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Modern Methodologies: Agile, XP Programming, and Business Collaboration 1 Raj Anantharaman, Engineering Manager, Software and Services Group, Intel India.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Methodologies: Agile, XP Programming, and Business Collaboration 1 Raj Anantharaman, Engineering Manager, Software and Services Group, Intel India."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Methodologies: Agile, XP Programming, and Business Collaboration 1 Raj Anantharaman, Engineering Manager, Software and Services Group, Intel India Technology Private Limited Silicon India Java Conference 2011

2 Introduction 15 yrs of SW Development Experience Lead a SW Development team at Intel India, Bangalore Agile Practitioner, Evangelizer for past 4 yrs - Won the Intel Software Quality Award Expertise in Web Solutions (Microsoft), CRM Dynamics, Business Intelligence B.Tech (EEE), MS (Computer Science), PMP Certified 2 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

3 Topics Why Agile? My team’s Journey, Challenges Results, Benefits of Agile Adoption 10 Best Practices, Key Learning's Summary 3 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

4 Why Agile? Adaptability to Changing Requirements Continuous and Early customer feedbacks Better Product Quality Self Directed Team – Higher Team Cohesiveness Higher Team Productivity Build Customer Confidence Early Early and Improved Visibility of Status Faster Course Correction 4 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

5 Our Reason for Adopting Agile 5 AttributeHealthStatus Performance Against Schedule V. Good On-Time Releases, Average Length of Releases – 1 per quarter Customer Satisfaction Good Customers happy with on-time releases, but wanted more frequent releases (2 or more per quarter) – piling backlog QualityPoor High Pre / Post Production Defects, One fix leads to secondary issues, Team in constant fire-fight mode Team Productivity Plateau to Decline Quality Issues, Heroics from some team members – most others were followers, Team Potential Not Fully Tapped Team MoraleAverage High Attrition, Morale was OK – could be better, Team Working Long Hours, Weekends Cross Geo Team Working Model Average Inter Team Communication was OK, Work-Life-Balance Sacrifices for some team members Team Needed a New Way to Deliver More Releases With Increased Quality and Productivity (hence Morale) Silicon India Java Conference 2011

6 Our Approach – Embrace Agile Practices 6 PracticesBenefits 2-week iterations (Time-Boxed Duration to develop, test and show-case a small set of requirements) Kept team very focused (2-week goals) Customers more involved, saw output once in 2 weeks, provided feedbacks early (show case meetings) Retrospective every 2 weeks – Easier to course correct Gain Efficiencies Through Automation (Test Automation, Continuous Integration, Automated Localization Scripts) Issues caught early – product quality improved progressively Developer confidence Improved when making code changes (Safety Net of collection of automated tests) Team Productivity Improved Pair Programming (2 developers work on a story instead of individually) Improved Cross-Team Learning, Collective Ownership of team Increased Developer Skills Open Office Space (Removed Cubicle Structure) More F2F Communication between team members Faster resolution of issues Silicon India Java Conference 2011

7 Agile Adoption Strategy Top-Down – Management Driven Initiative o Some Believers, Some Skeptics, but overall worked well Engage Experts to Coach us through Adoption o We hired 3 Agile Coaches for 6 months (from an experienced vendor in India) o Worked out very well Pilot First and Swift Adoption to Other Projects o Transition Change Management at one time o Agile Coaches are invaluable here Persistence, Commitment, Stick to the Plan o Easy to go back to old ways, need persistence, commitment o Management Support is vital Make the work place conducive for Agile Development o Invest in a work-space that is conducive for Agile Development o Closed Wall Cubicles vs. Simple Conf Room Arrangement 7 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

