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4/25/20151 Presented By Dr. Siham Y. AlQaradawi Associate Prof. of Organic Chemistry At Qatar University 19 th May 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "4/25/20151 Presented By Dr. Siham Y. AlQaradawi Associate Prof. of Organic Chemistry At Qatar University 19 th May 2010."— Presentation transcript:

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2 4/25/20151 Presented By Dr. Siham Y. AlQaradawi Associate Prof. of Organic Chemistry At Qatar University 19 th May 2010

3 4/25/20152 OSHA STANDARDS Most of the slides in this presentation has been taken from the OSHA workshop at the AUC 2001 http://www.osha.gov/ Occupational Safety & Health Administration

4 4/25/20153

5 4 Introduction Laboratory operations present special health hazards that may not exist in other types of workplaces due to the exposure to a variety of chemicals, and beside these hazards there other dangers including fires, explosions.

6 4/25/20155 Chemical Hazard BIO Hazard Health Hazard

7 4/25/20156 Laboratory Safety Equipment

8 4/25/20157 Laboratory Safety Equipment  1- Fume Hoods  2- Eye Wash Stations  3- Safety Showers  4- Emergency Exits  5- Individual Storage Containers  6- Chemical Storage Cabinets  7- Fire Safety Equipment  8- First Aid Boxes  9- Spill Control Kits  10- Refrigerators

9 4/25/20158 Emergency Equipment  First-Aid kits  Spill kits  Safety showers  Eyewash stations  Fire extinguishers  Emergency Exits

10 4/25/20159  Three basic components: chamber, face, and exhaust.  Hoods come in various sizes. But standard width are 4 and 6 feet. 1- Fume Hoods

11 4/25/201510 The Face:  Opening to the chamber, where air is drawn into the hood from lab.  Has a slided sash.  The sash helps keep the contaminant air inside the hood.

12 4/25/201511 To reduce the risk, close the sash as much as possible (18 inches). The sash is your protection against fire, explosions, chemical splashes, and projectiles.

13 4/25/201512 Lab Fume Hoods  Face velocity 80 – 100 feet per minute = 0.5 meter per second at 18 inches sash height.  For highly toxic experiments double velocity is required.  If the hood is not equipped with air measuring device, verify adequate inward airflow by using smoke tubes or tissue paper.

14 4/25/201513 Proper Use  Equipment and other materials should be placed at least six inches (15cm) behind the sash.  Do not use fume hood as a storage cabinet.  Do not store chemicals against the baffles.

15 4/25/201514 Hood locations: must be away from doors, windows, and pedestrian traffic. Minimize the pedestrian traffic immediately in front of the hood. Walking past the hood causes turbulence which can draw contaminant out of the hood into the room. must be away from doors, windows, and pedestrian traffic. Minimize the pedestrian traffic immediately in front of the hood. Walking past the hood causes turbulence which can draw contaminant out of the hood into the room.

16 4/25/201515 Proper Use  Adjust the sash height to the smallest opening (18 inches) (45 cm).  Have an indication position for the sash.

17 4/25/201516 Types of Chemical Fume Hoods  1- Standard fume hoods.  2- Bypass fume hoods.  3- Auxiliary fume hoods.  4- Perchloric fume hoods.  5- Radioisotopes fume hoods.

18 4/25/201517 2- Chemical Storage Cabinets Types of Cabinets:  Flammable Liquid Cabinets:  Acid/Corrosive Cabinets:

19 4/25/201518 Chemical Storage Cabinets  Flammable storage cabinets are designed for storage of flammable and combustible liquids.  Acid/corrosive cabinets are designed for corrosion resistance.

20 4/25/201519 General Guidelines  Segregate incompatible chemicals. Do not store chemicals Alphabetically.  Purchase the minimum amount required.  Date bottles of chemicals when they are opened. Test peroxidizable chemicals periodically.

21 4/25/201520 Warning labels “Radioactive Material”

22 4/25/201521 http://www.chem.sc.edu/faculty/morgan/safety/safetytrain.html

23 NFPA National Fire Protection Association  Health  Flammability  Reactivity  Special hazard

24 4/25/201523 Example:  Isopropyl Alcohol: Slightly ToxicSlightly Toxic Highly FlammableHighly Flammable Not ReactiveNot Reactive No Special HazardNo Special Hazard 10 3

25 4/25/201524 3- Individual Storage Containers A safety can is an approved container of no more than five gallons capacity. It has a spring-closing lid and spout cover, and is designed to safely relief pressure buildup within the container when subjected to fire exposure.

26 4/25/201525 4- Refrigerators  Will have self-contained electrical elements to avoid spark-induced explosions.  Explosion-proof refrigerators are specially designed for hazardous environment, featuring enclosed motors to eliminate sparking.

27 4/25/201526 5- Eye Wash Stations  Should be readily available and accessible to all lab personnel.  Located in areas – 10 seconds to reach – 100 feet.  Valves activated in one second and should stay open.

