Presentation on theme: "Roads to Revolution Roads to Revolution Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:
Roads to Revolution Roads to Revolution Chapter 5
* According to Pitt the colonists should be responsible for what regarding their military protection? * How did Pitt view the colonist’s role in the French and Indian War and what trend was developing that needed to be dealt with quickly? * What were the two intentions of the 1764 Sugar Act? * Who were the Sons of Liberty and what were their tactics to protest the Stamp Act? * Discuss the Townshend Act of 1767 for the following: what new duties/taxes it imposedpayment of salaries for governors and judges * Why did Britain send troops to Boston in 1768? * Why did Britain believe if they did a full repeal of the Townshend Act they would lose credibility? * Discuss what each of the Coercive Acts of 1774 (British response to Boston Tea Party) * Why did the colonists view the Quebec Act as threatening? * Why was the First Continental Congress summoned? * What did the colonies agree on for the following at the First Continental Congress: Non-importation non-exportationCoercive ActsLegislation and consent Non-importation non-exportationCoercive ActsLegislation and consent * What was the Olive Branch Petition? * What was the impact of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense? Questions for Group Discussion
I.Imperial warfare A.War of Austrian Succession (King George’s War) Outcome/effects on colonies B.Ohio Valley (big time territory disputes) 1.Indians 2.French 3.British a.George Washington b.Fort Duquesne/Fort Necessity 4.Albany Meeting/Plan (details next slide) C.Braddock/Washington 1.Another expedition 2.Indian resistance stiffens I.Imperial warfare A.War of Austrian Succession (King George’s War) Outcome/effects on colonies B.Ohio Valley (big time territory disputes) 1.Indians 2.French 3.British a.George Washington b.Fort Duquesne/Fort Necessity 4.Albany Meeting/Plan (details next slide) C.Braddock/Washington 1.Another expedition 2.Indian resistance stiffens
The Albany Congress and the Onset of War War: New France vs. VirginiaWar: New France vs. Virginia Albany Congress 1754 “The Albany Plan of Union”Albany Congress 1754 “The Albany Plan of Union” –Keep Six Nations (Iroquois) neutral –Benjamin Franklin and the Albany Plan President General and Grand CouncilPresident General and Grand Council Raise soldiers, levy taxes, deal with IndiansRaise soldiers, levy taxes, deal with Indians RejectedRejected –Centralized relations with Indians –Failed due to colonies unwillingness to surrender any independence
Imperial Tensions: From Loudoun to Pitt Earl of Loudoun, British military commander in N. America 1755Earl of Loudoun, British military commander in N. America 1755 –Coercion to force colonial cooperation William PittPrime Minister 1757William Pitt, Prime Minister 1757 –Consent to gain colonial cooperation –Replaces Loudoun with James Abercrombie By 1758, Britain finally had a military force capable of overwhelming New FranceBy 1758, Britain finally had a military force capable of overwhelming New France Cooperation between redcoats and provincials became routine and effective in warfare against French & IndiansCooperation between redcoats and provincials became routine and effective in warfare against French & Indians
D.French and Indian (Seven Years’ ) War ( ) 1.Nova Scotia a.French loss of Nova Scotia b.Final Expulsion of Acadians (Cajuns) 2.Changes a.Iroquois neutrality 1758? b.Pitt in charge i.renewed British interest ii.promise to bear the cost if colonists would fight for British iii.Wolfe vs Montcalm, fall of Quebec 3.Treaty of Paris/ provisions (next slide)
The Peace of Paris Peace of Paris ended the war 1763Peace of Paris ended the war 1763 Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe to FranceBritain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe to France France surrendered some West Indian islands and mainland North America east of MississippiFrance surrendered some West Indian islands and mainland North America east of Mississippi Havana returned to Spain, Florida ceded to BritainHavana returned to Spain, Florida ceded to Britain France gives New Orleans and lands W of Mississippi river to SpainFrance gives New Orleans and lands W of Mississippi river to Spain Indians angrily rejected peace settlement and France’s surrender of their lands to Great BritainIndians angrily rejected peace settlement and France’s surrender of their lands to Great Britain
II.Post War Finances in Britain A.George III (“reign and rule”) 1.Post war friction a.British dissatisfaction over cost/sharing b.British national debt soars, increased taxes at home c.Post war depression in America d.Pontiac’s rebellion 2.Unpopular first steps by George III/Parliament a.Proclamation of 1763 b.Large British colonial standing army in NA c.Writs of assistance i.James Otis/ inviolability of Constitution ii.Legislative bound by Constitution
Indian Policy and Pontiac’s War Indian and policyIndian and policy –Fulfill wartime promises –Proclamation Line of 1763 Pontiac, and Pontiac’s WarPontiac, and Pontiac’s War
The proclamation of 1763, in effect, closed off the frontier to colonial expansion. The King and his council presented the proclamation as a measure to calm the fears of the Indians, who felt that the colonists would drive them from their lands as they expanded westward. Many in the colonies felt that the object was to pen them in along the Atlantic seaboard where they would be easier to regulate.
