4 Introduction Laboratory operations present special health hazards that may not exist in other types of workplaces due to the exposure to a variety of chemicals, and beside these hazards there other dangers including fires, explosions.
4/25/20155 Chemical Hazard BIO Hazard Health Hazard
4/25/20159 Three basic components: chamber, face, and exhaust. Hoods come in various sizes. But standard width are 4 and 6 feet. 1- Fume Hoods
4/25/201510 The Face: Opening to the chamber, where air is drawn into the hood from lab. Has a slided sash. The sash helps keep the contaminant air inside the hood.
4/25/201511 To reduce the risk, close the sash as much as possible (18 inches). The sash is your protection against fire, explosions, chemical splashes, and projectiles.
4/25/201512 Lab Fume Hoods Face velocity 80 – 100 feet per minute = 0.5 meter per second at 18 inches sash height. For highly toxic experiments double velocity is required. If the hood is not equipped with air measuring device, verify adequate inward airflow by using smoke tubes or tissue paper.
4/25/201513 Proper Use Equipment and other materials should be placed at least six inches (15cm) behind the sash. Do not use fume hood as a storage cabinet. Do not store chemicals against the baffles.
4/25/201514 Hood locations: must be away from doors, windows, and pedestrian traffic. Minimize the pedestrian traffic immediately in front of the hood. Walking past the hood causes turbulence which can draw contaminant out of the hood into the room. must be away from doors, windows, and pedestrian traffic. Minimize the pedestrian traffic immediately in front of the hood. Walking past the hood causes turbulence which can draw contaminant out of the hood into the room.
4/25/201515 Proper Use Adjust the sash height to the smallest opening (18 inches) (45 cm). Have an indication position for the sash.
4/25/201517 2- Chemical Storage Cabinets Types of Cabinets: Flammable Liquid Cabinets: Acid/Corrosive Cabinets:
4/25/201518 Chemical Storage Cabinets Flammable storage cabinets are designed for storage of flammable and combustible liquids. Acid/corrosive cabinets are designed for corrosion resistance.
4/25/201519 General Guidelines Segregate incompatible chemicals. Do not store chemicals Alphabetically. Purchase the minimum amount required. Date bottles of chemicals when they are opened. Test peroxidizable chemicals periodically.
NFPA National Fire Protection Association Health Flammability Reactivity Special hazard
4/25/201523 Example: Isopropyl Alcohol: Slightly ToxicSlightly Toxic Highly FlammableHighly Flammable Not ReactiveNot Reactive No Special HazardNo Special Hazard 10 3
4/25/201524 3- Individual Storage Containers A safety can is an approved container of no more than five gallons capacity. It has a spring-closing lid and spout cover, and is designed to safely relief pressure buildup within the container when subjected to fire exposure.
4/25/201525 4- Refrigerators Will have self-contained electrical elements to avoid spark-induced explosions. Explosion-proof refrigerators are specially designed for hazardous environment, featuring enclosed motors to eliminate sparking.
4/25/201526 5- Eye Wash Stations Should be readily available and accessible to all lab personnel. Located in areas – 10 seconds to reach – 100 feet. Valves activated in one second and should stay open.
4/25/201527 Eye Wash Stations 0.4 gpm for 15 minute. Faucet-mounted: provides continuous water flow while freeing hands to open eyelids.
4/25/201528 6- Safety Showers Accessible locations – 100 ft, 10 seconds to reach. Flow rate = 20 gpm Valve activated in one second and stay open. Near drainage systems Stream of water to cover the whole body.
4/25/201532 What Is A Fire ? Simply fire is a chemical reaction which involves rapid oxidation or burning of a combustible material. In the past, we learned that three elements, fuel, heat, and oxygen were necessary for fire to start and continue burning, hence the fire triangle concept.
4/25/201533 Fire Tetrahedron In recent years this concept has been expanded to include a fourth element, that of chemical reaction, thus creating the fire tetrahedron.
4/25/201534 Classes of Fires : Classes of Fires : 1-Class A Fires 2-Class B Fires 3-Class C Fires 4- Class D Fires
4/25/201535 Fire: Fight or Flight? Evacuate if: You do not know what is on fire The fire is spreading rapidly You do not have the appropriate extinguisher You might inhale toxic smoke You cannot maintain an escape route Your instincts tell you not to fight the fire
4/25/201537 If you discover a fire!!!!!!! Follow these simple rules: 1- Don’t panic 2- Raise the alarm 3- Evacuate laboratory 4- Turn off electricity 5- Get out
4/25/201538 Fire Protection 1- Alarms 2- Fire Extinguishers 3- Blankets 4- Sand Buckets 5- Sprinklers 6- Emergency Exits (Means of Egress) 7- Evacuation and emergency plans.
Fire Safety A – combustibles B – flammable liquids C – energized equipment D – flammable metals
4/25/201540 Fire Extinguishers There are four types of Fire Extinguishers: 1- Water Fire Extinguishers 2- Foam/Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers. 3- Carbon Dioxide/dry powder. 4- Halons Fire Extinguishers.
4/25/201541 1-Class A Fires : - Cloth, wood, paper, rubber, many plastics. -The most effective extinguishing agent is
4/25/201542 2-Class B Fires : Involving flammable and combustible liquids such as : Motor Gasoline - Solvents (Acetone) - Alcohols. The extinguishing agents include : Foams. Dry Chemicals. Carbon Dioxide. Halons.
4/25/201543 3-Class C Fires : Fires that involves electrical equipment The extinguishing agents are : Dry Chemical. Carbon Dioxide. Halons.
