3 Questions for Group Discussion * According to Pitt the colonists should be responsible for what regarding their military protection?* How did Pitt view the colonist’s role in the French and Indian War and what trend was developing that needed to be dealt with quickly?* What were the two intentions of the 1764 Sugar Act?* Who were the Sons of Liberty and what were their tactics to protest the Stamp Act?* Discuss the Townshend Act of 1767 for the following:what new duties/taxes it imposed payment of salaries for governors and judges* Why did Britain send troops to Boston in 1768?* Why did Britain believe if they did a full repeal of the Townshend Act they would lose credibility?* Discuss what each of the Coercive Acts of 1774 (British response to Boston Tea Party)* Why did the colonists view the Quebec Act as threatening?* Why was the First Continental Congress summoned?* What did the colonies agree on for the following at the First Continental Congress:Non-importation non-exportation Coercive Acts Legislation and consent* What was the Olive Branch Petition?* What was the impact of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense?
4 Imperial warfareWar of Austrian Succession (King George’s War)1. Outcome/effects on coloniesOhio Valley (big time territory disputes)IndiansFrenchBritishGeorge WashingtonFort Duquesne/Fort NecessityAlbany Meeting/Plan (details next slide)Braddock/WashingtonAnother expeditionIndian resistance stiffens
5 The Albany Congress and the Onset of War War: New France vs. VirginiaAlbany Congress 1754 “The Albany Plan of Union”Keep Six Nations (Iroquois) neutralBenjamin Franklin and the Albany PlanPresident General and Grand CouncilRaise soldiers, levy taxes, deal with IndiansRejectedCentralized relations with IndiansFailed due to colonies unwillingness to surrender any independence37
6 Imperial Tensions: From Loudoun to Pitt Earl of Loudoun, British military commander in N. America 1755Coercion to force colonial cooperationWilliam Pitt, Prime Minister 1757Consent to gain colonial cooperationReplaces Loudoun with James AbercrombieBy 1758, Britain finally had a military force capable of overwhelming New FranceCooperation between redcoats and provincials became routine and effective in warfare against French & Indians43
7 French and Indian (Seven Years’ ) War (1756-1763) Nova ScotiaFrench loss of Nova ScotiaFinal Expulsion of Acadians (Cajuns)ChangesIroquois neutrality 1758?Pitt in chargerenewed British interestpromise to bear the cost if colonists would fight for BritishWolfe vs Montcalm, fall of QuebecTreaty of Paris/ provisions (next slide)
8 The Peace of Paris Peace of Paris ended the war 1763 Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe to FranceFrance surrendered some West Indian islands and mainland North America east of MississippiHavana returned to Spain, Florida ceded to BritainFrance gives New Orleans and lands W of Mississippi river to SpainIndians angrily rejected peace settlement and France’s surrender of their lands to Great Britain50
9 II. Post War Finances in Britain George III (“reign and rule”)Post war frictionBritish dissatisfaction over cost/sharingBritish national debt soars, increased taxes at homePost war depression in AmericaPontiac’s rebellionUnpopular first steps by George III/ParliamentProclamation of 1763Large British colonial standing army in NAWrits of assistanceJames Otis/ inviolability of ConstitutionLegislative bound by Constitution
10 Indian Policy and Pontiac’s War Indian and policyFulfill wartime promisesProclamation Line of 1763Pontiac, and Pontiac’s War6
11 The proclamation of 1763 , in effect, closed off the frontier to colonial expansion. The King and his council presented the proclamation as a measure to calm the fears of the Indians, who felt that the colonists would drive them from their lands as they expanded westward. Many in the colonies felt that the object was to pen them in along the Atlantic seaboard where they would be easier to regulate.
12 More direct legislative “unpleasantness” 1. Sugar Act - 1764 revenue raising from colonistsrequired transshipping through UK portsnit-picking paperwork/requirementsguilty until proven innocentvenue to Nova Scotiano JuryJudges compensated by monies seizedvigorous enforcement ordered by Grenvillereal effects (revenues, etc)external tax, borne mostly by merchantsWhile hated by the merchants and investor class in new England, the Sugar Act was not a direct tax on consumers, and had little impact on the “average” New Englander, except as they understood it was hated by others. As a tax on trade, many accepted it as Britain’s legal right.