B.More direct legislative “unpleasantness” 1.Sugar Act a.revenue raising from colonists b.required transshipping through UK ports c.nit-picking paperwork/requirements d.guilty until proven innocent i.venue to Nova Scotia ii.no Jury iii.Judges compensated by monies seized e.vigorous enforcement ordered by Grenville f.real effects (revenues, etc) g.external tax, borne mostly by merchants While hated by the merchants and investor class in new England, the Sugar Act was not a direct tax on consumers, and had little impact on the “average” New Englander, except as they understood it was hated by others. As a tax on trade, many accepted it as Britain’s legal right.
2.Stamp Act a.gross inequity in personal tax rates of British nationals vs Colonists (colonists paid 2-6% of what Brits paid!!) b.Stamp Act - direct tax on various commodities i.no jury trials for violators ii.internal tax, designed to raise revenue. Borne by all users of taxed items iii.split in Parliament (Pitt disagrees with Grenville) iv.Grenville defends “virtual representation” Unlike the Sugar Act the previous year, the Stamp Act was a direct tax expressly for raising revenue. Since it affected all consumers it was hated, and since it was passed without colonial consent, it was viewed as illegal
c.Colonial response i.rejected virtual representation ii.Protests A)legislature pass anti Stamp Act resolutions B)Loyal Nine C)Boston leads iii.Hit hard by Sugar act A)Distillers B)wine importers C)generally depressed economy 1)forced resignation of Boston stamp distributor 2)threats of death 3)property damage by mobs D)Sons of Liberty 1)similar to Loyal nine 2)formed in several colonies
Virtual Representation - concept employed by Prime Minister George Grenville to explain why Parliament could legally tax colonists even though colonists could not elect any members of Parliament. The theory held that the members of Parliament did not only represent their specific geographical constituencies, but rather that they took into consideration the well being of all British subjects when considering legislation Loyal Nine - A group of Boston merchants and artisans that formed during the Stamp Act crisis to lead the public in attempts to drive the stamp distributors from the city. This was one of the first steps toward political organization in the colonies.
Sons of Liberty: A secret organizations formed in the American colonies in protest against the Stamp Act (1765). They were organized by merchants, businessmen, lawyers, journalists, and others who would be most affected by the Stamp Act. The leaders included John Lamb and Alexander McDougall in New York, and Samuel Adams and James Otis in New England. The societies kept in touch with each other through committees of correspondence, supported the nonimportation agreement, forced the resignation of stamp distributors, and incited destruction of stamped paper and violence against British officials
iv.Stamp Act Congress A)NYC statement of united opposition to Stamp Act B)Boycott of English products 1)40% of English revenue from sales in NA 2)Merchants push for repeal 3)Grenville dismissed v.Stamp Act repealed, March 1766 The fact that British merchants pushed for repeal of the Stamp Act, illustrates the power of economic boycott, a lesson which Dr Martin Luther King Jr will apply in Montgomery AL, 158 yrs later!
e.Declaratory Act of 1766 i.passes same time as Stamp Act repealed (almost unnoticed by most colonials, who saw repeal as a victory) ii.stated absolute British power to legislate for Colonies in “All cases whatsoever” iii.fundamental disagreement between England and Colonies In fact, the Declaratory Act was Parliament telling the colonies that they would act as they pleased, and that repeal of the Stamp Act was a concession to British interests (loss of revenue ) not colonial pressures.
III.The Road to War A.General change in political thought in England and colonies 1.Locke - natural rights, obligations of government to governed 2.British oppositionists - claimed parliament served self first, people second 3.General shift by many in view of Crown/Parliament motives 4.American Protestant clergy influence B growing crisis 1.Quartering Act a.Townshend new Chancellor of Exchequer (Finance Minister) b.Indirect tax, resented, especially in New York (many troops there)
The Townshend Acts, British legislation intended to raise revenue, tighten customs enforcement, and assert imperial authority in America, were sponsored by Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend, (right ) and enacted on June 29, The key statute levied import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Its purpose was to provide salaries for some colonial officials (such as Judges and Governors)so that the provincial assemblies could not coerce them by withholding wages.
