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1 A Brief History of the Jewish State Jews in the Middle Ages designated as servi camera (ruler’s property) From property of the sovereign...…to a sovereign.

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Presentation on theme: "1 A Brief History of the Jewish State Jews in the Middle Ages designated as servi camera (ruler’s property) From property of the sovereign...…to a sovereign."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 A Brief History of the Jewish State Jews in the Middle Ages designated as servi camera (ruler’s property) From property of the sovereign...…to a sovereign state IDF soldiers in Jerusalem

2 2 ►Massacres (tens of thousands killed/tortured)  Crusades ( )  Black Death ( )  Chmielnicki massacre in Ukraine (1648) ►Expulsions  France (1254, 1306, 1322, 1394)  England (1290)  Spain (1492)  Portugal (1496)  Germany/Bohemia (throughout Middle Ages until 1750) Deggendorf massacre (1337) Entire Jewish community killed in one day Prior to 19 th century, European Jews consistently subject to massacres and expulsion Jews in pre-19 th Century Europe

3 3 Jews in 19 th Century Europe: Emancipation ►After French Revolution, Jews gradually liberated, ultimately leading to full equal rights (at least in theory) in France (1831), Germany ( s), Austria (1867) and Italy ( ) ►Jewish presence in major cities grows much faster than the rest of the population ►Jewish intellectuals increasingly focus on secular culture, rather than religious doctrine ►In Western Europe, Jews steadily assimilate into broader society and embrace national identity of states they inhabit ►Benjamin Disraeli, born to a Jewish family (later baptized) and outspoken philo-semite, becomes British PM (1868 and again in 1874) Hayyim (a.k.a. Heinrich) Heine ( ) Widely considered greatest German poet of 19 th century

4 4 Jews in 19 th Century Europe: Russian Anti-Semitism ►Massive pogroms break out in Ukraine, often with government support ( ) ►Legislation greatly restricts Jewish education, labor force participation, residence rights and voting rights ►Tsar Alexander III labels Jews as “Christ-killers” and oppressors of Christian Slavs ►Tsarist secret police forges and publishes Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903), describing purported Jewish conspiracy to dominate world ►Persecution results in mass emigration of poor Russian Jews to Western Europe, fueling anti- Semitism there Konstantin Pobedonostsev ( ) Advisor to Alexander III and Head of Russian Orthodox Church “The characteristics of the Jewish race are parasitic; for their sustenance they require the presence of another race as ‘host’ although they remain aloof and self-contained. Take them from the living organism, put them on a rock, and they die. They cannot cultivate the soil.“ – Pobedonostsev

5 5 Jews in 19 th Century Europe: German Anti-Semitism ►After Napoleon, rise of German nationalism leads to popularization of “Volk” concept, glorifying “authentic” Germans and their “natural” roots ►Depicts Jews as “alien” and “cosmopolitan” threats to traditional Volk ►Emergence of racial component to anti-Semitism, framing Jewish threat as part of “Social Darwinist” struggle ►Anti-Semitic parties gain political strength, especially in Vienna under leadership of Karl Lueger Richard Wagner ( ) “I regard the Jewish race as the born enemy of pure humanity and everything that is noble in it; it is certain we Germans will go under before them, and perhaps I am the last German who knows how to stand up as an art-loving man against the Judaism that is already getting control of everything.” – Wagner (1881)

6 6 Jews in 19 th Century Europe: French Anti-Semitism ►Napoleon gathers assembly of Jewish notables (1806), fueling anti-Semitic conspiracy theories ►French pseudo-scientists promote racist theories of Semitic inferiority vs. Aryans ►Multiple financial scandals involving Jews provide fodder for anti-Jewish press ►Assumptionist order of Catholic clergy, in effort to promote Christian revival, claims Jews conspiring with Protestants and Freemasons against France ►Édouard Drumont publishes La France Juive (1886), 1,200 pages of rabid anti-Semitism that is immensely popular La France Juive (1886) “It seems to me interesting and useful to describe the successive phases of this Jewish conquest, to indicate how, little by little, as a result of Jewish activities, old France has been dissolved, broken up, how its unselfish, happy, loving people has been replaced by a hateful people, hungry for gold and soon to be dying of hunger.” – Drumont (1886)

7 7 ►Alfred Dreyfus, only Jew in French army general staff, is accused of passing secrets to Germans (1894) ►Despite scant evidence and his denial of the charges, Dreyfus convicted in secret trial in which he’s not allowed to view the evidence against him ►Dreyfus then stripped of his rank in a public ceremony designed to humiliate him ►Outside, crowds chant “Death to the Jews!” ►Ceremony is covered by young Hungarian reporter, Theodore Herzl ►Dreyfus sentenced to life imprisonment and solitary confinement on Devil’s Island, near French Guiana Alfred Dreyfus ( ) Dreyfus Affair ( )

8 8 ►Two years later, new chief of French military intelligence, Lt Col Picquart, uncovers evidence that real culprit was Major Esterhazy ►Army suppresses Picquart’s evidence and transfers him to Tunisia ►Military court acquits Esterhazy in 2 days despite compelling evidence against him ►Word of cover-up leaks to press and becomes national issue due to J’accuse, an open letter by novelist Émile Zola (1898) ►Army later convicts Dreyfus of additional charges based on documents forged by French counter-intelligence officer, Lt Col Henry (1899) Dreyfus Affair ( )

9 9 ►“Dreyfus Affair” bitterly divides French society:  Army, Catholic church and many rightists claim Dreyfus acting as part of Jewish conspiracy against France  Socialists, moderates and Radical Party claim Dreyfus was framed ►Dreyfus eventually pardoned (1899) and fully exonerated (1906), with his rank restored ►Anti-Semitic themes from “anti-Dreyfusard” camp later espoused by Nazis ►Dreyfusards’ victory causes counter-reaction among segments of population, sowing the seeds for French collaboration with Nazis in WWII Édouard Drumont and anti-Semitic newspaper he founded. Headline is: “Traitor condemned 10 yrs of Detention and Degradation Down with the Jews!”

10 10 ►Born to secular family in Hungary, with little Jewish education ►Moves to Paris, becomes playwright, journalist and writer ►Originally believes “Jewish question” should be solved by assimilation or conversion ►Relentless anti-Semitism in “enlightened” countries, typified by Dreyfus Affair and rise of Karl Lueger in Vienna, convinces Herzl that Jews need sanctuary of their own ►Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat (“The State of the Jews”) (1896) Theodor Herzl ( ) “In vain do we exert ourselves to increase the glory of our fatherlands by achievements in art and in science and their wealth by our contributions to commerce…We are denounced as strangers…If only they would leave us in peace…But I do not think they will.” – Herzl (1896) Theodore Herzl

11 11 ►Wealthy Jews, Orthodox and Reform rabbis in Western Europe generally ignore Herzl or see his plan as threat to their standing in society ►Primary base of support is poor Eastern European Jews, who know they’ll never be able to call Russia or Poland “home” ►One such supporter is Chaim Weizmann, key activist in Herzl’s movement ►Herzl and Weizmann work tirelessly to convince national leaders of their idea ►Originally, location of Jewish State does not matter to Herzl, but over time, under pressure from his supporters, he rejects idea of national home anywhere but Palestine ►Herzl dies at age 44, old enough to see Zionist movement emerge but too young to see it prevail Chaim Weizmann ( ) Theodore Herzl

12 12 Ottoman Empire on Eve of WWI By 1914, Palestine had been under Ottoman control for 400 years At the time, fewer than 100,000 Jews resided in Palestine, along with 500,000 Arabs PALESTINE

13 13 Balfour Declaration (1917) ►Weizmann emigrates to England and persistently lobbies British leaders, such as Lloyd George, Arthur Balfour, Winston Churchill and Herbert Samuel, to support Zionism ►British receptive due to general tolerance towards Jews and desire to gain Jewish and U.S. support in WWI ►In 1917, Foreign Secretary Balfour issues cabinet- approved declaration formalizing U.K. support for Jewish national home in Palestine ►Jews fortunate that Herzl’s efforts began 20 yrs before other nationalist movements in Middle East; Arabs not diplomatically organized in 1917 ►One year later, Balfour Declaration likely would not have been possible Arthur James Balfour ( ) “His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” – Balfour Declaration (1917)