13 2. Stamp Actgross inequity in personal tax rates of British nationals vs Colonists (colonists paid 2-6% of what Brits paid!!)Stamp Act - direct tax on various commoditiesno jury trials for violatorsinternal tax, designed to raise revenue. Borne by all users of taxed itemssplit in Parliament (Pitt disagrees with Grenville)Grenville defends “virtual representation”Unlike the Sugar Act the previous year, the Stamp Act was a direct tax expressly for raising revenue. Since it affected all consumers it was hated, and since it was passed without colonial consent, it was viewed as illegal
14 Colonial responserejected virtual representationProtestslegislature pass anti Stamp Act resolutionsLoyal NineBoston leadsHit hard by Sugar actDistillerswine importersgenerally depressed economyforced resignation of Boston stamp distributorthreats of deathproperty damage by mobsSons of Libertysimilar to Loyal nineformed in several colonies
15 Virtual Representation - concept employed by Prime Minister George Grenville to explain why Parliament could legally tax colonists even though colonists could not elect any members of Parliament. The theory held that the members of Parliament did not only represent their specific geographical constituencies, but rather that they took into consideration the well being of all British subjects when considering legislationLoyal Nine - A group of Boston merchants and artisans that formed during the Stamp Act crisis to lead the public in attempts to drive the stamp distributors from the city. This was one of the first steps toward political organization in the colonies.
16 Sons of Liberty: A secret organizations formed in the American colonies in protest against the Stamp Act (1765). They were organized by merchants, businessmen, lawyers, journalists, and others who would be most affected by the Stamp Act. The leaders included John Lamb and Alexander McDougall in New York, and Samuel Adams and James Otis in New England. The societies kept in touch with each other through committees of correspondence, supported the nonimportation agreement, forced the resignation of stamp distributors, and incited destruction of stamped paper and violence against British officials
17 NYC 1765 - statement of united opposition to Stamp Act Stamp Act CongressNYC statement of united opposition to Stamp ActBoycott of English products40% of English revenue from sales in NAMerchants push for repealGrenville dismissedStamp Act repealed, March 1766The fact that British merchants pushed for repeal of the Stamp Act, illustrates the power of economic boycott, a lesson which Dr Martin Luther King Jr will apply in Montgomery AL, 158 yrs later!
18 e. Declaratory Act of 1766passes same time as Stamp Act repealed (almost unnoticed by most colonials, who saw repeal as a victory)stated absolute British power to legislate for Colonies in “All cases whatsoever”fundamental disagreement between England and ColoniesIn fact, the Declaratory Act was Parliament telling the colonies that they would act as they pleased, and that repeal of the Stamp Act was a concession to British interests (loss of revenue ) not colonial pressures.
19 III. The Road to WarGeneral change in political thought in England and coloniesLocke - natural rights, obligations of government to governedBritish oppositionists - claimed parliament served self first, people secondGeneral shift by many in view of Crown/Parliament motivesAmerican Protestant clergy influencegrowing crisisQuartering ActTownshend new Chancellor of Exchequer (Finance Minister)Indirect tax, resented, especially in New York (many troops there)
20 The Townshend Acts, British legislation intended to raise revenue, tighten customs enforcement, and assert imperial authority in America, were sponsored by Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend, (right ) and enacted on June 29, The key statute levied import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Its purpose was to provide salaries for some colonial officials (such as Judges and Governors)so that the provincial assemblies could not coerce them by withholding wages.
21 2. Townshend Revenue Act 1767 ( the “Townshend Duties”) Clearly a fund raising effort, not trade regulation like other import duties of the pastTaxed lead, paper, paint, tea, and glass imported into coloniesPart of revenue to pay Governor’s salaries (freeing them for dependence on Colonial legislatures)ResistanceJohn Dickinson-“Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania”“Parliament no right to tax just for raising money”widely read across colonies
22 Dickinson joined politics as a member of the Pennsylvania assembly in 1764, proceeded with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 where he drafted the Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress. It was also during this time that he wrote an important series of essays, “Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer”, supporting the nonimportation and nonexportation agreements against Gr. Britain.John DickinsonCuriously enough, Dickinson was actually opposed to a separation from Gr. Britain and later worked very hard to temper the language and action of the Continental Congress, in an effort to maintain the possibility of reconciliation. It was for this reason that he abstained from voting on and signing the Declaration of Independence.