2.Townshend Revenue Act 1767 ( the “Townshend Duties”) a. a.Clearly a fund raising effort, not trade regulation like other import duties of the past b. b.Taxed lead, paper, paint, tea, and glass imported into colonies c. c.Part of revenue to pay Governor’s salaries (freeing them for dependence on Colonial legislatures) d. d.Resistance i. i.John Dickinson-“Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania” A) A)“Parliament no right to tax just for raising money” B) B)widely read across colonies
Dickinson joined politics as a member of the Pennsylvania assembly in 1764, proceeded with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 where he drafted the Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress. It was also during this time that he wrote an important series of essays, “Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer”, supporting the nonimportation and nonexportation agreements against Gr. Britain. Curiously enough, Dickinson was actually opposed to a separation from Gr. Britain and later worked very hard to temper the language and action of the Continental Congress, in an effort to maintain the possibility of reconciliation. It was for this reason that he abstained from voting on and signing the Declaration of Independence. John Dickinson
ii.Sam Adams A)circular letter condemning Townshend duties B)new British government post - secretary of State for the Colonies (Lord Hillsborough) 1)poor judgment 2)threatened any legislature which acknowledged the (Adams’) letter 3)reaction of legislatures was to heartily endorse it 4)many colonies begin unofficial non- importation boycotts of Townshend Act items
Samuel Adams was born in Boston on Sept. 17th, 1722, and died on Oct. 2nd, He was a major leader in the American Revolution. An influential member of the lower house of the Massachusetts legislature, he drafted most of the major protest documents, including the Circular Letter (1768) against the Townshend Acts. Adams formed close ties with John Hancock, whose connections with the Boston merchants made him useful in the revolutionary cause. He was a principal organizer of the Boston Tea Party (1773). Because of the intemperate language of his essays for the press (Lt. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson called him the greatest "incendiary" in the empire) and his early advocacy of independence, Adams was regarded as a radical.
Elsewhere in the World: British East India Company source of riches to many in Parliament, allowed almost autonomous rule of India, aided at times by British militaryBritish East India Company source of riches to many in Parliament, allowed almost autonomous rule of India, aided at times by British military Stocks grossly inflated (forerunner of “Enron style” creative accounting?)Stocks grossly inflated (forerunner of “Enron style” creative accounting?) Bubble bursts, company in debt, hard pressed to pay taxesBubble bursts, company in debt, hard pressed to pay taxes Agrees to yield control of India in exchange for lower taxesAgrees to yield control of India in exchange for lower taxes Government in financial duress due to French and Indian War and lower India revenuesGovernment in financial duress due to French and Indian War and lower India revenues Some in England outraged over apparent collusion between Parliament and British East India Company and rottenness of the whole thing!Some in England outraged over apparent collusion between Parliament and British East India Company and rottenness of the whole thing! Parliament seen by increasing numbers as only caring for itself to the detriment of the rest of EnglandParliament seen by increasing numbers as only caring for itself to the detriment of the rest of England
Concept of “liberty” not only colonial, but being echoed by increasing numbers of English citizens. Concept of “liberty” not only colonial, but being echoed by increasing numbers of English citizens. John Wilkes, others, seen as champions of “the people” (even though Wilkes bought his seat in parliament as had many othersJohn Wilkes, others, seen as champions of “the people” (even though Wilkes bought his seat in parliament as had many others Many in England and American colonies beginning to see parliamentary rule as merely an illusion of participative DemocracyMany in England and American colonies beginning to see parliamentary rule as merely an illusion of participative Democracy George III determined to assert power, reinstitute control over all colonies.George III determined to assert power, reinstitute control over all colonies.