14 14 British Mandate for Palestine ►Following WWI, at negotiations in San Remo, Italy (1920), UK awarded Mandate for Palestine ►San Remo resolution incorporates Balfour Declaration ►League of Nations formally adopts San Remo resolution and confirms British Mandate (1922) ►In the process, Britain carves out area east of Jordan river (“Transjordan”) from Mandate provisions dealing with Jewish national home ►Mandate provisions, including Jews’ rights to build settlements, subsequently incorporated into UN Charter (Article 80) (1945)

15 15 Jewish Settlement in Palestine ►Russian pogroms (1881) lead to “First Aliyah” (25, ,000 Jews) ►Wealthy Jews, particularly Edmund de Rothschild and Montefiore, subsidize dozens of new agricultural settlements ►Jewish National Fund created to purchase land in Palestine for Jewish settlement (1901) ►More Russian pogroms (1904) lead to “Second Aliyah” (40,000 Jews) ►Tel Aviv officially founded, as is Degania, the 1 st kibbutz (1909) ►During British Mandate, Jews consistently increase their landholdings in Palestine via legal purchases, primarily from absentee, non-Palestinian Arab landlords

16 16 Revival of Hebrew ►For centuries, Hebrew used primarily for religious purposes ►Hebrew literature emerges during “Haskalah” (Jewish movement that paralleled Enlightenment movement), but still relies on biblical Hebrew words and style ►During 1880s, Mendele Mocher Sfarim ( ) revolutionizes literary Hebrew by relying on Rabbinic (rather than biblical) Hebrew and incorporating influences from Yiddish and other European languages ►Eliezer Ben-Yehuda ( ) immigrates to Jerusalem (1881) and actively promotes use and development of Hebrew as modern, spoken language ►Immigrants from First Aliyah (1881) and especially, Second Aliyah (1904), many of whom could already read and speak Hebrew, are receptive to Ben-Yehuda’s efforts and widely adopt Hebrew as their spoken tongue ►British Mandate recognizes Hebrew as Jews’ official language in Palestine (Nov 1922) Haviv, the first Hebrew school in Israel (established 1886 in Rishon LeZion) “The rebirth of Hebrew as a mother tongue after two millennia is an event unique in sociolinguistic history.” – Prof. Lewis Glinert, Dartmouth College

17 17 ►Born Eliezer Yitzhak Perelman, in Lithuania; learns biblical Hebrew and goes to yeshiva to become rabbi ►Becomes more interested in secular studies; leaves yeshiva for Russian school and gains exposure to Hebrew literature and Zionism ►Grows interested in national revivals in Balkans and Italy; decides that revival of Hebrew as modern, spoken language could unite Jews and lead to Jewish State in Palestine ►Moves to Paris (1878), where he takes advanced Hebrew classes but terminates studies after contracting tuberculosis ►Moves to Jerusalem (1881), where he tirelessly promotes Hebrew as the national language of the Jews Eliezer Ben-Yehuda ( ) “In every new event, every step, even the smallest in the path of progress, it is necessary that there be one pioneer who will lead the way without leaving any possibility of turning back.” – Ben-Yehuda, in his newspaper, Hatzvi (1908) Eliezer Ben-Yehuda

18 18 ►Ben-Yehuda’s efforts include:  Encouraging exclusive use of Hebrew in the home; raises his first son as first all-Hebrew speaking child in modern times  Teaching, exclusively in Hebrew, in local schools and encouraging other teachers to do the same  Publishing a newspaper, “Hatzvi”, in Hebrew  Founding Hebrew Language Council (1890), forerunner to Hebrew Language Academy, the supreme authority on all matters related to Hebrew language  Writing first modern Hebrew dictionary (published posthumously), including many words coined by Ben-Yehuda that gain wide acceptance ►Dies of tuberculosis (1922); 30,000 attend his funeral ►Legacy as driving force behind Hebrew revival Ben-Yehuda at his desk in Jerusalem “Before Ben ‑ Yehuda, Jews could speak Hebrew; after him, they did.” – Cecil Roth, in his book, ‘Was Hebrew Ever a Dead Language’ Eliezer Ben-Yehuda

19 19 Arab Hostility in pre-WWII Palestine ►Under influence of future Palestinian Arab leader Haj Amin al-Husseini, Arabs riot (1920, 1921 and 1924), killing and wounding hundreds of Jews ►al-Husseini instigates major riots (1929) by spreading false stories of Jews killing Arabs and plotting to take over their holy sites ►1929 riots kill 135 Jews, including 67 in Hebron (“Hebron Massacre”), and destroy synagogues ►In 1936, again with encouragement of al-Husseini, Arabs attack Jews and the British, ultimately leading to major rebellion lasting until 1939 (“Arab Revolt”), which the British violently suppress Survivor of Hebron Massacre (1929)

20 20 Haj Amin al-Husseini ►After death of Kamil al-Husayni, Mufti of Jerusalem (1921), British High Commissioner Sir Herbert Samuel pardons his half-brother, Haj Amin al-Husseini, from his participation in recent Arab riots ►Under recommendation of extreme anti-Zionist British staff member Ernest Richmond, Samuel then appoints al- Husseini as Mufti of Jerusalem in “gesture” to Arabs, even though he received fewest votes out of 3 candidates ►Virulently anti-Semitic al-Husseini becomes most prominent leader of Palestinian Arabs until 1948 ►Radicalizes Palestinian Arabs, silences (and kills) moderate Palestinians and promotes anti-Zionism in rest of Arab world ►Periodically incites Arab massacres of Jews ►Meets with Hitler and actively collaborates with him to recruit Muslim support for Nazis Haj Amin al-Husseini (c )

21 21 Haj Amin al-Husseini al-Husseini meeting with Hitler (1941) al-Husseini greeting Bosnian Waffen-SS volunteers (1943) “Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history and religion.” – al-Husseini (1944)

22 22 British Immigration Policy ►Britain periodically restricts Jewish immigration and land purchases to appease local Arabs – especially after Arab riots in 1921 and 1929 ►Restrictions later overturned (by Churchill in 1922, MacDonald in 1931), but Jewish immigration still limited based on “absorptive capacity” of the land ►During 1936 Arab revolt, Peel Commission (1937) recommends limiting Jewish immigration and land purchases ►1939 White Paper limits Jewish immigration to 75,000 over 5 years, then to cease altogether Jewish immigration to Palestine ( ) Rise of Hitler leads to surge in Jews seeking to immigrate... …but Britain imposes severe restrictions on immigration

23 23 Ze’ev Jabotinsky ►Born Vladimir Jabotinsky, to secular Jewish family in Odessa (1880) ►Becomes Zionist after Kishinev Pogrom (1903) and creates self-defense group for Jews in Russia ►During WWI, together with Russo-Japanese war hero Joseph Trumpeldor, creates Jewish Legion to fight for British against Ottomans ►After WWI, forms Jewish defense group which later becomes the “Haganah” defense force and deploys it against 1920 Arab riots ►Founds “Betar” (1923), Jewish nationalist youth group trained in combat, which becomes highly popular in Eastern Europe and produces numerous future leaders of Israel Ze’ev Jabotinsky ( )

24 24 Ze’ev Jabotinsky ►Grows dissatisfied with Zionist moderates and their acquiescence to Britain’s severing of Transjordan from Palestinian Mandate ►Founds “Union of Zionist- Revisionists” (1925) to maximize Jewish immigration and push for immediate statehood on both banks of Jordan River ►After he leaves Palestine for lecture tour in 1929, British never allow Jabotinsky to return “As long as the Arabs feel that there is the least hope of getting rid of us, they will refuse to give up this hope in return for either kind words or for bread and butter, because they are not a rabble, but a living people. And when a living people yields in matters of such a vital character it is only when there is no longer any hope of getting rid of us, because they can make no breach in the iron wall.” – Jabotinsky (1923) Parita ship unloading immigrants at Tel Aviv beach

25 25 Ze’ev Jabotinsky ►With Hitler’s rise to power, Jabotinsky raises alarm for European Jewry and urges “evacuation” of all Eastern European Jews to Palestine (1936) ►Works tirelessly on behalf of Jewish immigration to Palestine (legal and illegal) ►Drafts will asking that his remains be moved to Israel “only at the instructions of a Jewish government that shall be established” ►Becomes commander of Irgun (1937), underground militia that retaliates against Arab attacks and later fights the British ►Dies in New York (1940); remains transferred to Mount Herzl in 1964 ►Legacy as forceful and prescient Zionist leader “I continue to warn you incessantly that a catastrophe is coming closer, I became gray and old in these days, my heart bleeds, that you dear brothers and sisters, do not see the volcano which will soon begin to spit its all consuming lava.” – Jabotinsky at a speech to Jews of Warsaw (Oct 1938) Irgun logo: All of British Mandate and a rifle above the words “only thus”

