First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
5 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1776 Great Britain US declared independence from Great Britain A - 13 Original Colonies
6 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1783 Great Britain Part of Treaty of Paris (ended Revolutionary War) B B - Western Lands
7 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1803 France Napoleon needed $ Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans He got all of this instead! B C - Louisiana Purchase C
8 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1819 Spain Andrew Jackson invaded Spain then sold it to us for $5 million B D - Florida D C
9 Thinking Question Why weren’t Americans happy with the size of their country at this point in their history?
10 Mr. Manifest Destiny James K. Polk Elected President in 1844 Added more territory to the US than any other President Died 103 days after his only term ended
11 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1845 Republic of Texas (Independent Country) Texas independent from Mexico in 1836 Gained independence to become part of US B E - Texas D C E
12 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1846 Great Britain Claimed by four countries (Britain, Russia, Spain, & US) Americans demanded “54 ° 40’ or fight!” Britain compromised 49 ° & US accepted B F - Oregon Territory D C E F
13 US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? How? 1848 Mexico Polk offers to buy G from Mexico & they refuse War! US wins In Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, US offers $15 million for G B G - Mexican Cession D C E F G
14 Text: Manifest Destiny p. 317 American Progress Color Lithograph by George A. Crofutt and John Gast
Cause and Effect The Mexican-American War Objective : Determining the causes of the Mexican American War
The Annexation of Texas by the U.S. angered the Mexican Government. Mexico never acknowledged Texas as independent and felt the U.S. had no right to take its territory. Mexico also did not acknowledge the Treaty of Velasco which set the southern border of Texas as the Rio Grande. U.S.-Mexico Disputes
The loss of Texas will inevitably result in the loss of New Mexico and the Californias. Little by little our territory will be absorbed until only an insignificant part is left to us.... Our national existence... will end like those weak meteors that, from time to time, shine fitfully in the firmament (sky) and disappear. -José Maria Tornel y Mendivil
Area in Dispute Nueces River Rio Grande River The U.S. and Texas considered the Rio Grande as the Southern border. For Mexico it was the Nueces
Why would the Mexican government not accept the treaty of Velasco? –Santa Anna only signed the treaty of Velasco because his life was in danger.
Manifest Destiny Another issue with Mexico was Manifest Destiny. The land that the United States desired out west (California especially) was all controlled by Mexico.
The U.S. Perspective Most Americans sympathized with Texas during the Texas revolution and republic days because most Texans were former Americans. As a result of the brutal fighting (at the Alamo, Massacre at Goliad, and other times) the American public developed negative stereotypes against the Mexican people and government
Effort to ease the tensions After Texas Annexation, Mexico threatened war. U.S. President James K. Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to work for better relations between the two countries. John Slidell
Slidell’s Mission 1) Get Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande as the border between Mexico and the United States 2) To forgive about $4.5 million owed to U.S. citizens by Mexico from the Mexican War of Independence 3) To discuss the purchase of the New Mexico and California The Mexican government refused to talk with Slidell which angered the U.S.
The Thornton Affair A company of U.S. Calvary commanded by Captain Seth Thornton got into a skirmish with Mexican forces near the Rio Grande. Thornton was ordered to scout an area about twenty miles northwest of what later became Brownsville, Texas. In April 1846, the Calvary, investigated an abandoned hacienda (Ranch). Some two thousand Mexican soldiers were encamped in and around the hacienda, and a firefight occurred. Both sides fought ferociously, but the greatly outnumbered U.S. force was forced to surrender after several hours of skirmishing.
President Polk asked for a declaration of war before a joint session of the United States Congress, summing up the need for war by famously stating: –"American blood has been shed on American soil". Congress declared war on Mexico, despite protests by the Mexican government that Thornton had crossed the border into Mexican Texas — a border that Mexico claimed as the Nueces River. The ensuing Mexican-American War was waged from 1846-1848 and witnessed the loss of many thousands of lives and nearly half of the territory of Mexico. Presidents Polk’s Response
US Problems with Mexico 1)Americans had a negative view of Mexico because of the Texas Revolution 2) Mexico owed the U.S. money for the Mexican Revolution against Spain Mexican Problems with US. 1)Mexico felt that Texas was being stolen from them. 2) Mexico didn’t believe in Manifest Destiny and didn’t want to give away their land.