iii.“Wilkes and Liberty” A)John Wilkes London publisher, member of Parliament, denounced King and parliamentary policies B)arrested, tried acquitted, denied seat in Parliament C)fled to Paris, 1763 D)returned 1768, reelected to Parliament E)denied seat again, jailed F)focal point to British who also rejected treatment of Colonies, rejected “virtual representation” and erosion of rights of British citizens, colonial or not
The Second Wilkes Crisis John Wilkes and 1768 Parliamentary electionsJohn Wilkes and 1768 Parliamentary elections –Wilkes arrest –“Massacre of St. George’s Fields” (1768) “Society for Gentleman Supporters of the Bill of Rights”“Society for Gentleman Supporters of the Bill of Rights” –Electoral reform –Sympathize with colonial protests Colonist sympathize with Wilkesite movementColonist sympathize with Wilkesite movement Townshend crisis and Wilkesite movement:Townshend crisis and Wilkesite movement: –Colonists question the British government
“Mad Wilkes” as drawn by English engraver William Hogarth (It is worth noting that John Wilkes was so admired by British actor Junius Brutus Boothe, that he named his son after him. John Wilkes Boothe, would later achieve infamy as Lincoln’s assassin)
“Gin Lane” Ca 1750 Soliciting votes 1754 William Hogarth was England’s premier engraver and Social critic for about 20 years (as close to a political cartoonist as the period had)
iv.Colonial women A)highly visible during Townshend crisis B)led protest against tea tax, urged non consumption (boycott) C)organized spinning bees to make cloth, avoid using British imports The political awareness and activism of colonial American women was one of the biggest surprises to the British, as in Britain, women were relatively sheltered from political events and in many cases considered as incapable of participating in public life
3.Customs racketeering a.Townshend orders tightening on Navigation Acts enforcement b.“Guilty until proven innocent”, no jury trials c.Informers kept part of seizure d.Widespread abuse i.some regulations almost impossible to comply with ii.violated sailor’s privacy, right to trade small amounts of goods iii.American Board of Customs Commissioners A)used informers B)corrupt, overcharged C)caused great suspicion, distrust of British motives
4.Townshend repeal new Prime Minister, Lord North a.All Townshend duties except tea tax repealed b.Tax on tea continued source of irritation to colonies, but non-consumption hurt tea importers Repeal of the Townshend Acts stemmed from a complex dynamic including loss of income and complaints from British Merchants, disagreement within Parliament on the validity and legality of them, and the concern that the colonies could be pushed to more drastic action if the Acts remained in effect, since every day they lasted resulted in more ill will.
5.Boston Massacre a.1700 troops into Boston 1768, resented by Bostonians b.“Occupied city” c troops fire into angry, threatening crowd surrounding customs office i.5 killed including Crispus Attucks ii.A leader of crowd, free man of color (African/native American descent) iii.usually conceded to be first casualty of the Revolution A)soldiers tried (defended by John Adams) B)all but two acquitted
Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre and the accompanying text paint a picture of British brutality probably not justified by events
Here in modern Boston is the site of the “Massacre” This painting shows armed colonists being repelled by “Redcoats” (British regular Army soldiers) at point blank range
6.Committees of Correspondence a The Gaspee Incident i.customs enforcer, hated by Rhode Islanders ii.ran aground near Providence iii.burned to waterline by colonists iv.commission sent to find conspirators, send to England for trial v.none identified, but idea of removal for trial infuriates many
Artist’s rendering of the Gaspee incident. The attack was viewed by the British as an attack on Britain by the colonists and provoked immediate response. The fact that none of the guilty were ever tried only irritated Parliament more. The Gaspee incident of 1772 The Gaspee incident of 1772
b.Sam Adams urges establishment of “Committees of correspondence” to keep information flowing throughout Mass. i.260 Mass towns involved initially, idea spread to New York ii.opportunity for political education of colonists on large scale, even those far from coast who had been only marginally affected by Townshend duties, Stamp Act, Sugar Act iii.published Mass Governor (Hutchinson) letters calling for abridgement of rights of colonists (letters surreptitiously obtained by Franklin in England, sent back) iv.Jefferson, Pat. Henry, R.H. Lee establish VA committees of correspondence March 1773
The Hutchinson Letters Affair began in December, 1772 when Franklin (representing PA in London) anonymously received a packet of letters. The letters were written to the British government by Thomas Hutchinson, the royal Governor of Massachusetts. In the letters, Hutchinson urged his superiors to send more troops to Boston to fight the American rebels. Franklin allowed American friends and colleagues to read the letters on the condition that they not be circulated or published. However, the content of the letters did get published in the Boston Gazette in June of The citizens of Boston were furious and forced Hutchinson to flee to England. The British government demanded to know who leaked the letters. In December of 1773, three innocent men were accused. In order to protect them, Franklin admitted his guilt. In January of 1774, Franklin was publicly reprimanded. Later that year, he left England and returned to America to help write the Declaration of Independence.