26 26 Strains within Zionism pre-1947 ►During British Mandate, Jewish leaders have conflicting views regarding Zionist strategy and goals ►Weizmann advocates patience and building solid social, educational and economic institutions in Palestine before creating Jewish State ►David Ben-Gurion concentrates on founding socialist state settled by secular, agricultural pioneers ►Albert Einstein and others argue against statehood; goal should be peaceful co-existence with Arabs ►Ze’ev Jabotinski focuses on maximizing immigration (without regard to type of immigrant) and rapidly achieving statehood Weizmann & Einstein (1921)

27 27 Peel Commission (1937) ►During Arab Revolt, British delegation headed by Earl Peel recommends partition, end to Mandate (except for Jerusalem-Jaffa corridor) (1937) ►Jewish State to include coastal strip, Galilee, Jezreel Valley ►Arab State to include hill regions, Negev, Judea & Samaria ►Commission recommends restricting Jewish immigration (12,000/yr) and land purchases, as well as population transfer ►Arabs reject proposal and subsequently intensify revolt; Jews are divided ►British initially accept proposal, but later dismiss it as impractical (1938)

28 28 Jewish Support for Britain ►After shelving Peel report, British issue 1939 White Paper severely restricting Jewish immigration and land purchases and recommending formation of independent Palestine with small Jewish minority ►Jews denounce this repudiation of Balfour Declaration, but temporarily put aside resistance against Britain (other than illegal immigration) to help defeat Nazis ►Weizmann pushes British to form Jewish military force to assist in WWII, but army repeatedly refuses until Churchill forces the issue and forms Jewish Brigade with 25,000 members (1944) Jewish Brigade guarding German POWs in Italy (1945) “I like the idea of the Jews trying to get at the murderers of their fellow countrymen in Central Europe. It is with the Germans that they have their quarrel…I cannot conceive why this martyred race scattered about the world and suffering as no other race has done at this juncture should be denied the satisfaction of having a flag.” – Churchill (1944)

29 29 Jewish Resistance to Britain ►As WWII ends, Jewish resistance to Britain increases, led by 3 organizations: Haganah, Irgun and Stern Gang ►Haganah focused on promoting illegal immigration, military training, sabotage ►Irgun attacks British installations but generally seeks to avoid civilian casualties ►Stern Gang, offshoot of Irgun, takes more radical action, including assassinations ►Movements briefly unite ( ), but split again after King David Hotel bombing  After British raid Jewish Agency and arrest 2,500+ Jews, Irgun bombs British admin & military HQ at King David Hotel  Warning calls given, but hotel not evacuated; 91 killed, including 17 Jews King David Hotel after bombing (July 1946)

30 30 UN Partition Plan (1947) ►UK tires of Mandate; announces it will turn over Palestine issue to UN (Feb 1947) ►Palestine issue put before UN committee (May 1947), which recommends partition into Jewish and Arab states and international zone in Jerusalem ►General Assembly votes in favor (Nov 1947); 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions ►Strong support from Truman (despite objections from State and Defense Departments) and Soviets (seeking to establish socialist state and reduce UK influence in Middle East) ►Jewish Agency and majority of Jews support the partition; Palestinians and Muslim states oppose

31 31 Nov May 1948 War ►Local Arabs and foreign Arab volunteers begin attacking Jewish communities after partition vote ►Arabs blockade isolated Jewish communities, including Jerusalem (100,000 Jews) ►Initially, Haganah reacts defensively, focuses on protecting Jews and supplying isolated areas ►In April 1948, Ben-Gurion orders Haganah to move to the offense to link up Jewish enclaves, leading to decisive victory by middle of May ►During the war, over 200,000 Palestinian Arabs flee from their homes “Personally I hope the Jews do not force us into this war because it will be a war of elimination and it will be a dangerous massacre which history will record similarly to the Mongol massacre or the wars of the Crusades.” – Azzam Pasha, secretary-general of the Arab league (1947)

32 32 Declaration of Independence (1948) “By virtue of our national and intrinsic right, and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, we hereby declare the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, which shall be known as the State of Israel.” – David Ben-Gurion (May 14, 1948)

33 33 War of Independence (1948) ►Hours after declaring independence, Israel attacked by Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon & Iraq  Arabs have tremendous weapons superiority  British actively assist Jordanian forces ►Jordan captures Old City of Jerusalem ►Irgun and Stern Gang unite with Haganah, renamed “Israel Defense Forces” ►After initial setbacks, IDF halts invasion and launches successful counter-offensive ►Fighting ends Dec 1948; Arabs sign armistice agreements in Feb-Jul 1949 ►At end of war, Israel is 5,000km 2 larger than land allotted to it under UN Partition Plan “The best we can tell you is that we have a chance.” – Chief of Operations Yigal Yadin to Ben-Gurion 1949 Armistice Lines

34 34 Altalena Affair (1948) ►Irgun buys Altalena to smuggle weapons and ~900 fighters from France ►While ship is en route, Irgun is absorbed into IDF (June 1948) ►Head of Irgun, Menachem Begin, requests that weapons be allocated to Irgun battalions within IDF; Ben-Gurion rejects request and demands that all weapons be handed to IDF ►Ben-Gurion orders IDF to take ship by force; IDF shells Altalena, setting it on fire ►Fighting kills 16 Irgun and 3 IDF soldiers ►Begin orders forces not to retaliate; Irgun fully integrates into IDF (Sept 1948) Altalena in flames after being shelled (June 1948) “There will never be a civil war.” – Menachem Begin, after the Altalena affair

35 35 David Ben-Gurion ►Born David Gruen, to Zionist family in Russian Poland; becomes active member of Zionist youth groups ►Emigrates to Palestine (1906), where he is elected to central committee of Social-Democratic Jewish Workers’ Party (“Poalei Zion”) ►Advocates Jewish nationalism grounded in a collectivist society ►Helps establish first Jewish self-defense group in Palestine (“Hashomer”) ►Expelled by Ottomans (1915); joins Jewish Legion to support British in WWI ►Returns to Palestine (1918), where he becomes head of Histadrut, Israel’s dominant trade union ►Becomes leader of newly-formed “Mapai” party (Zionist labor party) (1930) David Ben-Gurion ( )

36 36 David Ben-Gurion ►Becomes chairman of Jewish Agency (de facto government of Palestine’s Jews pre-1948) ►Under his leadership, Labor becomes strongest movement within World Zionist Organization ►Focuses on Jewish immigration, establishing settlements and building defense forces ►Generally supports cooperating with British, but moves to resistance after White Paper issued (1939) ►Oversees Israel’s military operations during War and War of Independence ►Largely responsible for creating Israel’s state institutions and guiding its path to statehood Ben-Gurion declaring Israel’s independence (May 1948) “All our aspirations are built upon the assumption – proven throughout all our activity in the Land – that there is enough room in the country for ourselves and the Arabs.” – Ben-Gurion (1937)

37 37 Palestinian Refugees ►From 1947 Partition Resolution until end of War of Independence, 550, ,000 Arabs flee Israel (~70% of them to West Bank & Gaza) ►Most leave either to escape the fighting or due to encouragement of Arab leaders, who:  Ask them to make way for invading armies  Accuse Arabs who stay behind of “treachery”  Fabricate/exaggerate reports of Jewish atrocities, particularly after Deir Yassin massacre ►Arab leaders promise refugees they will be able to return to their homes after “swift victory” ►Small minority of Arabs leave due to expulsion by IDF or threat of force by IDF Palestinian refugees (1948)

38 38 Arab Encouragement of Exodus “We will smash the country with our guns and obliterate every place the Jews seek shelter in. The Arabs should conduct their wives and children to safe areas until the fighting has died down” – Iraqi PM Nuri Said “Since 1948 we have been demanding the return of the refugees to their homes. But we ourselves are the ones who encouraged them to leave” – Syrian PM Haled Al-Azm (1973) “Various factors influenced [Haifa Arabs’] decision to seek safety in flight. There is but little doubt that the most potent of the factors were the announcements made over the air by the Higher Arab Executive, urging the Arabs to quit....It was clearly intimated that those Arabs who remained in Haifa and accepted Jewish protection would be regarded as renegades” – The Economist magazine (October 1948)

