Presentation on theme: "Bellwork Can we stop terrorism? Can we stop it through wars in Iraq and Afghanistan? Do the wars make it worse? If you were president, how would you deal."— Presentation transcript:
Bellwork Can we stop terrorism? Can we stop it through wars in Iraq and Afghanistan? Do the wars make it worse? If you were president, how would you deal with 9/11?
Next class World Song Lyrics due! Typed! highlighted –Print out your lyrics with at least 16 vocab words highlighted or bolded/underlined –Also print out the lyrics of the original song –Staple them together
American Response - immediate worldwide reaction condemns act and pledges support for America Sept 13 - Osama bin Laden is identified officially as prime suspect of attack and US promised a “sustained” military action to bring justice – bin Laden denies responsibility Sept 14 – 50,000 reservists called to active duty, Taliban warns against attacking Afghanistan, names of hijackers released National Cathedral, September 14 New York skyline on September 16, 2001
American Response Sept 16 – Bush pledges a “crusade” against evil-doers” -message delivered to Taliban through Pakistan to hand over Osama bin Laden or risk attack – refusals comes on Sept 21 Sept 20 – international support for attack grows - US aircrafts transported to Persian Gulf - Bush tells US military to be “prepared” because “The hour is coming when America will act and you will make us proud.” - Afghanis begin fleeing to border - Islamic clerics ask bin Laden to voluntarily leave Afghanistan
American Response Sept 26 - U.S. and Pakistani officials agree on military preparations for combating bin Laden’s terrorist network in Afghanistan Sept 30 – Afghanistan acknowledges they communicate with bin Laden and are keeping him safe – bin Laden renews calls for attacks on Jews and Americans Oct 4 – Great Britain Prime Minister Tony Blair outlines case against bin Laden and Pakistan becomes 1 st Muslim nation to say there is enough evidence to incriminate al-Qaeda USS Enterprise Smoldering ruins of WTC, October 2
Operation Enduring Freedom Oct 6 – Bush warns Afghanistan “time is running out” and to hand over all terrorists; they refuse Oct 7 – US and Great Britain begin missile strikes against Taliban and al-Qaeda bases; Bush says, "We will not waver, we will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail."
Operation Enduring Freedom Oct 19 – After almost 2 weeks of aerial bombardments, US Army Rangers launch raids into Afghanistan from Pakistan Oct 20 – 2 US soldiers die in a helicopter crash – 1 st military casualties of the war Oct 24 – Patriot Act passes House and is signed into law by Bush on Oct 26
Bush increases pressure on world to participate in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) “A coalition partner must do more than just express sympathy, a coalition partner must perform. That means different things for different nations. Some nations don’t want to contribute troops and we understand that. Other nations can contribute intelligence- sharing.... But all nations, if they want to fight terror, must do something…Over time it’s going to be important for nations to know they will be held accountable for inactivity. You’re either with us or against us in the fight against terror.” - George W. Bush, November 6, 2001 The Bush War Team
Operation Enduring Freedom Nov 9 – After heavy bombardment and US support, Northern Alliance capture major city of Mazar-e-Sharif Strategy is to allow Northern Alliance to win war against Taliban with US and Coalition support Nov 13 – Taliban leave Kabul; US begins speeding formation of new government Too much? Proportional?
Operation Enduring Freedom Nov 25 – Americans land hundreds of marines around the southern city of Kandahar – last stronghold of the Taliban -Focused efforts to capture bin Laden on the Tora Bora section of the rugged mountains of southern Afghanistan - makes first public comment regarding Saddam Hussein in the Global War on Terror – “Saddam is evil. I think he's got weapons of mass destruction, and I think he needs to open up his country to let us inspect.”