8 Resistance to Agile Adoption 8 “Pair Programming is a Waste of Time” I can code this effectively myself Why are we paying him to watch how I code? “Management has a hidden agenda behind this. I am being Micro Managed” Agile Coaches are taking over. They’re calling the shots. Management is watching every move very closely (e.g. Daily Stand-Up’s, Retrospectives) “I am a skeptic. I don’t believe this.” I don’t see it working. We should have just done it using Waterfall. I told you before. Customers were happy even before, so what are we really trying to fix? “My cubicle is going away. “ I’ve lost all my privacy. Can I browse the internet? How do I get personal work done? My friends in other teams enjoy a full sized cubicle Silicon India Java Conference 2011

9 Agile Lifecycle 9 Deployment (2 weeks) CAT Planning Iteration#0 Release Planning Meeting (High Level Estimates, Story Points) Architecture, High Level Designs, Env. Setup Deploy to Production Approval Iteration 1 (2 weeks) Code Stories, Unit Tests, Continuous Integration Iteration Planning (Task Level Breakdown, Estimates) Retrospective, Show Case with Key Stakeholders Explore CCB Approval Project Vision, Business Case Quick Start Analysis; Master List of Stories; Approval Development Deploy to QA Box, Write Tests Iteration 2 (2 weeks) Code Stories, Unit Tests, Continuous Integration Iteration Planning (Task Level Breakdown, Estimates) Retrospective, Show Case with Key Stakeholders Deploy to QA Box, Write Tests Day-One Testing Silicon India Java Conference 2011

10 Results 15 of 16 On-Time Releases o Last 4 releases with zero over-time, high quality Improved Quality o Technical Debt reduced from 2400 to 392 (76% improvement) o Lowered Defects Density 3.76 to 0.6 defects/SP Improved Team Morale, Stronger Team o Reduced Attrition o Team Temperature increased from an avg. of 5 to 8 o Team Cross-Trained on Code-Base, Less Heroics, More Leaders Lower Operational Cost, Higher Output, Innovations o Improved Team Velocity / Productivity o Time to work on Innovations o Improved Cross-Team Collaboration 10 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

11 Metrics 11 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

12 Best Practice#1: Invest in Good Tools Multiple Agile Life Cycle Management Tools in the Market o Use a tool to manage user stories, defects, project plan, iterations, releases o Choose a tool that best fits your team’s needs o Improves Team Productivity Multiple Test Automation Tools (for Developer and QA) o Choose a tool that best fits your team’s needs and skills o Build Passes only when all Developer and QA tests pass 12 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

13 Best Practice #2: Create a Build Dashboard Continuous Integration is KEY to Agile Success o Build Frequently o Integrate build with Unit Tests (Dev and QA) o All tests MUST pass for Build To Pass Provide a Build Dashboard Setup for team to monitor build status o Drives Positive Behavior Shift - Discipline in Developers to check in well tested code o Place the Build Dashboard in a centrally visible place 13 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

14 Best Practice #3: Provide An Agile Workspace 14 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

15 Best Practice #4: For Geo-Distributed Teams, best to have Local Business Analysts Improves Agility of Team o Quick Answers to Questions o Local BA’s function as Proxy Customers for the team Planning Games More Effective o Games can be scheduled during Day-Time o BA’s can make decisions on priority, based on cost / effort Local BA’s work directly with customers / stakeholders o Downside: Local BA’s may need to work alternate shifts (e.g. increase US- India Overlap) 15 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

16 Best Practice #5: Define a Story Lifecycle Define the criteria when a story is considered “Ready to Play”, “done, Done, DONE” etc. o Team mutually agrees to this criteria o Rigorously Follows It, Holds Each Other Accountable Create a Centrally Visible Story Wall (and a Virtual Wall) o Makes it easy to track story status o “done, Done, DONE” is achieved only when QA has tested a story and customer has signed off on it (acceptance criteria) o Daily-Stand-Up’s can be conducted around the Story Wall 16 Iteration Backlog In DevelopmentIn TestingIn Customer Review done, Done, DONE Silicon India Java Conference 2011