4/25/201544 Electrical Safety Do not overload electrical outlets or extension cords. If a cord feels warm, disconnect it and do not use.
4/25/201545 Inspect equipment frequently. Keep equipment away from water.
4/25/201546 Warning Water or any fire extinguisher contains water or any agent mixed with water are not allowed to be used on fires involving live electrical equipment, since water is a good conductor of electricity.
4/25/201548 4- Class D Fires : These are fires involving metals such as : Sodium - Potassium - Magnesium. Special types of Dry Powders are used to extinguish such fires. Special types of Dry Powders are used to extinguish such fires.
4/25/201549 How To Use Fire Extinguisher P.A.S.S. l Pull the pin l Aim at base of fire l Squeeze the handle l Sweep side to side
4/25/201550 Position yourself between the fire and escape route Have a back-up Do not turn your back to the fire Alert key personnel regarding the incident http://www.chem.sc.edu/faculty/morgan/safety/safetytrain.html
4/25/201554 8- First Aid Boxes Suitable first aid boxes according to the number of lab personnel. Suitable first aid materials such as: 1-Burn ointment. 2-Sterile adhesive dressings. 3-Sterile eye pads with attachment.
4/25/201555 9- Spill Control Kits Mercury spill kit Acid, Alkaline, and solvents spill kits
4/25/201556 10-Emergency Exits is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way by their own unaided efforts and consists of three separate and distinct parts: Exit access; The exit; and Exit discharge.
4/25/201557 Means of Egress Means of Egress A place of safety (assembly point). Doors to corridors from laboratories must swing in the direction of exit. The minimum number of exits from any story or portion thereof shall be
4/25/201558 Fundamental Requirements: No locks to prevent emergency egress except in specialized facilities, such as mental or corrective institutions. The time allowed for evacuation is between : 2 - 3 minutes.
4/25/201559 1. Spilled acids can be neutralized with- A.GasolineGasoline B.AlcoholAlcohol C.WaterWater D.Sodium bicarbonate solution (base)Sodium bicarbonate solution (base)
4/25/201561 When starting work in a new laboratory, it is important to become familiar with:
4/25/201562 The layout of the room The location of the safety equipment The position of the emergency exits, fire alarm and extinguishers The location of the first aid box
4/25/201563 Also Get to Know: Designated escape route and alternate Designated escape route and alternate Location of fire ext., eye wash, shower, first aid. Location of fire ext., eye wash, shower, first aid. The main taps for water and the switch for electricity.
4/25/201564 Know the location of the nearest phone that can be used in an emergency. Critical phone numbers should be posted near the phone.
4/25/201565 While Working in the Lab: [ Authorized persons only [ Identify EVERYTHING! [ No food, tobacco products, No gum chewing or application of cosmetics [ Do not wear contact lenses around toxic vapors.
4/25/201574 Hand Protection 4 Protects against risk of cuts, abrasions, burns, or exposure to hazardous materials. 4 Requires selection of the appropriate chemical resistant gloves
4/25/201575 To prevent accidents during lab, you should- A.Follow your teacher’s directionFollow your teacher’s direction B.Hurry ahead of othersHurry ahead of others C.Ask someone else to do the workAsk someone else to do the work
4/25/201576 While Working in the Lab: Do not work alone. Avoid horseplay, or other behavior that can lead to accidents.
4/25/201577 While Working in the Lab: Avoid tasting or smelling hazardous chemicals. Do not use solvents for washing the skin it causes dermatitis. Do not keep food, food containers, or drinking glasses in areas with chemicals. Do not use lab glassware for eating or drinking. or drinking.
4/25/201578 Long hair or scarf should be tied back or otherwise confined. Even hair or scarf that has been tied back can catch fire if it is allowed to come too close to a flame.
4/25/201579 Restrain long hair, loose clothing and jewelry
4/25/201580 Secure ties or jewelry that might become entangled in equipment.
4/25/201581 Loose sleeves can be hazardous in the laboratory. To prevent laboratory accidents, avoid loose clothing.
4/25/201582 Pour more concentrated solutions (acids) into less concentrated solutions (water) to avoid violent reactions.
4/25/201583 While Working in the Lab: Use mechanical transfer devices Use mechanical transfer devices Never use mouth pipetting Never use mouth pipetting
4/25/201584 The safe handling of laboratory glassware: not heating cracked glassware, not touching hot glass,
4/25/201585 Broken glass and other "sharps", e.g. pipette tips must be placed in the correct container.
4/25/201587 Advise your lecturer of any suspected or known sensitivities to chemicals you may have. Pregnancy, or other medical conditions, or the wearing of gas permeable contact lenses might enhance any exposure risks. Your lecturer / supervisor should advise but, if in doubt, ask. Advise your lecturer of any suspected or known sensitivities to chemicals you may have. Pregnancy, or other medical conditions, or the wearing of gas permeable contact lenses might enhance any exposure risks. Your lecturer / supervisor should advise but, if in doubt, ask.
4/25/201588 Before Leaving the Lab: Turn off: Gas Gas Water Water Power supplies Power supplies Vacuum lines Vacuum lines Compression lines Compression lines Heating apparatus Heating apparatus
4/25/201589 Before Leaving the Lab: Identify and package waste, dispose properly Identify and package waste, dispose properly Return unused equipment, apparatus, etc. Return unused equipment, apparatus, etc. Leave lab coat in the lab Leave lab coat in the lab Close and lock door Close and lock door