23 Sam Adamscircular letter condemning Townshend dutiesnew British government post - secretary of State for the Colonies (Lord Hillsborough)poor judgmentthreatened any legislature which acknowledged the (Adams’) letterreaction of legislatures was to heartily endorse itmany colonies begin unofficial non-importation boycotts of Townshend Act items
24 Samuel Adams was born in Boston on Sept. 17th, 1722, and died on Oct Samuel Adams was born in Boston on Sept. 17th, 1722, and died on Oct. 2nd, He was a major leader in the American Revolution.An influential member of the lower house of the Massachusetts legislature, he drafted most of the major protest documents, including the Circular Letter (1768) against the Townshend Acts. Adams formed close ties with John Hancock, whose connections with the Boston merchants made him useful in the revolutionary cause. He was a principal organizer of the Boston Tea Party (1773). Because of the intemperate language of his essays for the press (Lt. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson called him the greatest "incendiary" in the empire) and his early advocacy of independence, Adams was regarded as a radical.
25 Elsewhere in the World: British East India Company source of riches to many in Parliament, allowed almost autonomous rule of India, aided at times by British militaryStocks grossly inflated (forerunner of “Enron style” creative accounting?)Bubble bursts, company in debt, hard pressed to pay taxesAgrees to yield control of India in exchange for lower taxesGovernment in financial duress due to French and Indian War and lower India revenuesSome in England outraged over apparent collusion between Parliament and British East India Company and rottenness of the whole thing!Parliament seen by increasing numbers as only caring for itself to the detriment of the rest of England
26 Concept of “liberty” not only colonial, but being echoed by increasing numbers of English citizens. John Wilkes, others, seen as champions of “the people” (even though Wilkes bought his seat in parliament as had many othersMany in England and American colonies beginning to see parliamentary rule as merely an illusion of participative DemocracyGeorge III determined to assert power, reinstitute control over all colonies.
27 iii. “Wilkes and Liberty” John Wilkes London publisher, member of Parliament, denounced King and parliamentary policiesarrested, tried acquitted, denied seat in Parliamentfled to Paris, 1763returned 1768, reelected to Parliamentdenied seat again, jailedfocal point to British who also rejected treatment of Colonies, rejected “virtual representation” and erosion of rights of British citizens, colonial or not
28 The Second Wilkes Crisis John Wilkes and 1768 Parliamentary electionsWilkes arrest“Massacre of St. George’s Fields” (1768)“Society for Gentleman Supporters of the Bill of Rights”Electoral reformSympathize with colonial protestsColonist sympathize with Wilkesite movementTownshend crisis and Wilkesite movement:Colonists question the British government21
29 “Mad Wilkes” as drawn by English engraver William Hogarth(It is worth noting that John Wilkes was so admired by British actor Junius Brutus Boothe, that he named his son after him. John Wilkes Boothe, would later achieve infamy as Lincoln’s assassin)
30 “Gin Lane” Ca 1750 Soliciting votes 1754 William Hogarth was England’s premier engraver and Social critic for about 20 years (as close to a political cartoonist as the period had)
31 highly visible during Townshend crisis Colonial womenhighly visible during Townshend crisisled protest against tea tax, urged non consumption (boycott)organized spinning bees to make cloth, avoid using British importsThe political awareness and activism of colonial American women was one of the biggest surprises to the British, as in Britain, women were relatively sheltered from political events and in many cases considered as incapable of participating in public life
32 3. Customs racketeeringTownshend orders tightening on Navigation Acts enforcement“Guilty until proven innocent”, no jury trialsInformers kept part of seizureWidespread abusesome regulations almost impossible to comply withviolated sailor’s privacy, right to trade small amounts of goodsAmerican Board of Customs Commissionersused informerscorrupt, overchargedcaused great suspicion, distrust of British motives
33 4. Townshend repeal - 1770- new Prime Minister, Lord North All Townshend duties except tea tax repealedTax on tea continued source of irritation to colonies, but non-consumption hurt tea importersRepeal of the Townshend Acts stemmed from a complex dynamic including loss of income and complaints from British Merchants, disagreement within Parliament on the validity and legality of them, and the concern that the colonies could be pushed to more drastic action if the Acts remained in effect, since every day they lasted resulted in more ill will.