39 39 Deir Yassin ►During war, Jerusalem’s Jews under siege; food shortage critical by Apr 1948 ►On April 9, poorly-trained forces of Irgun and Stern Gang attack Deir Yassin (small Arab village); goal is to conquer it and open supply route to Jerusalem ►Local villagers, helped by foreign Arab soldiers, fiercely resist the assault ►107 villagers killed; some by indiscriminate fire, others killed after the fighting ended ►Arab leaders deliberately exaggerate scale of the massacre and fabricate reports of rape in order to inflame foreign Arab opinion ►These reports unintentionally sow panic among Palestinians, causing many to flee Deir Yassin after the attack (April 1948) “This was our biggest mistake. We did not realize how our people would react. As soon as they heard that women had been raped at Deir Yassin, Palestinians fled in terror. They ran away from all our villages.” – Hazam Nusseibeh (1998), news editor of Palestine Broadcasting Service at the time of the attack

40 40 Palestinian Refugees: Aftermath ►After War of Independence, Israel expresses willingness to repatriate portion of refugees as part of peace agreement that would include resettling portion of refugees in Arab countries ►Arabs reject resettlement and peace agreement ►U.N. sets up “U.N. Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East” (UNRWA) (1949) to provide aid to refugees ►UNRWA extends definition of “Palestinian refugee” to include descendants, unlike all other refugees ►Today, number of “refugees” exceeds 5 million ►Jordan is only Arab country to date to provide citizenship to refugees “The Arab States do not want to solve the refugee problem. They want to keep it as an open sore, as an affront to the UN and as a weapon against Israel. Arab leaders don't give a damn whether the refugees live or die.” – Sir Alexander Galloway, former UNRWA official (1952)

41 41 Jewish Refugees ►1947 Partition Resolution leads to pogroms across Arab countries ►From 1948 until early 1970s, over 800,000 Jews flee from Arab countries due to combination of expulsion, violence and repression ►Over 70% of Jewish refugees absorbed by Israel, where they are given citizenship ►Initially housed in tent camps and transit camps ►Refugees pose enormous burden on nascent Jewish state, but are gradually absorbed into society (without any UN support) Israeli Transit Camp (1950) “The lives of one million Jews in Muslim countries would be jeopardized by partition, which might create anti-Semitism in those countries even more difficult to root out than the anti-Semitism which the Allies tried to eradicate in Germany.” – Egyptian delegate to UN (1947)

42 42 Israeli Airlifts of Jewish Refugees Israel airlifts 130,000 Jews from Iraq ( ) Operations Ezra & Nehemiah Operation Magic Carpet Israel airlifts 49,000 Jews from Yemen ( ) “Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an oleh.” – Israel’s Law of Return (1950)

43 43 Dead Sea Scrolls ►Bedouin shepherd discovers 7 scrolls in cave at Qumran, near Dead Sea (1947); sells them to antique dealers, who later sell them to Jewish archaeologists Sukenik (1948) and Yadin (1954) ►Additional scrolls discovered ( ), bringing total to 972 ►Scrolls kept in E. Jerusalem museum, controlled by Jordan until Israel unites Jerusalem in Six-Day War (1967); Israel currently owns most scrolls ►Scrolls date from late Second Temple era (~ 200 BC – 100 AD) and consist of earliest copies of Old Testament books, non-Biblical works and contemporary documents ►Scrolls widely considered to have been written by Essenes, an ascetic Jewish sect who hid the scrolls during revolt against Romans (~70 AD) ►Scrolls are invaluable source of info regarding Jewish life during Second Temple era Qumran cave #4, in which 90% of Dead Sea Scrolls found “Isaiah Scroll” containing complete Book of Isaiah

44 44 Fedayeen Attacks ( ) ►Palestinian terrorists known as fedayeen (“self- sacrificers”) periodically infiltrate Israel from Syria, West Bank, Gaza and Egypt to attack soldiers and civilians (starting in 1951) ►Egypt, under leadership of Gamal Abdel Nasser (colonel who led 1952 military coup), begins to train and support fedayeen (1954) ►Over 400 Israelis are killed and 900 wounded in fedayeen raids ( ) ►Ben-Gurion creates “Unit 101”, led by Ariel Sharon, to launch cross-border raids in retaliation against fedayeen attacks (1953) “Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes, the disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and they will cleanse the land of Palestine....There will be no peace on Israel's border because we demand vengeance, and vengeance is Israel's death.” – Nasser (1955)

45 45 Suez War (1956) ►In defiance of 1949 armistice agreement and UN resolutions, Egypt closes Suez Canal to Israeli shipping and blockades Straits of Tiran ►Nasser begins to import Soviet arms, leading US to withdraw funding for building Aswan Dam ►In response, Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal, which was owned by UK and France (Jul 1956) ►Egypt signs agreement with Syria and Jordan, giving it command over all 3 armies (Oct 1956) ►In response to Egypt’s blockades, sponsorship of fedayeen attacks and belligerent declarations, Israel attacks Egypt (Oct 29, 1956) ►Israel has secret backing of UK and France, who sought to topple Nasser and regain canal “The Arab people will not be embarrassed to declare: We shall not be satisfied except by the final obliteration of Israel from the map of the Middle East.” – Egyptian Foreign Minister (1954) Gamel Abdel Nasser ( )

46 46 Suez War (1956) ►Israel captures Gaza and virtually all of Sinai in 8 days ►UK and France bomb Egypt and land paratroops near canal zone, but withdraw quickly due to massive US pressure  US previously asked UK and France not to attack Egypt after canal nationalization  US wants diplomatic cover to criticize USSR’s suppression of Hungarian uprising ►Israel refuses to withdraw, prompting major crisis with US, but ultimately relents (Mar 1957) in exchange for US commitment to maintain freedom of Suez Canal navigation and stationing of UN peacekeepers in Sinai ►Suez War leads to increase in prestige of Nasser and USSR in Middle East

47 47 Eichmann Trial ( ) ►Senior Nazi in charge of managing logistics of Holocaust, especially deportation of Jews to death camps ►Avoids Nuremberg Trials and escapes to Argentina as “Ricardo Klement” (1950) ►Mossad tipped off to his whereabouts and sends team to Argentina (1959); team captures Eichmann and covertly flies him to Israel (1960) ►In highly emotional trial, Eichmann convicted on all counts and becomes only person Israel ever sentenced to death (1961) ►Hanged; ashes scattered at sea (1962) “…the so-called Final Solution would never have assumed the infernal forms of the flayed skin and tortured flesh of millions of Jews without the fanatical zeal and the unquenchable blood thirst of the appellant and his associates.” – excerpt from verdict by Israel’s Supreme Court (1962) Eichmann on trial in bulletproof chamber (1961)

48 48 Palestinian Attacks (pre-1967) ►Yasser Arafat co-founds Fatah (“conquest”) in Kuwait (1959) in order to “liberate Palestine” ►Backed by Syria and operating from Jordan, Lebanon and Gaza, Fatah launches dozens of attacks per year against Israeli civilians (starting in 1964) ►Separately, Palestine Liberation Organization founded in East Jerusalem (1964), with support of Nasser, to represent Palestinian national cause ►Fatah grows to become dominant faction within PLO Palestine National Charter (1964) “The Balfour Declaration, the Palestine Mandate System, and all that has been based on them are considered null and void. The claims of historic and spiritual ties between Jews and Palestine are not in agreement with the facts of history or with the true basis of sound statehood.” – Article 18 “Zionism is a colonialist movement in its inception, aggressive and expansionist in its goal, racist in its configurations, and fascist in its means and aims.” – Article 19 Yasser Arafat ( ) PLO logo