7.Border troubles a.Britain incapable of enforcing Proclamation of 1763 b.Western Mass settlers conflict with rich New York landowners (poltroons), Sons of Liberty side with settlers c.Regulators in the Carolinas, led the frontiersmen cause against established (and frequently pro- British) wealthy landowners d.Green Mountain Boys (Vermont) led protest against New York poltroons, as well e.Generally indicative of need for land to expand westward, frontier impatience, willingness to resort to violence
The regulators designation for two groups, one in South Carolina, the other in North Carolina, that tried to effect governmental changes in the 1760s. In South Carolina, the Regulator movement was an organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government The movement in North Carolina, with different causes, arose at the same time. Led by small farmers protesting the corruption and extortionate practices of sheriffs and court officials. With Gov. William Tryon, the provincial council, and the courts against them they were unable to secure relief. At first orderly, the Regulators resorted to acts of violence Those actions alienated large property holders and the clergy from the movement. On May 16, 1771, Tryon's militia completely routed a large body of Regulators in the battle of Alamance Creek
Allen became prominently involved in the struggle between New York and New Hampshire for control of the region. Following rejection by the New York authorities of an appeal that the region be established as a separate province, Allen organized a volunteer militia, called the Green Mountain Boys, to resist and evict proponents of the New York cause. He was thereupon declared an outlaw by the royal governor of New York. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, Allen and his force offered their services against the British. On orders from the Connecticut legislature, he, the Connecticut soldier Benedict Arnold, and a contingent of the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga early in the morning of May 10, 1775 Ethan Allen, ( ), patriot of the American Revolution, leader of the Green Mountain Boys
IV.Toward Independence A.Tea Act 1.Removed all import tariffs on tea imported by the Govt. Chartered British East India Company a.In dire financial straits b.Needed to be able to control colonial market c.Tea can be directly shipped from India to N. America (no longer has to go through England) d. Reduced cost of tea below all competitors, but..... i.colonists saw it as means to raise money to pay colonial governors ii.would make colonists accept principle of Parliamentary right to tax to accept cheap tea (In other words accept the spirit of the Declaratory Act of 1766) iii.Committees warned that tea cargoes should not be landed
2.Boston Tea Party a.Hutchinson (Mass Governor) ordered tea landed in Boston b.50 or so men disguised as Indians dump tea into harbor November 1773 (45 tons, imagine the damage to fish) Contemporary engraving of the Boston tea party
3.British response a.Outraged, Parliament responds with the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts. i.Boston Port Bill - closed port of Boston until tea paid for (still waiting) ii.Mass. Government Act - revoked Mass charter, removed elected upper house, governor to name all sheriffs, judges, only one town meeting per year iii.Administration of Justice Act - persons enforcing British justice in colony could be tried only in England iv.Quartering Act - any empty building could be taken to house British troops v.not an act, but also replaced Mass governor with British military commander for North America, General Thomas Gage
b.Quebec Act - also passed at same time as Coercive Acts, perceived by colonists as part of them. i.established Catholicism as official religion of Quebec ii.extended Quebec’s territory South to the Ohio and West to the Mississippi (several colonies claimed lands in this region which had now become part of Canada 4.Colonial reaction a.Although aimed at Mass as punishment, the acts inflamed all colonies (“there but for the grace of God ”) b.Many of the provisions of the Acts are listed as grievances by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence c.Virginian upper class and lower class join in opposition to crown and in support of Mass
The effect of the Quebec Act of 1774 was to greatly limit the land available for expansion of the middle colonies. With the addition of modern Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, the “new” Quebec contained lands claimed by the wealthy landowners of at least 5 colonies. While the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts really only limited Mass, the Quebec Act had the effect of alienating many more colonists!
B.First Continental Congress 1.Philadelphia, All but Georgia attend (remember that Georgia had only been a colony 35 years, many still felt English, compared to Carolinas, New Englanders) a.Endorsed Suffolk Resolves (Mass statement that no colony owed obedience to any of the Coercive Acts) b.Voted to boycott all British imports after Dec. 1, 1774 and even harsher, stop all exports to British Caribbean islands after Sept 1775 unless reconciled c.Appealed direct to George III to dismiss ministers responsible for the Coercive acts d.Many colonies began forming volunteer militias
3.Agreement not unanimous a.Some upper class still sided with British, feared irreparable damage b.Feared mob rule c.Called Tories (after the majority party in Parliament, whom they supported) or Loyalists, because the did not favor confrontation d.Frequently harassed by patriots During the entire course of the Revolutionary war, the new nation was split about evenly three ways. About a third favored independence, a third opposed and a third cared little as long as they did well financially
C.First Blood - Lexington and Concord 1.April Mass militia rumored to be stockpiling military supplies at Concord Ma. 2.Gage sends 700 British regulars to seize supplies, arrest Hancock and Adams if able 3.Dawes and Revere ride, warn “minutemen” the redcoats are coming 4.At Lexington 70 militia skirmish with 700 Brits (first firefight of Revolutionary War a.Brits win, 8 militia dead, one Brit wounded, press on to Concord b.Battle begins continues all the way back to Boston, 273 redcoats killed, British understand that the game has changed 5.By April, 20,000 New Englanders surround Boston a.Green Mountain Boys under Ethan Allen seize Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain, take cannon for siege of Boston
Lexington, Concord, and Boston,
This map shows the British advance (by land) to and return from Lexington and Concord.