Declaration of Sentiments, 1848 Elizabeth Cady StantonLucretia Mott Seneca Falls Convention
Social Snapshot Women, as members of mixed-sex societies, fought against injustices of: –The need for free public education for all children –The abuse and neglect of criminals and mental patients –Slavery –The evils of drink (for Prohibition) –Women’s legal position Since the Revolutionary period, population and geographic boundaries of the United States had doubled and shifted westward. Economy was shifting away from farming towards manufactured goods, banks and cash crops. Changes left some feeling isolated, or without a sense of community.
Audience “a candid world” Other women –The Seneca Falls Convention served as a pep rally for women’s rights activists. –Encourages women not in the movement to join, or just think about their positions. Men (Politicians, husbands, fathers, brothers, bosses, clergy, etc.)
Comparing the Declaration of Sentiments to the Declaration of Independence
Main Points Women declared their independence and inalienable Rights: Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. “We insist that [women] have immediate admission to the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.” “…Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled.”
Main Points Men have created a social and political tyranny over women by not recognizing their civil liberties. “He has endeavored, in every way that he could, to destroy her confidence in her own powers, to lessen her self-respect, and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life.” “He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead.” “He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.” “He has withheld from her rights which are given the most ignorant and degraded men- both natives and foreigners.” “He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise.” “He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.” “In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master.” …if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.” 1
Social Impact After the convention, some parties removed their names due to societal pressures. The Convention was said to have mocked, not utilized, the Declaration of Independence. This stand put the women’s movement back a few steps. Feminism today has a negative connotation.
Questions to consider How could an Abolitionist consistently oppose slavery but favor the continuation of women’s inferior status? Why were so many of their contemporaries, even among the Abolitionists, deeply disturbed by the Declaration? What contemporary groups, if any, could utilize Jefferson’s language in the Declaration of Independence for their own purposes?
Understanding the Complexity of Abolitionism and Anti-Slavery movements
Paradox: Being Anti-Slavery did not necessarily make you a friend of the Slave. Americans opposed slavery for various reasons and used various methods in their opposition.
Southerners Lamenting Slavery In the early republic, even southerners questioned the future and morality of slavery (Like Washington) Ideology of the revolution Evangelical influence (Second Great Awakening) – blunted by 1820 Southern abolitionism dies out about 1830-1832. Virginia assembly meets to discuss prospect / Nat Turner’s rebellion.
Abolition the Political Issue North vs. South in struggle for political mastery “Political Abolitionism” – not so much opposed to slavery on moral grounds, but that the slave state voting bloc and 3/5’s Compromise puts South in driver’s seat. Focused on stopping the spread of slavery. Like “red state/blue state politics”
Abolition Politics as a Labor Issue By 1840s, “Free Soil” movement emerges White laboring classes (farmers, mechanics) who want to stop the spread of slavery They don’t want to compete with unfree labor. They don’t care about slavery where it already exists
The political threat posed by containing slavery The South feared abolition movements that threatened to stop the spread of slavery because such movements would inhibit the South’s ability to maintain a political parity with the North In time, the South would become a political minority, and as such, subject to the whim of Northern will. For the South to defend slavery politically, it HAD to expand.