49 49 Eli Cohen ►Born in Egypt to Syrian Jews; moves to Israel (1956) ►Recruited by military intelligence and transferred to Mossad for training (1960); given new identity as Kamel Amin Tha’abet, a Syrian living in Argentina ►Moves to Buenos Aires (1961) and then to Damascus (1962); befriends Syria’s political and military elite ►Given private, senior-level tour of Golan Heights, where he memorizes Syrian military positions ►Provides invaluable intelligence to Israel on Syrian military plans and preparations to divert Jordan River headwaters ►Syria hires Soviet experts to discover intelligence leak; Soviets detect Cohen’s radio transmission to Israel ►Syria captures Cohen, tries him in show trial, tortures and hangs him (1965); body never returned to Israel Eli Cohen ( ) Israel’s greatest spy

50 50 Prelude to Six-Day War (1967) ►Syria shells Israel from Golan Heights ( ); in retaliatory raid, Israel downs 6 Syrian fighter jets (Apr 1967) ►Based on false info provided by USSR about Israel’s plans, Syria readies for war and asks Egypt for support ►Nasser amasses forces and orders UN to leave Sinai (May 16); UN complies ►Egypt closes Straits of Tiran to Israeli and Israel-bound ships, an act of war (May 18) ►Israeli forces stay mobilized for weeks, at great cost ►US, France impose arms embargo on Mideast, mostly affecting Israel; Soviets heavily arm Arabs Relative strength of Arab and Israeli militaries (Jun 1967) 550k 265k 2,500 1,

51 51 Arab Declarations Preceding War “I, as a military man, believe that the time has come to enter into a battle of annihilation” – Syrian DM al-Assad (May 20) “The existence of Israel is an error which must be rectified. This is our opportunity to wipe out the ignominy which has been with us since Our goal is clear -- to wipe Israel off the map” – Iraqi President Abdur Rahman Aref (June 1) “Our basic objective will be the destruction of Israel. The Arab people want to fight” – Nasser (May 27) “The armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon are poised on the borders of Israel...to face the challenge, while standing behind us are the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the whole Arab nation. This act will astound the world. Today they will know that the Arabs are arranged for battle, the critical hour has arrived. We have reached the stage of serious action and not declarations – Nasser (May 30)

52 52 Six-Day War: Egyptian Front ►Israeli FM Abba Eban spends nearly two weeks visiting US and EU to defuse crisis ►Eban fails; despite US and EU pressure for Israeli restraint, Israeli cabinet decides to attack (Jun 4) ►At 7:45am on Jun 5, virtually entire Israeli air force strikes Egypt’s airbases, destroying most of Egypt’s air force on the ground in 2.5 hrs ►Simultaneously, Israel launches complex ground attack against fortified Egyptian positions in Sinai and Gaza ►Egyptian army begins retreat (Jun 6); Israel continues offensive and routs remaining forces, capturing Gaza and Sinai (Jun 8) Egyptian warplanes destroyed on tarmac (1967)

53 53 Six-Day War: Jordanian Front ►Egypt tells Jordan that it destroyed 75% of Israel’s warplanes and urges Jordan to attack Israel (Jun 5) ►Jordanian artillery and air force attack central Israel; Israel does not respond (Jun 5) ►Israeli PM Eshkol sends message to Jordan’s King Hussein indicating that, “if you don’t intervene, you will suffer no consequences” (Jun 5); instead, Jordan escalates attacks and invades Israel ►Israel counterattacks; by end of Jun 5, Israel wipes out Jordanian air force and isolates Jerusalem from Jordanian forces in West Bank ►Israel captures all of Jerusalem, including the Old City, after two days of fierce fighting (Jun 5-7) ►In parallel, Israel defeats Jordanian army in West Bank, capturing all of it by Jun 7 Israeli paratroopers after recapturing Western Wall (1967)

54 54 Six-Day War: Syrian Front ►Syrian jets raid northern Israel; IAF response destroys 59 Syrian planes, mostly on the ground (Jun 5) ►Syria launches ground offensive; Israel defends itself but does not counterattack due to shortage of available forces (Jun 6-8) ►Syria accepts UN cease-fire, but re-launches attacks 5 hrs later (Jun 8) ►Israel strikes back and shifts forces from Egyptian and Jordanian fronts to Syrian front ►IDF nears key Syrian city of Quneitra; in effort to provoke Soviet intervention, Syria falsely announces Israel has captured the city (Jun 10) ►Move backfires, leading Syrian forces to flee en masse; Israel captures Golan Heights and Six-Day War ends (Jun 10) View of Israel from Syrian tank on Golan Heights (1967)

55 55 Six-Day War: Aftermath ►By war’s end, Israel has more than tripled in size ►During war, 300,000 Arabs flee from West Bank to Jordan; Israel ultimately allows 60,000 to return ►Israeli gov’t unanimously votes to return Sinai to Egypt and Golan to Syria for peace agreements and to negotiate with Jordan (Jun 19) ►Israel annexes Eastern Jerusalem (Jun 27) ►Israel gives control over Temple Mount to Jordanian Waqf (Islamic trust); Jews allowed to visit, but not pray, at Temple Mount ►Leaders of 13 Arab countries meet in Sudan and resolve that there will be “no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel” (Sep 1) ►Egyptian missile boat sinks Israeli destroyer Eilat, killing 47 (Oct 21); Israel destroys Egyptian refineries in retaliation (Oct 25) Israel after Six-Day War (1967)

56 56 U.N. Resolution 242 ►Arabs, USSR and their allies call for Israeli withdrawal to 1949 armistice lines, but after months of negotiations USSR relents and votes for Resolution 242, drafted primarily by UK and US (Nov 22) ►English text of resolution (determinative version voted on by Security Council) calls for “just and lasting peace” including:  “Withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” (i.e., not “the territories” or “all the territories”)  Right for every state “to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force” Lord Caradon (Permanent UK representative to UN and chief drafter of Resolution 242) “We didn't say there should be a withdrawal to the '67 line; we did not put the ‘the’ in, we did not say ‘all the territories’ deliberately. We all knew that the boundaries of '67 were not drawn as permanent frontiers, they were a cease-fire line of a couple of decades earlier.” – 1978 Arthur Goldberg (Permanent US representative to UN and drafter of Resolution 242) “The resolution does not explicitly require that Israel withdraw to the lines that it occupied on June 5…The notable omissions in language used to refer to withdrawal are the words ‘the’, ‘all’, and the ‘June 5, 1967, lines’.” – 1988

57 57 War of Attrition ( ) ►After Six-Day War ends, Egypt sporadically launches artillery attacks against Israeli positions near Suez Canal ►Nasser formally announces War of Attrition and increases intensity of attacks (Mar 1969)  USSR re-arms Egypt and provides it with fighter pilots and other military personnel ►IDF responds with strikes deep in Egypt ►Fear of crisis escalation leads Nixon to intervene and broker ceasefire that restores status quo (Aug 1970) ►Hostilities end after Nasser dies and Anwar Sadat assumes power (Sep 1970) ►Over 1,500 Israelis (incl. 120 civilians) and ~10,000 Egyptians killed Israeli soldier monitoring Suez Canal

58 58 Munich Massacre (1972) ►At 1972 Olympics, 8 armed members of PLO’s Black September faction break into apartment of Israeli athletes in Olympic Village (Sep 5) ►2 Israelis killed while resisting; 9 taken hostage  Athletes’ resistance enables 3 Israelis to escape and 7 to hide unharmed ►Palestinians demand Israel release over 230 prisoners; Israel refuses ►West Germans allow helicopters to transport terrorists and hostages to NATO air base, where they plan an ambush ►Ambush is badly mishandled, leading to shootout in which all 9 hostages and one police officer are killed ►5 terrorists killed, 3 captured PLO terrorist on balcony of Israeli team quarters “I regret nothing. You can only dream that I would apologize.” – PLO attack planner Abu Daoud (2006)

59 59 Munich Massacre: Aftermath ►Olympic Games are briefly suspended, but are then allowed to continue ►Israel bombs 10 PLO bases in Syria and Lebanon, killing 200 fighters (Sep 8) ►Palestinians hijack Lufthansa jet and demand release of 3 captured Munich terrorists (Oct 29); West Germany complies with demand ►Israel launches covert operation to kill terrorists involved with Munich Massacre; dozens are assassinated in Europe and Middle East over next 20 years Helicopter carrying Israeli hostages Bombed by terrorists during failed West German ambush at NATO air base