D.Second Continental Congress 1.Philadelphia again, sends the “Olive Branch Petition” to George III, seeking: a.Cease -fire at Boston b.Repeal of Coercive Acts c.Negotiations to establish self government guarantees for Colonies 2.Reached London same time as news of Battle of Bunker Hill just North of Boston (fought on Breed’s Hill) with a cost of 1154 redcoat dead compared to 311 colonials 3.George III rejected petition, declared colonies in rebellion, all ships subject to seizure 4.Continental Congress orders formation of Continental Army, George Washington commanding
In a decisive stroke, as the winter of 1775 set in, Washington dispatched Henry Knox, a young Boston bookseller, to organize the transport of fifty-nine of these captured artillery pieces from the forts on Lake Champlain to the heights overlooking Boston, where, it was hoped, they would turn the tide against the British in the city below. Using sleds made on the spot, Knox got 59 cannon to Boston in the dead of winter, enabling Washington to take control of the city and force the British to evacuate Henry Knox, ,General in the War for Independence, first Secretary of War, and author of one of the great feats in American military history ( the British left because they were unaware of the almost total lack of powder or shot for the artillery!)
E.Common Sense 1.Tract by Thomas Paine, immigrated in 1770s 2.Radical revolutionary, wrote “Common Sense”, promoting cause and reasons for American Independence 3.Spoke of new kind of nation, government, model for the world 4.Sold 100,000 copies in three months, convinced many who had hoped for reconciliation with England
F.Independence 1. July 2, Continental congress announces the United States of America 2.July 4 th approved draft of Declaration of Independence (written by Jefferson) a.Like Paine, aimed at King George III never mentions Parliament b.Jefferson acknowledged debt to John Locke for ideas, spirit of a man created Govt and natural rights of citizens c.Stressed that England had violated the “social contract” with its citizens in the colonies d.Typical enlightenment philosophy e.Aim - to convince the Americans to be willing to die for liberty, masterful political propaganda
Brief Chapter Review
The Renewal of Imperial Conflict : new era of imperial war : new era of imperial war English colonies, New France, New Spain and Indians all involvedEnglish colonies, New France, New Spain and Indians all involved North America split between Spain and BritainNorth America split between Spain and Britain
The Impending Storm War drove British frontiers back, but colonies had promised land grants to volunteersWar drove British frontiers back, but colonies had promised land grants to volunteers Areas of frenzied expansion: Maine, New Hampshire and middle coloniesAreas of frenzied expansion: Maine, New Hampshire and middle colonies –Colony vs. colony –Settlers vs. Native Americans –British vs. French Ohio Company of VirginiaOhio Company of Virginia –George Washington Marquis DuquesneMarquis Duquesne French movement to block British settlement west of AllegheniesFrench movement to block British settlement west of Alleghenies
France versus Britain in North America by 1755
The War for North America 1755: British professional army conflicted with the householder society and voluntaristic colonists1755: British professional army conflicted with the householder society and voluntaristic colonists Colonists and Britain learn to cooperate in order to achieve victory against FranceColonists and Britain learn to cooperate in order to achieve victory against France
British Offensives, 1755
Conclusion : expansion and renewed immigration pushed settlements of North America into the interior : expansion and renewed immigration pushed settlements of North America into the interior Colonies anglicized in many ways due to impacts of a growing populationColonies anglicized in many ways due to impacts of a growing population –Impacts on families, women –Enlightenment and Great Awakening Imperial rivalries: French and Indian WarImperial rivalries: French and Indian War Provincials and redcoats: different perceptionsProvincials and redcoats: different perceptions
Imperial Reform 1760: George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age : George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age 22 Collapse of political coalition that led Britain to victory over FranceCollapse of political coalition that led Britain to victory over France King’s new ministers set out to reform the empireKing’s new ministers set out to reform the empire
The Grenville Ministry John WilkesJohn Wilkes –Journalist for North Briton criticized King –Member of Parliament –“Wilkes and Liberty” War put Britain in debtWar put Britain in debt Revenues needed to police colonies – Grenville insists colonists contribute financially to fund their own defenseRevenues needed to police colonies – Grenville insists colonists contribute financially to fund their own defense
Grenville’s Attitudes Typical of many in ParliamentTypical of many in Parliament “London must have greater control of colonies”“London must have greater control of colonies” Britain won war against France “despite ‘obstructionism’ from colonists”Britain won war against France “despite ‘obstructionism’ from colonists”
The Sugar Act 1764 – duties placed on Madeira wine, coffee, molasses1764 – duties placed on Madeira wine, coffee, molasses Colonists could [by smuggling] obtain cheaper molasses from FrenchColonists could [by smuggling] obtain cheaper molasses from French Launched Grenville’s war against smugglersLaunched Grenville’s war against smugglers –Complicated paperwork and harsh penalties –Tried to make enforcement of Customs laws more profitable than accepting bribes
The Currency Act and the Quartering Act Currency Act of 1764Currency Act of 1764: –Forbade colonies to issue any paper money as legal tender Quartering Act of 1765:Quartering Act of 1765: To quarter redcoats in private homes & taverns To quarter redcoats in private homes & taverns