Operation Enduring Freedom Dec 7 – last stronghold of Taliban, Kandahar, falls; conflicting reports of Mullah Omar – captured, escaped, released?; Hamid Karzai named interim leader of government; US continues bombing of Tora Bora - US issues ultimatum to al-Qaeda fighters in Tora Bora; continue bombings
Operation Enduring Freedom Mid-December – Northern Alliance troops enter Tora Bora; find more than 200 al-Qaeda fighters dead and 35 fighters surrender; no Osama bin Laden or Ayman al-Zawahiri - Later reports confirm bin Laden escaped to Pakistan primarily due to lack of US troop presence – only 100 US soldiers in Tora Bora to block escape
Operation Enduring Freedom - Mullah Omar also escapes Kandahar - bin Laden, al-Zawahiri, and Mullah Omar are all still at large - believed bin Laden paid locals to help him escape - recent history of Pakistan affected by these men – helped with resurgence of Taliban in Pakistan - By the end of the year, military acknowledges bin Laden’s escape but Administration says he is on the run and is powerless
Operation Enduring Freedom - hunt for bin Laden continues into 2002 and beyond - reconstruction of Afghanistan begins - cost of war in Afghanistan, including reconstruction – over $405 billion - national elections held in Oct, 2004 – Hamid Karzai elected with 55% of the vote – sworn in despite claims of voter fraud
Operation Enduring Freedom -2002 and beyond - three-fold effort in Afghanistan - find and capture Osama bin Laden - root out Taliban resistance and neutralize - stabilize and rebuild government structures to bring normality to Afghanis -Taliban flees to mountains to re-organize - fight asymmetric war – IEDs, suicide bombing, limited engagement, disrupt civilian life, etc. - attention of US after 2003 turns to Iraq!
Obama Turns Attention to Afghanistan When Obama is elected, he runs on a promise to end the Iraq War and focus on Afghanistan. He does a “surge” of his own, but early results show not much of a change in the current situation. War is planned to end in 2014
Jump to the Future The assassination of Osama bin Laden
Details We knew the name of a trusted Osama courier. Got it years ago. Last August we tracked down that courier. We followed him, noticed he was going in a mansion. Obama met with his national security team five times in the last 30 days (April 2011).
The Compound 10 – 18 foot walls 8 times bigger than the other surrounding houses (which are also mansions) No phone or internet Very few windows Only 100 yards from a Pakistan army training school (Whhhaaa?)
Move in! On Friday, Obama gave the go ahead to take out bin Laden. Weather pushed back the attack until Sunday at 1am. Four helicopters moved in on his compound Forty soldiers stormed the compound and a “firefight” ensued
Killed! Four people were killed in the attack (no Americans) Two of Osama’s trusted couriers, one of which was his son. One woman used as a human shield And OSAMA BIN LADEN –Shot in the head DNA evidence confirmed the body was his as well as facial recognition and identification from one of his wives
Obama Announces Word began to leak at 6pm PST yesterday (May 1, 2011). Obama gives a speech outlining some detailsspeech Crowds gather in front of the White House and at the World Trade Center to celebrate
Impact What is the deal with Pakistan? Were they harboring him? America finally shows some strength after chasing OBL for 10 years; restores some pride “Most positive news we’ve had since the fall of the Berlin Wall” Al-Qaeda remains just as strong, probably. Did Obama just win reelection for 2012? –Looks much stronger foreign policy-wise
Anti-Terrorism Actions Bush creates Department of Homeland Security in 2002 –Analyzes threats, secure borders and airports Color system eliminated by Obama (arbitrary)
A sleeper is a an agent that enters a country and blends into a communityA sleeper is a an agent that enters a country and blends into a community always ready to commit terrorist actalways ready to commit terrorist act 9/11 hijackers were sleepers9/11 hijackers were sleepers
Allowed the government to: Detain foreigners suspected of terrorism for seven days without charging them with a crime. Tap all phones used by suspects and monitor their e-mail and Internet use. Make search warrants valid across states. Order U.S. banks to investigate sources of large foreign accounts. Prosecute terrorist crimes without any time restrictions or limitations. Some people fear that the law allows the government to violate our rights guaranteed in the Constitution.
Led by Saddam Hussein since 1979Led by Saddam Hussein since 1979 Saddam had invaded Kuwait (Desert Storm) and was on our bad sideSaddam had invaded Kuwait (Desert Storm) and was on our bad side United Nations inspectors were supposed to be allowed to go into Iraq to check that he was complying with cease fire.United Nations inspectors were supposed to be allowed to go into Iraq to check that he was complying with cease fire. In 1998, he stopped letting UN inspectors enter the country.In 1998, he stopped letting UN inspectors enter the country.