28 4/25/201527 Eye Wash Stations  0.4 gpm for 15 minute.  Faucet-mounted: provides continuous water flow while freeing hands to open eyelids.

29 4/25/201528 6- Safety Showers  Accessible locations – 100 ft, 10 seconds to reach.  Flow rate = 20 gpm  Valve activated in one second and stay open.  Near drainage systems  Stream of water to cover the whole body.

30 4/25/201529 The emergency safety shower

31 4/25/201530

32 4/25/201531 7- Fire Safety Equipment

33 4/25/201532 What Is A Fire ?  Simply fire is a chemical reaction which involves rapid oxidation or burning of a combustible material.  In the past, we learned that three elements, fuel, heat, and oxygen were necessary for fire to start and continue burning, hence the fire triangle concept.

34 4/25/201533 Fire Tetrahedron  In recent years this concept has been expanded to include a fourth element, that of chemical reaction, thus creating the fire tetrahedron.

35 4/25/201534 Classes of Fires : Classes of Fires :  1-Class A Fires  2-Class B Fires  3-Class C Fires  4- Class D Fires

36 4/25/201535 Fire: Fight or Flight? Evacuate if:  You do not know what is on fire  The fire is spreading rapidly  You do not have the appropriate extinguisher  You might inhale toxic smoke  You cannot maintain an escape route  Your instincts tell you not to fight the fire

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38 4/25/201537 If you discover a fire!!!!!!! Follow these simple rules:  1- Don’t panic  2- Raise the alarm  3- Evacuate laboratory  4- Turn off electricity  5- Get out

39 4/25/201538 Fire Protection  1- Alarms  2- Fire Extinguishers  3- Blankets  4- Sand Buckets  5- Sprinklers  6- Emergency Exits (Means of Egress)  7- Evacuation and emergency plans.

40 Fire Safety  A – combustibles  B – flammable liquids  C – energized equipment  D – flammable metals

41 4/25/201540 Fire Extinguishers There are four types of Fire Extinguishers:  1- Water Fire Extinguishers  2- Foam/Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers.  3- Carbon Dioxide/dry powder.  4- Halons Fire Extinguishers.

42 4/25/201541 1-Class A Fires :  - Cloth, wood, paper, rubber, many plastics.  -The most effective extinguishing agent is

43 4/25/201542 2-Class B Fires :  Involving flammable and combustible liquids such as : Motor Gasoline - Solvents (Acetone) - Alcohols. The extinguishing agents include :  Foams.  Dry Chemicals.  Carbon Dioxide.  Halons.

44 4/25/201543 3-Class C Fires : Fires that involves electrical equipment The extinguishing agents are :  Dry Chemical.  Carbon Dioxide.  Halons.

45 4/25/201544 Electrical Safety  Do not overload electrical outlets or extension cords. If a cord feels warm, disconnect it and do not use.

46 4/25/201545 Inspect equipment frequently. Keep equipment away from water.

47 4/25/201546 Warning  Water or any fire extinguisher contains water or any agent mixed with water are not allowed to be used on fires involving live electrical equipment, since water is a good conductor of electricity.

48 4/25/201547

49 4/25/201548 4- Class D Fires :  These are fires involving metals such as : Sodium - Potassium - Magnesium.  Special types of Dry Powders are used to extinguish such fires.  Special types of Dry Powders are used to extinguish such fires.

50 4/25/201549 How To Use Fire Extinguisher P.A.S.S. l Pull the pin l Aim at base of fire l Squeeze the handle l Sweep side to side

51 4/25/201550  Position yourself between the fire and escape route  Have a back-up  Do not turn your back to the fire  Alert key personnel regarding the incident http://www.chem.sc.edu/faculty/morgan/safety/safetytrain.html

52 4/25/201551 Fire blanket

53 4/25/201552 Crawl on your hands and knees to stay below smoke.

54 4/25/201553

55 4/25/201554 8- First Aid Boxes  Suitable first aid boxes according to the number of lab personnel.  Suitable first aid materials such as: 1-Burn ointment. 2-Sterile adhesive dressings. 3-Sterile eye pads with attachment.

56 4/25/201555 9- Spill Control Kits  Mercury spill kit  Acid, Alkaline, and solvents spill kits

57 4/25/201556 10-Emergency Exits is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way by their own unaided efforts and consists of three separate and distinct parts: Exit access; The exit; and Exit discharge.

58 4/25/201557 Means of Egress Means of Egress  A place of safety (assembly point).  Doors to corridors from laboratories must swing in the direction of exit.  The minimum number of exits from any story or portion thereof shall be

59 4/25/201558 Fundamental Requirements:  No locks to prevent emergency egress except in specialized facilities, such as mental or corrective institutions.  The time allowed for evacuation is between : 2 - 3 minutes.