60 60 Prelude to Yom Kippur War (1973) ►Sadat repeatedly threatens to attack Israel, but does nothing ( ) ►Egypt prepares to cross Suez Canal; Israel partially mobilizes reserves, at high cost, but Egypt does not attack (May 1973) ►In reconnaissance mission, IAF attacked by Syrian jets; IAF downs 12 Syrian aircraft while losing 1 (Sep 1973) ►Israeli intelligence aware of massive Egyptian and Syrian military deployments, but is convinced they won’t attack so soon after their Six-Day War defeat ►Attitude reinforced by multiple false alarms and deliberate Egyptian deception campaign ►Israel receives indisputable intelligence on eve of war that Egyptian attack is imminent; PM Golda Meir rejects pre-emptive strike so as to preserve US support, which would prove critical during the war Anwar Sadat ( )

61 61 Yom Kippur War: Egyptian Front ►On Yom Kippur, Egypt launches massive air and ground attack against Israel (Oct 6); Egyptian troops cross Suez Canal and penetrate 10km into Sinai by Oct 7 ►IDF suffers major losses; Egypt’s new anti- aircraft batteries and anti-tank weapons effectively defeat IDF counter-attacks (Oct 6-8) ►Stalemate ensues until Egypt decides to attack beyond range of its anti-aircraft batteries in order to relieve pressure on Syria (Oct 14) ►Attack fails; bolstered by US weapons airlift, Israel counter-attacks, causing massive losses, and crosses Suez Canal ►IDF encircles Egypt’s Third Army (Oct 23) and is 101km from Cairo as cease-fire negotiated between US and USSR gradually takes effect (Oct 22 onwards) Egyptian forces crossing Suez Canal (Oct 7, 1973)

62 62 Yom Kippur War: Syrian Front ►Simultaneously with Egypt’s attack, Syria launches massive air and artillery strikes against Israel and initiates ground invasion (Oct 6) ►Proximity of Golan Heights to Israeli cities leads IDF to prioritize reserve mobilization for Syrian front ►IDF suffers major losses but manages to limit Syria’s territorial gains ►Arrival of reserves enables IDF to push Syrian forces back behind pre-war ceasefire line (Oct 10) ►PM Golda Meir decides to press counter-offensive into Syria rather than re-allocate forces to Egyptian front, in spite of continued IDF difficulties in Sinai (Oct 11); IDF captures territory beyond pre-war ceasefire line and stops 40km from Damascus ►After being re-supplied by USSR, Syrian President al-Assad considers new offensive but decides to accept ceasefire (Oct 23) Hafez al-Assad ( )

63 63 Yom Kippur War: Aftermath ►Ceasefire leads to armistice agreements in which Israel and Egypt withdraw from captured territory and UN observer force stationed in demilitarized zones in Sinai and Golan Heights (Jan and May 1974) ►Israeli intelligence failure and casualty count (2,500+ killed) leads to protests and appointment of Agranat Commission to investigate failures ►Commission recommends dismissal of IDF Chief of Staff, Head of Military Intelligence and Head of Southern Command ►PM Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan absolved of responsibility but ultimately accede to public calls for their resignation (Apr 1974) ►Israel seen as war’s victor, but Egypt’s early success pierces Israel’s perception of invincibility and improves Arab morale, ultimately giving impetus to Israel-Egypt negotiations resulting in 1979 peace accord Ceasefire lines at end of Yom Kippur War (1973) Captured by Israel Captured by Egypt

64 64 Moshe Dayan ►Born on Kibbutz Degania Alef to Ukrainian immigrants ►Joins Haganah at age 14 to defend Jewish settlements from Arab attacks; imprisoned for 2 years after UK outlaws Haganah ( ) ►Joins British Army unit assigned to reconnoiter Vichy Lebanon prior to Allied invasion; on mission, Dayan loses left eye when his binoculars are shot (1941) ►During War of Independence, commands Jordan Valley sector and Jerusalem front ( ); highly involved in armistice negotiations w/Jordan (1949) ►Elected IDF Chief of Staff (1953)  Advocates deep retaliatory raids in enemy territory in response to Arab terrorism  Revamps IDF to make it more aggressive and daring Moshe Dayan ( )

65 65 Moshe Dayan ►Personally leads IDF in Suez War (1956) ►Retires from IDF and enters politics; elected to Knesset as member of Labor party (1959) ►Appointed Defense Minister in run-up to Six-Day War (1967); personally oversees capture of eastern Jerusalem from Jordan ►As Defense Minister during Yom Kippur War, Dayan nearly suffers nervous breakdown  At news conference, Dayan nearly mentions “downfall of the Third Temple” – i.e., Israel – but PM Meir prevents him from speaking ►Resigns (1974) after public blames him for IDF’s unpreparedness for Yom Kippur attack ►Appointed by PM Begin as Foreign Minister (1977); leads peace negotiations with Egypt Dayan entering the Lion’s Gate of Jerusalem after Six- Day War (1967)

66 66 Moshe Dayan ►Resigns as Foreign Minister (1979) due to disagreements with Begin regarding approach to West Bank and Gaza ►Forms Telem party (1981), advocating unilateral withdrawal from territories captured in 1967; party wins just 2 seats in elections ►Dies of colon cancer (Oct 1981) ►Remembered as bold but controversial leader with an unpredictable and mercurial approach to military and political affairs Dayan as Foreign Minister arriving in the US (1978) “We are a generation that settles the land and without the steel helmet and the canon's maw, we will not be able to plant a tree and build a home. Let us not be deterred from seeing the loathing that is inflaming and filling the lives of the hundreds of thousands of Arabs who live around us. Let us not avert our eyes lest our arms weaken.” – from Dayan’s eulogy of kibbutz resident Roi Rutenberg, who was ambushed and murdered by Egyptian soldiers near Gaza (Apr 19, 1956)

67 67 Zvika Greengold ►Born and raised on Kibbutz Lohamey HaGeta’ot (“Kibbutz of the Ghetto Fighters”) ►While on leave, hears about surprise Egyptian/Syrian attack (1973); hitchhikes to Golan Heights, where he is put in charge of 2 repaired tanks ►Over next few days, Zvika fights in numerous battles without rest, destroying Syrian tanks  Continues fighting after being wounded and burned  Changes tanks “half a dozen times” after his tanks are knocked out  Often fights alone, successfully deceiving Syrians that he is part of much larger unit (“Zvika Force”) ►Awarded Israel’s highest medal for heroism ►After business career, is elected mayor of Ofakim (2008) Zvi (“Zvika”) Greengold (born 1952)

68 68 Golda Meir ►Born Golda Mabovich, in Kiev; moves to Milwaukee (1906) and joins Labor Zionist group in high school ►Immigrates to Palestine (1921) and rises in the ranks of Histadrut, the largest trade union ►Becomes head of Jewish Agency’s Political Dep’t (1946); raises large sums of money from US Jews to purchase arms for Israel ►Travels to Jordan dressed as Arab to ask King Abdullah not to attack Israel (May 1948); he refuses ►Becomes Foreign Minister ( ); builds ties with African and Latin American countries ►Becomes Prime Minister upon death of PM Eshkol (1969); accepts US proposal to end War of Attrition with Egypt (1970) ►Orders Mossad to assassinate perpetrators of Munich Massacre (1972) Golda Meir ( ) “Peace will come when the Arabs will love their children more than they hate us.” (1957)

69 69 Golda Meir ►Hours before onset of Yom Kippur War, Meir given conflicting advice from senior defense officials  DM Dayan believes war unlikely; recommends limited reserves call-up and no pre-emptive strike  Chief of Staff Elazar recommends full mobilization and pre-emptive strike on Syria ►Meir decides on larger-scale reserves call-up and no pre-emptive strike, so as not to antagonize US ►Ultimately, IDF’s belated mobilization and massive US weapons airlift prove critical to Israel’s victory ►Still, public blames Meir for IDF’s unpreparedness for Yom Kippur War, and she resigns (1974) ►Dies of lymphatic cancer (1978) ►Remembered as strong-willed leader and highly effective spokesperson on behalf of Jewish State Golda Meir ( ) “I am also grateful that I live in a country whose people have learned how to go on living in a sea of hatred without hating those who want to destroy them and without abandoning their own vision of peace.” (1975)