17 Best Practice #6: Light Weight Estimation Techniques We’ve tried Function Points, PERT, Story Points, T-Shirt Sizes, Ideal Hours… We Recommend Story Points through Planning Poker o Accuracy is not important, being close is good enough o The key value of estimation is in the discussions that un-earth assumptions or risks, not in the value of the estimate itself o Size the story first (e.g. Story Points), before estimating effort o Effort can be calculated based on velocity of team (from previous iterations) 17 Planning Poker Overview A story is read by the BA Each developer picks a card (Fibonacci Series – 1, 3, 5, 7, 8…) and puts it face down Everyone is asked to reveal the cards at the same time Discussion ensues on story complexity (esp. if one developer picked 3, another picks 8) Team repeats the estimation rounds, till all developers agree to an estimate. Silicon India Java Conference 2011

18 Best Practice #7: Set Goals for every iteration, release Set goals to keep team motivated o Examples: Unit Test Coverage, Quality (e.g. defects per story-point), Velocity (e.g. Story Points Per Person-Day), Technical Debt o Challenges team, Encourages “Swarming” behaviors (e.g. pick up more stories to work on, unit test thoroughly) Use Retrospective meetings to “analyze” metrics o Understand what caused a metric to go up or down o Team defines / implements corrective actions as appropriate 18 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

19 Best Practice #8: Measure and Frequently Repay Technical Debt Technical Debt is the sum of Bug Debt (weighted open Post-Production Defects) and Code Debt o Bug Debt Example: A Show Stopper Defect accumulates 20 points for each day its open o Code Debt Example: Poorly Written Module – Probability / Likelihood of impact; Amount of Code Duplication, Total Unit Test Coverage, Un-Used Code Technical Debt needs to be repaid every iteration / release o Set goals, write tech stories (e.g. refactor initiatives module), prioritize as part of the iteration / release planning games o Fix post-production defects through separate sustaining releases o Measuring it enables you to negotiate with your customers 19 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

20 Best Practice #9: Conduct a Practices Maturity Survey to drive continuous improvements Internal Survey of Practice Level Maturity with the team o Each team member evaluates adherence to the practices o Some Sample Questions Developers Volunteer for Tasks We always work on the highest priority story or bug All stories have success criteria Team identifies corrective actions based on survey results o Sample Corrective Actions Taken Publishing Automated Test Results in a dashboard Conducting Tech Talks / Brown-Bag sessions to share technical BKM’s No overtime worked in the last 4 releases (due to better planning) 20 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

21 Best Practice#10: Idea’s to Improve Collective Ownership Conduct Frequent Technology Brown Bag Sessions o Developers Conduct Walk-Through of Code w/ Team Very useful, esp. when working with legacy code o Conduct Code Reviews – to reinforce good developer practices Can be discontinued once team is up to speed Rotate Pairs Every Iteration o No one module is fully developed by a single pair If you have a dedicated QA Team o Pair a QA with a Developer o QA’s have very good system level knowledge, can act as catalyst in improving comfort level Having a good set of automated tests o Difficult to build, esp. in Legacy Code, but invaluable 21 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

22 Summary Agile Practices Adoption has resulted in: Positive Changes in Our Deliverables  High Quality, Low Technical Debt - 76% improvement  Defects Density reduced from 3.76 to just 0.6 defects/SP  More Time for Innovative Solutions Positive Changes in Our Team  Team more self-managed, mature, more skills  Improved Productivity Levels to 0.65 SP’s/person-day  Morale is highest ever  Zero over time worked in last 4 consecutive releases Positive Changes for our Customers  Key Program Metrics Improving Rapidly  Faster Releases (2-3 per quarter) – reduced backlog 22 Silicon India Java Conference 2011