The Stamp Act Stamp tax on legal documents and publications in the coloniesStamp tax on legal documents and publications in the colonies “no taxation without representation” vs. virtual representation“no taxation without representation” vs. virtual representation Internal vs. external taxesInternal vs. external taxes Colonist offer – Requisitions (colonial assemblies determine how to raise money asked for by the crown)Colonist offer – Requisitions (colonial assemblies determine how to raise money asked for by the crown)
The Stamp Act Crisis Resistance to Stamp Act: 1765 – lasted almost one year, then repealedResistance to Stamp Act: 1765 – lasted almost one year, then repealed Stamp Act CongressStamp Act Congress –Stamp Act unconstitutional and should be repealed –No virtual representation in empire, but yes virtual representation in colonies
Repeal [of Stamp Act] Repeal Stamp Act (1766)Repeal Stamp Act (1766) Pitt supports repealPitt supports repeal –Declaratory Act. (1766) – Revenue Act (1766): 1 penny tax on any molasses imported to colonies Internal vs. external taxes: A misunderstood issueInternal vs. external taxes: A misunderstood issue
Resistance: The Politics of Escalation Internal vs. external taxes dilemmaInternal vs. external taxes dilemma John Dickinson and Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1767)John Dickinson and Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1767) –Denied internal vs. external tax distinction –Parliament has no right to tax colonies- period! Circular Letter and constitutional resistanceCircular Letter and constitutional resistance Nonimportation in MA, NY, and PANonimportation in MA, NY, and PA Sons of Liberty “convention”Sons of Liberty “convention”
The Townshend Crisis King George & William Pitt: government of “measures, not men”King George & William Pitt: government of “measures, not men” Pitt becomes Prime Minister and then a LordPitt becomes Prime Minister and then a Lord Charles Townshend: Pitt’s spokesman in House of CommonsCharles Townshend: Pitt’s spokesman in House of Commons Townshend has a hard-line attitude towards coloniesTownshend has a hard-line attitude towards colonies
The Townshend Acts New York and the Restraining ActNew York and the Restraining Act Pitt’s depression leaves Townshend in chargePitt’s depression leaves Townshend in charge Townshend Revenue ActTownshend Revenue Act (1767) –Taxed imports colonies could only legally get from Britain –Purpose: pay salaries of colonial governors and judges, freeing them from control of colonial assemblies British troops shifted from frontier to urban ports –many feel “occupied”British troops shifted from frontier to urban ports –many feel “occupied”
The Boston Massacre Increasing confrontations between population and British soldiers in BostonIncreasing confrontations between population and British soldiers in Boston Sons of Liberty grow bolderSons of Liberty grow bolder March 5, 1770: The MassacreMarch 5, 1770: The Massacre Britain’s failed first attempt at military coercionBritain’s failed first attempt at military coercion
Partial Repeal Lord North [Prime Minister]Lord North [Prime Minister] –asks Parliament for repeal of all Townshend duties, except for tea Tea provided three-fourths of revenue under Townshend ActTea provided three-fourths of revenue under Townshend Act Repeal’s effectsRepeal’s effects –Non-importation collapses, Sons of Liberty lose –Increased importation of British goods to the colonies
Disaffection Partial repeal divided the colonistsPartial repeal divided the colonists Erosion of colonists’ trust of imperial governmentErosion of colonists’ trust of imperial government Gaspée Affair (1772)Gaspée Affair (1772) Committees of correspondence formed throughout colonies [Sam Adams]Committees of correspondence formed throughout colonies [Sam Adams] British conclude punishment for political violence must be communalBritish conclude punishment for political violence must be communal Tea remains symbol that Townshend crisis not overTea remains symbol that Townshend crisis not over
The Regulator Movements in the Carolinas Backcountry settlers and the Cherokee War ( )Backcountry settlers and the Cherokee War ( ) Disaffected backcountry settlers become outlawsDisaffected backcountry settlers become outlaws Backcountry in near civil warBackcountry in near civil war –Regulators form to impose order –Moderators form to defend against regulators Battle of Alamance Creek (1771)Battle of Alamance Creek (1771)
The Regulator Movements in the Carolinas South Carolina Disaffected backcountry settlers become outlawsDisaffected backcountry settlers become outlaws Backcountry in near civil warBackcountry in near civil war –Regulators form to impose order –Moderators form to defend against regulators Legislature agrees to Circuit Courts, confrontation endsLegislature agrees to Circuit Courts, confrontation ends North Carolina Governor’s corrupt favorites controlled backcountry courtsGovernor’s corrupt favorites controlled backcountry courts Backcountry 50% of population, 20% of AssemblyBackcountry 50% of population, 20% of Assembly Regulators organize tax protest and armed rebellionRegulators organize tax protest and armed rebellion Battle of Alamance Creek (1771)Battle of Alamance Creek (1771)
The Last Imperial Crisis Lord North attempts to save East India Company, Britain’s largest corporationLord North attempts to save East India Company, Britain’s largest corporation Southeastern England and colonies purchased smuggled Dutch teaSoutheastern England and colonies purchased smuggled Dutch tea Millions of pounds of unsold tea left in East India Co. warehousesMillions of pounds of unsold tea left in East India Co. warehouses Issue to Lord North was save East India Co.Issue to Lord North was save East India Co.