60 4/25/201559 1. Spilled acids can be neutralized with- A.GasolineGasoline B.AlcoholAlcohol C.WaterWater D.Sodium bicarbonate solution (base)Sodium bicarbonate solution (base)

61 4/25/201560 Working in the lab

62 4/25/201561 When starting work in a new laboratory, it is important to become familiar with:

63 4/25/201562  The layout of the room  The location of the safety equipment  The position of the emergency exits, fire alarm and extinguishers  The location of the first aid box

64 4/25/201563 Also Get to Know: Designated escape route and alternate Designated escape route and alternate Location of fire ext., eye wash, shower, first aid. Location of fire ext., eye wash, shower, first aid.  The main taps for water and the switch for electricity.

65 4/25/201564  Know the location of the nearest phone that can be used in an emergency.  Critical phone numbers should be posted near the phone.

66 4/25/201565 While Working in the Lab: [ Authorized persons only [ Identify EVERYTHING! [ No food, tobacco products, No gum chewing or application of cosmetics [ Do not wear contact lenses around toxic vapors.

67 4/25/201566 Always Read The Labels

68 4/25/201567 While Working in the Lab:  Use appropriate eye, and hand protection  Shoes with full coverage and good grip soles

69 4/25/201568 You only have two eyes… Protect them!

70 4/25/201569 Use proper eye protection in the laboratory Find more information on eye protection at: http://www.chem.sc.edu/faculty/morgan/safety/eyes.html

71 4/25/201570 Eye protection Protects you against risk of: 1- flying objects 2- dust particles 3- harmful rays 4- splashes of hazardous materials.

72 4/25/201571 Safety Glasses  Unbreakable lenses of plastic or tempered glass  For light-to- moderate work Can be worn over prescription glasses Goggles

73 4/25/201572 Whenever working in the lab you should wear- A.SandalsSandals B.Closed toed shoesClosed toed shoes C.no shoesno shoes

74 4/25/201573

75 4/25/201574 Hand Protection 4 Protects against risk of cuts, abrasions, burns, or exposure to hazardous materials. 4 Requires selection of the appropriate chemical resistant gloves

76 4/25/201575 To prevent accidents during lab, you should- A.Follow your teacher’s directionFollow your teacher’s direction B.Hurry ahead of othersHurry ahead of others C.Ask someone else to do the workAsk someone else to do the work

77 4/25/201576 While Working in the Lab:  Do not work alone.  Avoid horseplay, or other behavior that can lead to accidents.

78 4/25/201577 While Working in the Lab:  Avoid tasting or smelling hazardous chemicals.  Do not use solvents for washing the skin it causes dermatitis.  Do not keep food, food containers, or drinking glasses in areas with chemicals.  Do not use lab glassware for eating or drinking. or drinking.

79 4/25/201578  Long hair or scarf should be tied back or otherwise confined.  Even hair or scarf that has been tied back can catch fire if it is allowed to come too close to a flame.

80 4/25/201579 Restrain long hair, loose clothing and jewelry

81 4/25/201580 Secure ties or jewelry that might become entangled in equipment.

82 4/25/201581 Loose sleeves can be hazardous in the laboratory. To prevent laboratory accidents, avoid loose clothing.

83 4/25/201582 Pour more concentrated solutions (acids) into less concentrated solutions (water) to avoid violent reactions.

84 4/25/201583 While Working in the Lab: Use mechanical transfer devices Use mechanical transfer devices Never use mouth pipetting Never use mouth pipetting

85 4/25/201584 The safe handling of laboratory glassware:  not heating cracked glassware,  not touching hot glass,

86 4/25/201585  Broken glass and other "sharps", e.g. pipette tips must be placed in the correct container.

87 4/25/201586 Use Clamps to Hold Hot Tubes

88 4/25/201587 Advise your lecturer of any suspected or known sensitivities to chemicals you may have. Pregnancy, or other medical conditions, or the wearing of gas permeable contact lenses might enhance any exposure risks. Your lecturer / supervisor should advise but, if in doubt, ask. Advise your lecturer of any suspected or known sensitivities to chemicals you may have. Pregnancy, or other medical conditions, or the wearing of gas permeable contact lenses might enhance any exposure risks. Your lecturer / supervisor should advise but, if in doubt, ask.

89 4/25/201588 Before Leaving the Lab: Turn off: Gas Gas Water Water Power supplies Power supplies Vacuum lines Vacuum lines Compression lines Compression lines Heating apparatus Heating apparatus

90 4/25/201589 Before Leaving the Lab: Identify and package waste, dispose properly Identify and package waste, dispose properly Return unused equipment, apparatus, etc. Return unused equipment, apparatus, etc. Leave lab coat in the lab Leave lab coat in the lab Close and lock door Close and lock door

91 4/25/201590 Wash well before leaving lab

92 4/25/201591

93 4/25/201592 Laboratory Unit Layout

94 4/25/201593 http://www.howe.k12.ok.us/~jimaskew/clab.htm http://www.studygs.net/labsafety.htm http://www.lexington1.net/lv/district.nsf

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