23 Backup 23

24 Key Agile Practices PracticeWhat Is It?Expected Benefits? 2-week iterations Time-Boxed Duration to develop, test and show-case a small set of requirements. Multiple Iterations make up a release Customer tests features early (every 2 weeks) vs. waiting till CAT Keeps team very focused (2-week goals) Course Corrections Easier Automated Unit Tests Scripts that unit tests developer code (classes and methods) Improves Code Quality Increases developer confidence when making changes (Safety Net) Automated QA Tests Scripts that tests the functional user scenarios (e.g. user enrolment) Improves Outgoing Product Quality Reduces Manual Time spent on Quality Testing Pair Programming 2 developers pair to work on a requirement instead of individually Improves Cross-Team Learning Increases Developer Skills Daily Stand-Up Meetings 15 min meeting each day where team members provide a status update Improves Transparency Increases Communication Between Team Members 24

25 25 Legal Disclaimer INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPETY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL ® PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. All products, dates, and figures specified are preliminary based on current expectations, and are subject to change without notice. Intel, processors, chipsets, and desktop boards may contain design defects or errors known as errata, which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. Intel AppUp Center, Intel AppUp developer program and other code names featured are used internally within Intel to identify products that are in development and not yet publicly announced for release. Customers, licensees and other third parties are not authorized by Intel to use code names in advertising, promotion or marketing of any product or services and any such use of Intel's internal code names is at the sole risk of the user Performance tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems and/or components and reflect the approximate performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Intel, and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Copyright ©2011 Intel Corporation.

26 26 Risk Factors The above statements and any others in this document that refer to plans and expectations for the second quarter, the year and the future are forward- looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Many factors could affect Intel’s actual results, and variances from Intel’s current expectations regarding such factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. Intel presently considers the following to be the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the corporation’s expectations. Demand could be different from Intel's expectations due to factors including changes in business and economic conditions; customer acceptance of Intel’s and competitors’ products; changes in customer order patterns including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory at customers. Intel operates in intensely competitive industries that are characterized by a high percentage of costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term and product demand that is highly variable and difficult to forecast. Additionally, Intel is in the process of transitioning to its next generation of products on 32nm process technology, and there could be execution issues associated with these changes, including product defects and errata along with lower than anticipated manufacturing yields. Revenue and the gross margin percentage are affected by the timing of new Intel product introductions and the demand for and market acceptance of Intel's products; actions taken by Intel's competitors, including product offerings and introductions, marketing programs and pricing pressures and Intel’s response to such actions; defects or disruptions in the supply of materials or resources; and Intel’s ability to respond quickly to technological developments and to incorporate new features into its products. The gross margin percentage could vary significantly from expectations based on changes in revenue levels; product mix and pricing; start-up costs, including costs associated with the new 32nm process technology; variations in inventory valuation, including variations related to the timing of qualifying products for sale; excess or obsolete inventory; manufacturing yields; changes in unit costs; impairments of long-lived assets, including manufacturing, assembly/test and intangible assets; the timing and execution of the manufacturing ramp and associated costs; and capacity utilization. Expenses, particularly certain marketing and compensation expenses, as well as restructuring and asset impairment charges, vary depending on the level of demand for Intel's products and the level of revenue and profits. The majority of our non-marketable equity investment portfolio balance is concentrated in the flash memory market segment, and declines in this market segment or changes in management’s plans with respect to our investment in this market segment could result in significant impairment charges, impacting restructuring charges as well as gains/losses on equity investments and interest and other. Intel's results could be impacted by adverse economic, social, political and physical/infrastructure conditions in countries where Intel, its customers or its suppliers operate, including military conflict and other security risks, natural disasters, infrastructure disruptions, health concerns and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Intel’s results could be affected by the timing of closing of acquisitions and divestitures. Intel's results could be affected by adverse effects associated with product defects and errata (deviations from published specifications), and by litigation or regulatory matters involving intellectual property, stockholder, consumer, antitrust and other issues, such as the litigation and regulatory matters described in Intel's SEC reports. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or an injunction prohibiting us from manufacturing or selling one or more products, precluding particular business practices, impacting our ability to design our products, or requiring other remedies such as compulsory licensing of intellectual property. A detailed discussion of these and other factors that could affect Intel’s results is included in Intel’s SEC filings, including the report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 27, 2010.

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