34 5. Boston Massacre1700 troops into Boston 1768, resented by Bostonians“Occupied city”troops fire into angry, threatening crowd surrounding customs office5 killed including Crispus AttucksA leader of crowd, free man of color (African/native American descent)usually conceded to be first casualty of the Revolutionsoldiers tried (defended by John Adams)all but two acquitted
35 Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre and the accompanying text paint a picture of British brutality probably not justified by events
36 Here in modern Boston is the site of the “Massacre” This painting shows armed colonists being repelled by “Redcoats” (British regular Army soldiers) at point blank range
37 Committees of Correspondence a The Gaspee Incidentcustoms enforcer, hated by Rhode Islandersran aground near Providenceburned to waterline by colonistscommission sent to find conspirators, send to England for trialnone identified, but idea of removal for trial infuriates many
38 The Gaspee incident of 1772Artist’s rendering of the Gaspee incident. The attack was viewed by the British as an attack on Britain by the colonists and provoked immediate response. The fact that none of the guilty were ever tried only irritated Parliament more.
39 Sam Adams urges establishment of “Committees of correspondence” to keep information flowing throughout Mass.260 Mass towns involved initially, idea spread to New Yorkopportunity for political education of colonists on large scale, even those far from coast who had been only marginally affected by Townshend duties, Stamp Act, Sugar Actpublished Mass Governor (Hutchinson) letters calling for abridgement of rights of colonists (letters surreptitiously obtained by Franklin in England, sent back)Jefferson, Pat. Henry, R.H. Lee establish VA committees of correspondence March 1773
40 The Hutchinson Letters Affair began in December, 1772 when Franklin (representing PA in London) anonymously received a packet of letters. The letters were written to the British government by Thomas Hutchinson, the royal Governor of Massachusetts. In the letters, Hutchinson urged his superiors to send more troops to Boston to fight the American rebels. Franklin allowed American friends and colleagues to read the letters on the condition that they not be circulated or published. However, the content of the letters did get published in the Boston Gazette in June of 1773.The citizens of Boston were furious and forced Hutchinson to flee to England. The British government demanded to know who leaked the letters. In December of 1773, three innocent men were accused. In order to protect them, Franklin admitted his guilt. In January of 1774, Franklin was publicly reprimanded. Later that year, he left England and returned to America to help write the Declaration of Independence.
41 7. Border troublesBritain incapable of enforcing Proclamation of 1763Western Mass settlers conflict with rich New York landowners (poltroons), Sons of Liberty side with settlersRegulators in the Carolinas, led the frontiersmen cause against established (and frequently pro- British) wealthy landownersGreen Mountain Boys (Vermont) led protest against New York poltroons, as wellGenerally indicative of need for land to expand westward, frontier impatience, willingness to resort to violence
42 The regulatorsdesignation for two groups, one in South Carolina, the other in North Carolina, that tried to effect governmental changes in the 1760s. In South Carolina, the Regulator movement was an organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local governmentThe movement in North Carolina, with different causes, arose at the same time. Led by small farmers protesting the corruption and extortionate practices of sheriffs and court officials. With Gov. William Tryon , the provincial council, and the courts against them they were unable to secure relief. At first orderly, the Regulators resorted to acts of violence Those actions alienated large property holders and the clergy from the movement. On May 16, 1771, Tryon's militia completely routed a large body of Regulators in the battle of Alamance Creek
43 Allen became prominently involved in the struggle between New York and New Hampshire for control of the region. Following rejection by the New York authorities of an appeal that the region be established as a separate province, Allen organized a volunteer militia, called the Green Mountain Boys, to resist and evict proponents of the New York cause. He was thereupon declared an outlaw by the royal governor of New York.Ethan Allen, ( ), patriot of the American Revolution, leader of the Green Mountain BoysAt the outbreak of the American Revolution, Allen and his force offered their services against the British. On orders from the Connecticut legislature, he, the Connecticut soldier Benedict Arnold, and a contingent of the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga early in the morning of May 10, 1775