The Tea Crisis Lord North’s solution: make East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled teaLord North’s solution: make East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled tea Tea Act (1773)Tea Act (1773) –Repealed duty on bringing tea to Britain –Retained duty on sending tea to colony –Gave monopoly on British empire tea trade to East India Company Sons of Liberty resistanceSons of Liberty resistance –Direct threats against ships –Boston “Tea Party”
Britain’s Response: The Coercive Acts Coercive ActsCoercive Acts –Boston Port Act (1774) –Quartering Act (1774) –The Administration of Justice Act (1774) –Massachusetts Government Act (1774) Quebec Act (1774)Quebec Act (1774) To colonists, above become the “Intolerable Acts”To colonists, above become the “Intolerable Acts”
The Radical Explosion Boston reaction to Intolerable ActsBoston reaction to Intolerable Acts –Call for colonial union –Non-importation Intolerable Acts politicize countrysideIntolerable Acts politicize countryside Royal governors dismiss assembliesRoyal governors dismiss assemblies –Assemblies call for Continental Congress Massachusetts Provincial CongressMassachusetts Provincial Congress –Suffolk County Convention and “Minutemen”
The First Continental Congress 12 colonies (all except Georgia)12 colonies (all except Georgia) –Philadelphia in September 1774 Non-importation and non-exportationNon-importation and non-exportation Crown and Parliament must repealCrown and Parliament must repeal –Coercive Acts –Quebec Act –All Revenue Acts Principle of no legislation without consentPrinciple of no legislation without consent
Toward War Proposed alternatives rejected in ParliamentProposed alternatives rejected in Parliament –Edmund Burke –William Pitt (Lord Chatham) Lord North’s policiesLord North’s policies –Crackdown on New England rebellion Arrest John Hancock and Samuel AdamsArrest John Hancock and Samuel Adams Seize weapons in ConcordSeize weapons in Concord Thomas Gage begins the crackdownThomas Gage begins the crackdown –Margaret Kemble Gage: the leak? –Paul Revere and William Dawes
Lexington and Concord: Gage’s soldiers march toward another world war
The Improvised War Neither side had strategy for real warNeither side had strategy for real war Minutemen siege BostonMinutemen siege Boston Breed’s Hill (Bunker Hill)Breed’s Hill (Bunker Hill) Fort TiconderogaFort Ticonderoga Lord Dunmore’s War (Va. 1774) “freedom to any slave helping the British”Lord Dunmore’s War (Va. 1774) “freedom to any slave helping the British” Militia keeps countryside committed to RevolutionMilitia keeps countryside committed to Revolution
The Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress Minutemen become Continental armyMinutemen become Continental army George Washington made commanderGeorge Washington made commander Attacks on CanadaAttacks on Canada Response to the Conciliatory PropositionResponse to the Conciliatory Proposition –Olive Branch Petition –Thomas Jefferson and “The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms” Continental Congress assumed Crown’s functions of governanceContinental Congress assumed Crown’s functions of governance
War and Legitimacy, British StrategyBritish Strategy –Turn Indians and slaves against colonist –VA governor John Murray, Earl of Dunmore Colonist victoriesColonist victories –Washington takes Boston March 1776 –Colonists control all 13 colonies by summer 1776
Conclusion Britain’s self-filling prophecy nightmareBritain’s self-filling prophecy nightmare –British feared colonies’ independence unless major reforms were put in place –Resistance of the colonists confirmed Britain’s fears Colonists feared that British government would deprive them their rights as EnglishmenColonists feared that British government would deprive them their rights as Englishmen Mutual confidence was underminedMutual confidence was undermined