial records and reports.

30 30 Assumptions and Conventions Continuity This assumption assumes that the company will continue to operate in the near future, unless substantial evidence to the contrary exists. This assumption is also known as the going-concern assumption.

31 31 Assumptions and Conventions Period of Time In accordance with the period-of-time assumption, a company prepares financial statements at the end of each year and includes them its annual report. The period- of-time assumption is the basis for the adjusting entry process at period-end.

32 32 Assumptions and Conventions Historical Cost Usually, the exchange price is retained in the accounting records as the value of an item until it is removed from the records. Cost $16,000 Cost $16,000 Replacement Cost $13,000 Replacement Cost $13,000 Market Value $13,500 Market Value $13,500

33 33 Assumptions and Conventions Historical Cost Which amount should be used? Cost $16,000 Cost $16,000

34 34 Assumptions and Conventions Monetary Unit This assumption states that there must be some basis for measuring exchange of goods or services. Currently the dollar is considered to be a stable monetary unit for preparing a company’s financial statements. The FASB encourages companies to prepare supplemental disclosures about the impact of changing prices.

35 35 Assumptions and Conventions Realization and Recognition Realization is the process of converting noncash resources and rights into cash or rights to cash. Recognition is the process of formally recording and reporting an item in the financial statements of a company.

36 36 Assumptions and Conventions Matching and Accrual Accounting Accrual accounting is the process of relating the financial effects of transactions, events, and circumstances having cash consequences to the period in which they occur rather than to when the cash receipt or payment occurs. The matching principle states that to determine the income of a company for an accounting period, the company computes the total expense involved in obtaining the revenues of the period and relates these total expenses to the total revenues recorded in the period.

37 37 Assumptions and Conventions Conservatism The Conservatism convention states that when alternative accounting valuations are equally possible, the accountant should select the one that is least likely to overstate assets and income in the current period. Click here to review assumptions and conventions (C2-2)

38 38 Balance Sheet A balance sheet is a financial statement that summarizes the financial position of a company on a particular date. It also is called a statement of financial position.

39 39  Assets are the probable future economic benefits obtained and controlled by a company as a result of past transactions or events.  Liabilities are the probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a company to transfer assets or provide services in the future as a result of past transactions or events.  Equity is the owners’ residual interest in the net assets of a company. Balance Sheet Elements of a balance sheet:

40 40 Income Statement An income statement is a financial statement that summarizes the results of a company’s operations.

41 41  Revenues are inflows or other enhancements of assets of a company or settlement of its liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that are the company’s ongoing major operation.  Expenses are outflows or other using up of assets of a company or incurrences of liabilities during a period that are the company’s ongoing major operation. Income Statement The elements of the income statement are: Continued on next slide

42 42  Gains are increases in equity from peripheral or incidental transactions of a company and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances affecting the company, except those that result from revenues or investments by owners.  Losses are decreases in equity from peripheral or incidental transactions of a company, except those that result from expenses or distribution to owners. Income Statement The elements of the income statement are:

43 43 Income Statement Revenues increase the equity of the company Expenses decrease the equity of the company

44 44 Statement of Cash Flows A statement of cash flows summarizes the cash inflows and outflows of a company for a period.

45 45  Operating cash flows are the flows of cash from acquiring, selling, and delivering goods for sale, as well as providing services.  Investing cash flows are the flows of cash from acquiring and selling investments, property, plant, and equipment, as well as from lending money and collecting on loans.  Financing cash flows are the flows of cash to and from the owners and long-term creditors. Statement of Cash Flows The elements of a statement of cash flows are:

46 46 Statement of Changes in Equity A statement of changes in equity summarizes the changes in a company’s equity for a period.

47 47  Investments by owners are increases in equity resulting from transfers of something valuable to the company from other entities in order to obtain or increase ownership interest.  Distribution to owners are decreases in equity of a company caused by transferring assets, rendering services, or incurring liabilities to owners. Statement of Changes in Equity A statement of changes in equity contains two elements:

48 48 Business Reporting  Financial and nonfinancial data.  Management’s analysis of the financial and nonfinancial data.  Forward-looking information.  Information about management and shareholders.  Background about the company.  Financial and nonfinancial data.  Management’s analysis of the financial and nonfinancial data.  Forward-looking information.  Information about management and shareholders.  Background about the company. Framework of the Model

49 49 C hapter 2

50 50 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention The business, rather than its owners, is the reporting unit. Entity

51 51 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention Depreciation costs are expensed in the periods of use rather than at the time the asset is acquired. Matching

52 52 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention Accounting measurements are reported in dollars. Monetary unit

53 53 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention The year is the normal reporting unit. Period of time

54 54 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the business will operate long enough to carry out its existing commitments. Continuity

55 55 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention Revenue is usually recognized at the time of sale. Realization

56 56 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention Exchange price is retained in the accounting records. Historical cost

57 57 C 2-2: Identify the assumption or convention An accounting alternative is selected that is least likely to overstate assets and income. Conservatism Return to Slide 37


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