44 Toward IndependenceTea ActRemoved all import tariffs on tea imported by the Govt. Chartered British East India CompanyIn dire financial straitsNeeded to be able to control colonial marketTea can be directly shipped from India to N. America (no longer has to go through England)Reduced cost of tea below all competitors, but.....colonists saw it as means to raise money to pay colonial governorswould make colonists accept principle of Parliamentary right to tax to accept cheap tea (In other words accept the spirit of the Declaratory Act of 1766)Committees warned that tea cargoes should not be landed
45 Hutchinson (Mass Governor) ordered tea landed in Boston Boston Tea PartyHutchinson (Mass Governor) ordered tea landed in Boston50 or so men disguised as Indians dump tea into harbor November 1773 (45 tons, imagine the damage to fish)Contemporary engraving of the Boston tea party
46 3. British responseOutraged, Parliament responds with the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts.Boston Port Bill - closed port of Boston until tea paid for (still waiting)Mass . Government Act - revoked Mass charter, removed elected upper house, governor to name all sheriffs, judges, only one town meeting per yearAdministration of Justice Act - persons enforcing British justice in colony could be tried only in EnglandQuartering Act - any empty building could be taken to house British troopsnot an act, but also replaced Mass governor with British military commander for North America, General Thomas Gage
47 Quebec Act - also passed at same time as Coercive Acts, perceived by colonists as part of them. established Catholicism as official religion of Quebecextended Quebec’s territory South to the Ohio and West to the Mississippi (several colonies claimed lands in this region which had now become part of Canada4. Colonial reactionAlthough aimed at Mass as punishment, the acts inflamed all colonies (“there but for the grace of God ”)Many of the provisions of the Acts are listed as grievances by Jefferson in the Declaration of IndependenceVirginian upper class and lower class join in opposition to crown and in support of Mass
48 The effect of the Quebec Act of 1774 was to greatly limit the land available for expansion of the middle colonies. With the addition of modern Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, the “new” Quebec contained lands claimed by the wealthy landowners of at least 5 colonies. While the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts really only limited Mass, the Quebec Act had the effect of alienating many more colonists!
49 B. First Continental Congress Philadelphia, 1774All but Georgia attend (remember that Georgia had only been a colony 35 years, many still felt English, compared to Carolinas, New Englanders)Endorsed Suffolk Resolves (Mass statement that no colony owed obedience to any of the Coercive Acts)Voted to boycott all British imports after Dec. 1, 1774 and even harsher, stop all exports to British Caribbean islands after Sept 1775 unless reconciledAppealed direct to George III to dismiss ministers responsible for the Coercive actsMany colonies began forming volunteer militias
50 3. Agreement not unanimous Some upper class still sided with British, feared irreparable damageFeared mob ruleCalled Tories (after the majority party in Parliament, whom they supported) or Loyalists , because the did not favor confrontationFrequently harassed by patriotsDuring the entire course of the Revolutionary war, the new nation was split about evenly three ways. About a third favored independence, a third opposed and a third cared little as long as they did well financially
51 First Blood - Lexington and Concord April Mass militia rumored to be stockpiling military supplies at Concord Ma.Gage sends 700 British regulars to seize supplies, arrest Hancock and Adams if ableDawes and Revere ride, warn “minutemen” the redcoats are comingAt Lexington 70 militia skirmish with 700 Brits (first firefight of Revolutionary WarBrits win, 8 militia dead, one Brit wounded, press on to ConcordBattle begins continues all the way back to Boston, 273 redcoats killed, British understand that the game has changedBy April, 20,000 New Englanders surround BostonGreen Mountain Boys under Ethan Allen seize Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain, take cannon for siege of Boston