70 70 Entebbe Rescue (1976) ►Air France jet hijacked by 2 Palestinian and 2 German terrorists and flown to Entebbe Airport in Uganda, where they are joined by 4 other terrorists and dozens of local soldiers provided by Ugandan tyrant, Idi Amin (June 27, 1976) ►Terrorists release non-Jewish passengers; Jews remain captive and plane’s crew, in support of hostages, refuses to leave ►Terrorists threaten to execute hostages Jul 1 unless Israel releases 53 prisoners ►Israel offers to negotiate if deadline pushed to Jul 4; terrorists agree ►Meantime, Israel prepares rescue raid  Israeli firm had built Entebbe Airport; provides blueprints to IDF  Released hostages also provide helpful intel Terminal at Entebbe in which 106 hostages were held

71 71 Entebbe Rescue (1976) ►Israel sends aircraft carrying 200 elite troops on 7.5 hour flight to Entebbe (Jul 3) ►Planes land undetected (Jul 4); troops led by Lt. Col. Yonatan Netanyahu approach terminal disguised as Idi Amin’s convoy, including a replica of Amin’s black Mercedes ►Other troops secure perimeter and destroy 30 Ugandan MiG fighter jets on the ground ►In operation lasting <1 hour, troops kill all 8 terrorists and over 30 Ugandan soldiers ►IDF evacuates 102 hostages; 3 hostages killed in firefight and 1 who was in hospital later killed by Ugandan army ►Lt. Col Netanyahu killed while evacuating hostages; sole IDF commando killed in raid Yonatan Netanyahu ( ) “As I don't intend to tell my grandchildren about the Jewish State in the 20 th century as a mere brief and transient episode in thousands of years of wandering, I intend to hold on here with all my might.” – Yoni Netanyahu, in letter to brother Benjamin (Dec 1973)

72 72 Rescue of Vietnamese Boat People ( ) ►Victory of North Vietnamese communists leads to exodus of Vietnamese seeking to escape persecution (1975); many flee via rickety boats ►Israeli cargo ship passes by boat with 66 Vietnamese lacking food & water (Jun 1977); its SOS signals had been ignored by East German, Norwegian, Japanese and Panamanian boats ►Israeli Captain Meir Tadmor provides them food & water and transports them to Hong Kong & Taiwan, both of whom deny docking rights since the refugees lack citizenship ►In his first official act as PM, Begin provides refugees w/Israeli citizenship; Taiwan then allows boat to dock and refugees fly to Israel ►From , Israel welcomes over 300 Vietnamese refugees Vietnamese refugee in Israel “We never have forgotten the boat with 900 Jews [the St. Louis], having left Germany in the last weeks before the Second World War... traveling from harbor to harbor, from country to country, crying out for refuge. They were refused...Therefore it was natural… to give those people a haven in the land of Israel.”– PM Begin to Pres. Carter (Jul 19, 1977)

73 73 Camp David Accords (1978) ►US President Carter tries to forge peace treaty between Israel and Arab world ►Skeptical of Carter’s approach, Begin and Sadat launch secret bilateral negotiations ►Sadat becomes first Arab leader to visit Israel, where he speaks to Knesset (Nov 1977) ►Carter hosts Begin and Sadat at Camp David (Sep 1978), where negotiations result in 2 agreements:  Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza to be granted “full autonomy” over 5 year period, after which Israeli troops will withdraw  Israel to withdraw from Sinai and evacuate 7,000 settlers in exchange for normal relations with Egypt, de-militarization of Sinai and free passage through Suez Canal ►US agrees to provide major economic and military subsidies to both countries Sadat speaking to the Knesset (Nov 20, 1977)

74 74 Camp David Accords: Aftermath ►Israel and Egypt sign peace treaty (Mar 1979) and normalize relations (1980) ►Israel withdraws troops, evacuates thousands of settlers (including forcibly removing residents of Yamit settlement, who resist expulsion), and turns over valuable oil wells to Egypt ( ) ►Egypt shunned by Arab world; Sadat assassinated by troops belonging to Islamic Jihad (Oct 1981) ►Treaty leads to “cold peace” characterized by quiet border but frosty relations, as Egyptian people oppose normalization of ties with Israel  Egypt remains principal source of virulent anti-Semitic propaganda  Egyptian trade unions prohibit contacts with Israelis Signing of Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty (Mar 26, 1979)

75 75 Bombing of Iraqi Reactor (1981) ►In 1970’s, Iraq begins building “Osirak” nuclear reactor with French & Italian support; Israel fails to convince France & Italy to cease their assistance ►Mossad bombs reactor structures in France prior to being shipped (Apr 1979) and assassinates Egyptian scientist working on reactor (Jun 1980) ►Upon receiving intelligence that reactor would soon become operational, PM Begin orders attack despite considerable opposition within Israeli gov’t and IDF ►14 Israeli aircraft fly over Jordanian, Saudi and Iraqi airspace, completely destroy reactor, and return safely to Israel (Jun 7, 1981) ►UN Security Council unanimously passes anti-Israel resolution; Thatcher and Reagan administrations strongly condemn Israel “With thanks and appreciation for the outstanding job you did on the Iraqi nuclear program in 1981, which made our job much easier in Desert Storm!” – inscription on photo of destroyed Osirak reactor given by US Sec. of Defense Cheney to IAF Commander Ivry, who led the strike on Osirak (Jun 1991) Osirak nuclear reactor after Israeli attack

76 76 Operation Peace for Galilee (1982) ►In 1970s, PLO relocates headquarters from Jordan to Lebanon and creates “state-within-a-state” in southern Lebanon; from there, PLO launches periodic attacks against northern Israel, drawing Israeli reprisals ►PLO escalates bombardment of northern Israel (Jul 1981); Israel responds with air strikes ►Palestinian terrorists shoot and critically wound Israeli ambassador to UK (Jun 3, 1982) ►Israeli forces led by DM Ariel Sharon invade Lebanon (Jun 6, 1982) with goal of expelling PLO, reducing Syrian influence and installing Christian- led gov’t that would sign peace treaty with Israel ►Within weeks, IDF expels PLO from Beirut, destroys all of Syria’s surface-to-air missile batteries in Lebanon and downs over 80 Syrian MiG jets; IAF loses one fighter jet Israel-Lebanon Border (June 1982) L e b a n o n Israeli townsPLO-controlled territory “No sovereign state can tolerate indefinitely the buildup along its borders of a military force dedicated to its destruction and implementing its objectives by periodic shellings and raids.” – US Sec. of State Kissinger (Jun 16, 1982)

77 77 Operation Peace for Galilee (1982) ►Bashir Gemayel, Maronite Christian leader of “Phalange” party supported by US and Israel, becomes President of Lebanon after running unopposed (Aug 1982) ►Gemayel assassinated by rival, Syria-backed party (Sep 14, 1982) ►Two days later, IDF allows Phalangist militia to enter Sabra & Shatila refugee camps to root out terrorists believed to be hiding there ►While in the camps, Phalangists massacre hundreds of civilians to avenge Gemayel’s assassination ►Israel sets up commission of inquiry which finds IDF to be indirectly responsible for the massacre for failing to anticipate it (Feb 1983); findings ultimately lead to resignation of DM Sharon and dismissal of Army Chief of Staff Eitan Sabra & Shatila after the Phalangists’ massacre (Sep 1982)

78 78 Operation Peace for Galilee (1982) US Embassy in Beirut after Hezbollah suicide bombing that killed 63 people (Apr 1983) ►Mounting IDF casualties (over 1,200 killed), failure to achieve all objectives and fallout from Sabra & Shatila erodes Israeli public’s support for the war; PM Begin resigns (Oct 1983) ►IDF withdraws most forces (Jan 1985), but leaves behind token force to support Israeli- backed South Lebanon Army in establishing “security zone” in southern Lebanon as buffer for northern Israel; IDF fully withdraws in 2000 ►War confirms Israel’s military superiority and achieves goal of ousting PLO from Lebanon but also leads to several negative outcomes:  Civil discord within Israel  Expansion of Syrian influence in Lebanon  Founding of Hezbollah (1982), Iran- sponsored Shiite terrorist group that eventually takes control over southern Lebanon (2000) and threatens Israel

79 79 Menachem Begin ►Born in Brest-Litovsk, Poland (1913) ►Joins Jabotinsky’s Betar movement, ultimately heads Betar Poland (100,000 members) ►Flees to Lithuania when WWII starts; arrested and interrogated by Soviets (1940) ►Sent to Siberian labor camp, later released in amnesty program for Poles (1941) ►Becomes Polish army officer, sent to Palestine (1942) ►Loses most of family in Holocaust; Brest-Litovsk Jewish population reduced from 30,000 to 10 ►Joins Irgun, becomes its commander and declares war on British administration (1944) Soviet mugshot of Begin (1940) “The Partition of Palestine is illegal. It will never be recognized.... Jerusalem was and will for ever be our capital. Eretz Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And forever.” – Begin (1947)