After 9/11, President Bush feared Hussein was providing terrorists with weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) Saddam denies, but does not allow UN inspectors in Iraq. Finally, in 2002, Saddam allows inspectors into the country. They don’t find any WMDs, but Bush is not convinced.
Bush draws connections between Iraq and Al-Qaeda, claiming that Saddam intended to sell WMD to Bin Laden for use against the United States.Bush draws connections between Iraq and Al-Qaeda, claiming that Saddam intended to sell WMD to Bin Laden for use against the United States.
Colin Powell gave presentation to the UN using audiotapes, satellite photos, and other evidence to argue that Saddam was hiding WMDs.Colin Powell gave presentation to the UN using audiotapes, satellite photos, and other evidence to argue that Saddam was hiding WMDs. The US and Britain pushed for a resolution in the UN that would authorize war against Iraq.The US and Britain pushed for a resolution in the UN that would authorize war against Iraq.
Crowds of antiwar protesters participated in more than 600 rallies around the globe on a single day in February. An estimated 750,000 protestors turned out in the largest demonstration ever in the British capital. Most of the demonstrations were peaceful.
On March 17, 2003, President Bush gave Hussein 48 hours to leave Iraq.On March 17, 2003, President Bush gave Hussein 48 hours to leave Iraq. After the dictator refused, the United States and Great Britain launched Operation Iraqi Freedom.After the dictator refused, the United States and Great Britain launched Operation Iraqi Freedom.
The war began with massive air raids; sections of Baghdad were the primary targets U.S. ground troops They arrived at the outskirts of the Iraqi capital by April 2. Within a week, Baghdad fell to the U.S. military. Hussein survived the attack and went into hiding.
The United States hosted a meeting with Iraqi representation to determine the future government of Iraq. The representatives adopted a 13-point statement, stating that Iraq would respect diversity and rule by law. However, one of the country’s main Shi’a groups, the Iranian-based Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution and refused to attend.
Much of the case for going to war against Iraq was based on the belief that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. Once major combat ended on May 1, U.S. forces began an extensive search for these weapons. By late-2004, chemical or biological weaponry had not been found.
Since the downfall of Saddam, insurgents (fighters) continue to attack US troops in Iraq Many fight for different reasons Mainly, Iraq has two religious groups that don’t like each other (Sunni and Shia) Because of this, Iraq is in a civil war
Estimates of the number of insurgents are impossible to confirm. By 2006, US military estimates ranged from 8,000 to 20,000, although Iraqi intelligence officials have issued figures as high as 40,000 fighters plus another 160,000 supporters. Fighters have been found among the insurgents from countries including Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Sudan.
The War in Iraq was not going well Violence was increasing daily Bush responded by making the (unpopular) decision to send in many more troops to Iraq. Amazingly this surge has helped reduce violence in Iraq, but questions still remain about what happens when we withdraw from the country.
Iraq is now a democracy, but like all new democracies, is struggling with the complexities of this new government.Iraq is now a democracy, but like all new democracies, is struggling with the complexities of this new government. American troops left Iraq on December 18, 2011American troops left Iraq on December 18, 2011
Top: What are al-Qaeda’s goals? Translate each one as if you’re explaining to your little brother. Bottom: Based on Al-Qaeda’s strategy and goals, do you think they have been successful in fighting the United States? What can we do to keep them from being successful?
Al-Qaeda: Successful or Unsuccessful? 1.Provoke the United States into invading a Muslim country. 2.Incite local resistance to occupying US forces. 3.Expand the conflict to neighboring countries, and engage the U.S. in a long war of attrition. 4.Convert Al-Qaeda into an ideology and set of operating principles that can be loosely franchised in other countries without requiring direct command and control. 5.The U.S. economy will finally collapse under the strain of too many engagements in too many places, similarly to the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
Osama bin Laden Wanted Poster Tell me four reasons why he’s wanted Tell me 3 reasons why he hates the United States Reward: $27,000,000 Tell me last known whereabouts Include details that you’ve learned in class such as: his wealth, where he was actually caught, how he “defeated” the Soviet Union in Afghanistan