53 This map shows the British advance (by land) to and return from Lexington and Concord.
54 D. Second Continental Congress Philadelphia again, sends the “Olive Branch Petition” to George III, seeking:Cease -fire at BostonRepeal of Coercive ActsNegotiations to establish self government guarantees for ColoniesReached London same time as news of Battle of Bunker Hill just North of Boston (fought on Breed’s Hill) with a cost of 1154 redcoat dead compared to 311 colonialsGeorge III rejected petition, declared colonies in rebellion, all ships subject to seizureContinental Congress orders formation of Continental Army , George Washington commanding
55 In a decisive stroke, as the winter of set in, Washington dispatched Henry Knox, a young Boston bookseller, to organize the transport of fifty-nine of these captured artillery pieces from the forts on Lake Champlain to the heights overlooking Boston, where, it was hoped, they would turn the tide against the British in the city below . Using sleds made on the spot, Knox got 59 cannon to Boston in the dead of winter, enabling Washington to take control of the city and force the British to evacuate( the British left because they were unaware of the almost total lack of powder or shot for the artillery!)Henry Knox, ,General in the War for Independence, first Secretary of War, and author of one of the great feats in American military history
56 E. Common SenseTract by Thomas Paine, immigrated in 1770sRadical revolutionary, wrote “Common Sense”, promoting cause and reasons for American IndependenceSpoke of new kind of nation, government, model for the worldSold 100,000 copies in three months, convinced many who had hoped for reconciliation with England
57 F. IndependenceJuly 2, Continental congress announces the United States of AmericaJuly 4th approved draft of Declaration of Independence (written by Jefferson)Like Paine, aimed at King George III never mentions ParliamentJefferson acknowledged debt to John Locke for ideas, spirit of a man created Govt and natural rights of citizensStressed that England had violated the “social contract” with its citizens in the coloniesTypical enlightenment philosophyAim - to convince the Americans to be willing to die for liberty, masterful political propaganda
59 The Renewal of Imperial Conflict : new era of imperial warEnglish colonies, New France, New Spain and Indians all involvedNorth America split between Spain and Britain2
60 The Impending Storm Ohio Company of Virginia Marquis Duquesne War drove British frontiers back, but colonies had promised land grants to volunteersAreas of frenzied expansion: Maine, New Hampshire and middle coloniesColony vs. colonySettlers vs. Native AmericansBritish vs. FrenchOhio Company of VirginiaGeorge WashingtonMarquis DuquesneFrench movement to block British settlement west of Alleghenies
61 France versus Britain in North America by 1755 28
62 The War for North America 1755: British professional army conflicted with the householder society and voluntaristic colonistsColonists and Britain learn to cooperate in order to achieve victory against France2
64 Conclusion: expansion and renewed immigration pushed settlements of North America into the interiorColonies anglicized in many ways due to impacts of a growing populationImpacts on families, womenEnlightenment and Great AwakeningImperial rivalries: French and Indian WarProvincials and redcoats: different perceptions2
65 Imperial Reform1760: George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age 22Collapse of political coalition that led Britain to victory over FranceKing’s new ministers set out to reform the empire8
66 The Grenville Ministry John WilkesJournalist for North Briton criticized KingMember of Parliament“Wilkes and Liberty”War put Britain in debtRevenues needed to police colonies – Grenville insists colonists contribute financially to fund their own defense3
67 Grenville’s Attitudes Typical of many in Parliament“London must have greater control of colonies”Britain won war against France “despite ‘obstructionism’ from colonists”
68 The Sugar Act 1764 – duties placed on Madeira wine, coffee, molasses Colonists could [by smuggling] obtain cheaper molasses from FrenchLaunched Grenville’s war against smugglersComplicated paperwork and harsh penaltiesTried to make enforcement of Customs laws more profitable than accepting bribes8
69 The Currency Act and the Quartering Act Currency Act of 1764:Forbade colonies to issue any paper money as legal tenderQuartering Act of 1765:To quarter redcoats in private homes & taverns9
70 The Stamp ActStamp tax on legal documents and publications in the colonies“no taxation without representation” vs. virtual representationInternal vs. external taxesColonist offer – Requisitions (colonial assemblies determine how to raise money asked for by the crown)10
71 The Stamp Act CrisisResistance to Stamp Act: 1765 – lasted almost one year, then repealedStamp Act CongressStamp Act unconstitutional and should be repealedNo virtual representation in empire, but yes virtual representation in colonies12
72 Repeal [of Stamp Act] Repeal Stamp Act (1766) Pitt supports repealDeclaratory Act. (1766)Revenue Act (1766): 1 penny tax on any molasses imported to coloniesInternal vs. external taxes: A misunderstood issue16