The economic threat of containing slavery Stopping slavery’s expansion eliminated (in theory) the market for future generations of slaves
Abolition the Moral Issue By far the most threatening because it challenges the persistence of slavery where it exists. Far less common than “political abolitionism”
Early Moral Abolition: Gradualism Abolition within the conventions of a racist culture: Inability to see slaves as Americans. Emphasis on resettlement, deportation American Colonization Society Liberia, “Monrovia” Respect for southern property rights Sensitive to racial attitudes of white Americans, North and South Sensitive to preserving racial hierarchy
Intellectual Changes in the North: “Perfectionism” Transcendentalism and other “perfectionist” ideals take root, particularly in New England 1820s – 1830s Belief in reform and “perfectability of mankind” Temperance, anti-prostitution, and anti- slavery Involvement of women in moral crusade
Moral Abolition: Immediatism The rise of William Lloyd Garrison Starts Liberator in 1831 Calls for the immediate end to slavery Not only is slavery wrong, but slaveholders are immoral. Enrages slaveholders Enrages a lot of northerners too A minority view for many years
Garrison and Southern Conceptions of Honor Garrison made abolitionism a personal attack upon the honor of southerners by charging them with a unconscionable crime. Undermines southern claims to honor and patriarchy Immediatist abolition movement small but vocal. Hardens defenses of slavery. Encourages the development of pro-slavery rhetoric from southern intellectuals and clergy.
Women and Moral Abolitionism As part of the antebellum period’s move toward moral improvement, women become involved in abolitionism. Religious overtones The fictional “Uncle Tom” character The imperiling of white morality
Northern Women Harriett Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin Representative of white northern women from elite backgrounds who take up the cause of abolition. Both moral and emotional suasion
Southern White Women The Grimke Sisters of South Carolina Become sought-after speakers Credibility as beneficiaries of slave system Focus: Slavery’s damage to white morality
The Slave Narrative Harriett Jacobs and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Shocking forcefulness Narrative of sexual exploitation
Imagery and the limits of white compassion: “tragic mulattas” Photograph of “nearly white” slave girl “auctioned” by Henry Ward Beecher to raise funds for abolitionist causes in Boston
A slave and his one dangerous wish: FREEDOM Period 2 US History Bryan Samuel Daniel Casale Collin Browse Per. 2 US History
Childhood Nat Turner was born in Southampton County, Virginia on October 2, 1800. He was brought up in a deeply religious family –This caused to him to have frequent visions from God. These visions greatly influenced his life. –At 21 he ran away from his master and returned a month later due to guidance from a vision. From then on he was called The Prophet among his fellow slaves. –One vision was “the last shall be first” meaning the slaves were meant to rule.
Adult Life On the 12 of February, 1831, a solar eclipse took place. Nat Turner felt this was a sign from God, that a black man’s hand was reaching across the sun. A second solar eclipse appeared in August of the same year. “The Prophet” took this as a symbol and began his rebellion a week later.
The Southampton Insurrection (1831) On the night of August 21 at Southampton County, Nat Turner finally commenced his battle against “all the white people” His makeshift militia was composed of over 70 free and enslaved blacks. Using only knives, axes and other such stealthy weapons, the “army” killed 55 whites, men, women, and children alike.
The Southampton Insurrection They only spared those of impoverished disposition, in the justification that they “thought no better of themselves than of negroes” Nat Turner himself confessed to killing only one person It was the bloodiest slave revolt in the history of the south
Capture The rebellion was finally ended when a militia of whites of almost double the number, supplemented by artillery, defeated the insurgents. He evaded capture for over two months. He hid in the Dismal Swamp area and was unintentionally found by a hunter on October 30. He surrendered calmly. He was sentenced to death following a trial. On November 1 st, 1831, Nat Turner was hanged.
Consequences 1 Directly after the rebellion, the punishment was clearly not on only Nat Turner and his fellow rebels, but on all blacks in the south –200 blacks who were completely unrelated to the rebellion were killed by white supremacists –The Virginia General Assembly forbade teaching blacks the ability to read, write. –After the civil war, almost all blacks were illiterate. –Also, public gatherings of blacks was prohibited without a white priest present.
Consequences 2 His lawyer during the trial, Thomas Ruffin Gray, wrote the Confessions of Nat Turner. –This book was composed of tales of Turner, which his lawyer heard from his client during conversations and interviews. –A modern adaptation was written in 1967 by William Styron. This first person historical narrative was criticized as being to empathetic with Turner and not being realistic.
Consequences 3 The most important result was that it opened the eyes of all African Americans that liberty, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness were God given rights that all men were entitled to. –“his uprising was as much black against white in a slaveholding society as it was slave versus owner.”