73 Resistance: The Politics of Escalation Internal vs. external taxes dilemmaJohn Dickinson and Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1767)Denied internal vs. external tax distinctionParliament has no right to tax colonies- period!Circular Letter and constitutional resistanceNonimportation in MA, NY, and PASons of Liberty “convention”18
74 The Townshend CrisisKing George & William Pitt: government of “measures, not men”Pitt becomes Prime Minister and then a LordCharles Townshend: Pitt’s spokesman in House of CommonsTownshend has a hard-line attitude towards colonies8
75 The Townshend Acts New York and the Restraining Act Pitt’s depression leaves Townshend in chargeTownshend Revenue Act (1767)Taxed imports colonies could only legally get from BritainPurpose: pay salaries of colonial governors and judges, freeing them from control of colonial assembliesBritish troops shifted from frontier to urban ports –many feel “occupied”17
76 The Boston MassacreIncreasing confrontations between population and British soldiers in BostonSons of Liberty grow bolderMarch 5, 1770: The MassacreBritain’s failed first attempt at military coercion22
77 Partial Repeal Lord North [Prime Minister] asks Parliament for repeal of all Townshend duties, except for teaTea provided three-fourths of revenue under Townshend ActRepeal’s effectsNon-importation collapses, Sons of Liberty loseIncreased importation of British goods to the colonies24
78 Disaffection Partial repeal divided the colonists Erosion of colonists’ trust of imperial governmentGaspée Affair (1772)Committees of correspondence formed throughout colonies [Sam Adams]British conclude punishment for political violence must be communalTea remains symbol that Townshend crisis not over25
79 The Regulator Movements in the Carolinas Backcountry settlers and the Cherokee War ( )Disaffected backcountry settlers become outlawsBackcountry in near civil warRegulators form to impose orderModerators form to defend against regulatorsBattle of Alamance Creek (1771)29
80 The Regulator Movements in the Carolinas South CarolinaDisaffected backcountry settlers become outlawsBackcountry in near civil warRegulators form to impose orderModerators form to defend against regulatorsLegislature agrees to Circuit Courts, confrontation endsNorth CarolinaGovernor’s corrupt favorites controlled backcountry courtsBackcountry 50% of population, 20% of AssemblyRegulators organize tax protest and armed rebellionBattle of Alamance Creek (1771)
81 The Last Imperial Crisis Lord North attempts to save East India Company, Britain’s largest corporationSoutheastern England and colonies purchased smuggled Dutch teaMillions of pounds of unsold tea left in East India Co. warehousesIssue to Lord North was save East India Co.8
82 The Tea CrisisLord North’s solution: make East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled teaTea Act (1773)Repealed duty on bringing tea to BritainRetained duty on sending tea to colonyGave monopoly on British empire tea trade to East India CompanySons of Liberty resistanceDirect threats against shipsBoston “Tea Party”31
83 Britain’s Response: The Coercive Acts Boston Port Act (1774)Quartering Act (1774)The Administration of Justice Act (1774)Massachusetts Government Act (1774)Quebec Act (1774)To colonists, above become the “Intolerable Acts”34
84 The Radical Explosion Boston reaction to Intolerable Acts Call for colonial unionNon-importationIntolerable Acts politicize countrysideRoyal governors dismiss assembliesAssemblies call for Continental CongressMassachusetts Provincial CongressSuffolk County Convention and “Minutemen”36
85 The First Continental Congress 12 colonies (all except Georgia)Philadelphia in September 1774Non-importation and non-exportationCrown and Parliament must repealCoercive ActsQuebec ActAll Revenue ActsPrinciple of no legislation without consent37
86 Toward War Proposed alternatives rejected in Parliament Edmund Burke William Pitt (Lord Chatham)Lord North’s policiesCrackdown on New England rebellionArrest John Hancock and Samuel AdamsSeize weapons in ConcordThomas Gage begins the crackdownMargaret Kemble Gage: the leak?Paul Revere and William Dawes38
87 Lexington and Concord: Gage’s soldiers march toward another world war
88 The Improvised War Neither side had strategy for real war Minutemen siege BostonBreed’s Hill (Bunker Hill)Fort TiconderogaLord Dunmore’s War (Va. 1774) “freedom to any slave helping the British”Militia keeps countryside committed to Revolution42
89 The Second Continental Congress Minutemen become Continental armyGeorge Washington made commanderAttacks on CanadaResponse to the Conciliatory PropositionOlive Branch PetitionThomas Jefferson and “The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms”Continental Congress assumed Crown’s functions of governance44
90 War and Legitimacy, 1775-1776 British Strategy Colonist victories Turn Indians and slaves against colonistVA governor John Murray, Earl of DunmoreColonist victoriesWashington takes Boston March 1776Colonists control all 13 colonies by summer 177646
91 Conclusion Britain’s self-filling prophecy nightmare British feared colonies’ independence unless major reforms were put in placeResistance of the colonists confirmed Britain’s fearsColonists feared that British government would deprive them their rights as EnglishmenMutual confidence was undermined8