80 80 Menachem Begin ►As Irgun commander, Begin promotes attacks against British forces, including bombing of UK military and administrative HQ at King David Hotel (Jun 1946) and Acre Prison break (May 1947) ►Begin’s approach is strongly opposed by Ben-Gurion, culminating in Altalena affair (Jun 1948), in which Begin is one of last Irgun members to abandon ship ►Begin forms Herut, a right-wing party that becomes main opposition to Ben-Gurion’s dominant Labor party ►Begin leads opposition to reparations agreement between Israel and West Germany (1952), in which West Germany ultimately pays Israel $840m ►Begin’s party joins unity government formed during Six-Day War (1967), but resigns over disagreements with Golda Meir regarding War of Attrition cease-fire negotiations with Egypt (Aug 1970) Menachem Begin (1948) “Israel is still the only country in the world against which there is a written document to the effect that it must disappear.” – Begin (1978)

81 81 Menachem Begin ►Forms Likud party (1973) as alliance of multiple right- wing parties ►Disenchantment with Labor party grows after Yom Kippur War; Begin is elected Prime Minister (1977) ►Negotiates Camp David Accords with Egypt (1978) and signs peace treaty with Egypt (1979) ►Orders destruction of Iraq’s nuclear reactor (1981) ►Launches Operation Peace for Galilee in response to frequent shelling from Lebanon (1982) ►Resigns (Oct 1983) following wife’s death and growing public dissatisfaction with Operation Peace for Galilee ►Dies of heart attack (Mar 1992) ►Remembered as fierce nationalist who led resistance against UK and forged peace with largest Arab nation Menachem Begin ( ) “The fate of...Jewish children has been different from all the children of the world throughout the generations. No more. We will defend our children. If the hand of any two-footed animal is raised against them, that hand will be cut off, and our children will grow up in joy in the homes of their parents.” – Begin (1982)

82 82 Rescue of Ethiopian Jews (1984 & 1991) ►Ethiopia contained a Jewish community (“Beta Israel” or “Falashas”) for many centuries, where it was severely oppressed ►In 1980s, desperate for aid due to famine, Ethiopia succumbs to pressure and lets Beta Israel emigrate ►Secret Israeli airlift (“Operation Moses”) transports 7,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel via Sudan (Nov 1984 – Jan 1985); however, after the news leaks, Arab countries pressure Sudan to cease cooperation ►Ethiopia later agrees to allow Beta Israel to move to Israel for family reunification (Nov 1990) ►Due to growing threat of rebels attacking remaining Beta Israel community during Ethiopian civil war, Israel sends 34 El Al and Hercules C-130 jets to airlift 14,300 Ethiopian Jews over a 36-hour period (“Operation Solomon”) (May 1991) Operation Solomon (May 1991)

83 83 Immigration of Soviet Jews ►After Six-Day War, Soviet Jews become more openly Jewish and increase requests to emigrate ►USSR often rejects such requests and punishes Jews who seek exit visas by imprisoning them or firing them from their jobs ►US Jewish organizations adopt Refusenik issue as major cause; focus on shaming USSR on human rights grounds and lobbying US to apply pressure ►US passes Jackson-Vanik amendment (1974) linking emigration rights to US trade relations ►Gorbachev lifts emigration restrictions (late 1980s) ►From , nearly 1 million Jews emigrate from former USSR to Israel, permanently changing its demographic landscape Natan Sharansky (b. 1948) Prominent Refusenik and Soviet dissident Imprisoned by USSR ( ), later emigrated to Israel and served as minister in 4 gov’ts

84 84 First Intifada ( ) ►Israeli killed in Gaza (Dec 6, 1987); 2 days later, in what some Palestinians perceive as act of revenge, 4 Palestinians killed in accident involving IDF truck ►Over next week, Palestinians in Gaza, West Bank and Jerusalem engage in mass riots, throwing of Molotov cocktails and rocks, etc. ►Israel responds with riot control measures, mass arrests and deportations ►Fueled by PLO, as well as Hamas and Islamic Jihad terrorist groups, uprising (“Intifada”) continues until onset of First Gulf War (1991) ►Total of 27 Israelis and 2,100 Palestinians killed, including 1,000+ killed by other Palestinians, typically as suspected collaborators w/IDF ►Intifada worsens Israel’s global image, invigorates Palestinian nationalism and increases calls within Israel for withdrawal from West Bank and Gaza Palestinian riot during First Intifada

85 85 Oslo Accords: Background ►Following its triumph in Gulf War I, US pushes for peace negotiations between Israel, Palestinians and Arab countries (mainly Syria, Jordan and Lebanon), resulting in Madrid Conference (Oct 1991) ►Madrid Conference leads to several rounds of negotiations; significant progress made between Israel and Jordan, but little progress made between Israel and Palestinians ►During negotiations, Israel’s incumbent Likud gov’t (led by PM Yitzhak Shamir) loses elections to Labor party (led by PM Yitzhak Rabin) (Jun 1992), which returns to power for first time since 1977 ►Following elections, Israeli diplomats led by Deputy FM Yossi Beilin and FM Shimon Peres conduct secret negotiations directly with PLO in Oslo (late 1992 – Sep 1993) Yossi Beilin (b. 1948) Israel’s Deputy FM who initiated secret negotiations with PLO in Oslo

86 86 Oslo Accords: Agreement ►Israel and PLO reach agreement (Sep 1993); key terms include:  Israel recognizes PLO as representative of Palestinian people  IDF gradually withdraws from parts of Gaza and West Bank, with authority transferred to a Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority (“Palestinian Authority”)  PLO recognizes Israel’s right to exist and renounces violence  Palestinian Authority rule to last for interim period of up to 5 years, during which “permanent status” negotiations to occur ►Major issues such as borders, security arrangements, settlements and refugees not addressed; left for future negotiations ►After fierce debate, Israeli parliament ratifies Oslo Accords by small margin (Sep 1993) Rabin and Arafat sign Oslo Accords (September 13, 1993) “We wish to turn over a new chapter in the sad book of our lives together – a chapter of mutual recognition, of good neighborliness, of mutual respect, of understanding. We hope to embark on a new era in the history of the Middle East.” – PM Rabin, at signing of Oslo Accords (Sep 13, 1993)

87 87 Arafat Comments after Oslo “I see this agreement as being no more than the agreement signed between our Prophet Muhammad and the Quraysh in Mecca…The prophet had been right to insist on the agreement, for it helped him defeat the Quraysh and take over their city of Mecca. In a similar spirit, we now accept the peace agreement, but [only in order] to continue on the road to Jerusalem” – addressing Muslims in South Africa (May 1994) “Since we cannot defeat Israel in war we do this in stages. We take any and every territory that we can of Palestine, and establish sovereignty there, and we use it as a springboard to take more. When the time comes, we can get the Arab nations to join us for the final blow against Israel” – comments on Jordanian TV (Sep 1995) “You understand that we plan to eliminate the State of Israel and establish a purely Palestinian State” – speech to Arab diplomats (Jan 1996)

88 88 Terrorist Attacks after Oslo ►Signing of Oslo Accords leads to major increase in Palestinian terrorist attacks and emergence of suicide bombings, led primarily by Hamas and Islamic Jihad ►22 suicide bomb attacks from ►112 terrorist attacks in 5 years post-Oslo, double the total for prior 5 years ►In 2.5 years post-Oslo, more Israelis killed by terrorists than in preceding 10 years Surge in terror fatalities in Israel post-Oslo Oslo Accords signed “We shall fight terrorism as if there is no peace process, and pursue the peace process as if there is no terrorism.” – Rabin slogan

89 89 Peace Treaty with Jordan (1994) ►Madrid Conference (1991) leads to “Israeli- Jordanian Common Agenda” (Sep 1993), containing blueprint for eventual peace treaty ►Rabin and King Hussein sign “Washington Declaration” (Jul 1994) ending state of war ►Negotiations culminate in signing of Treaty of Peace (Oct 1994); key terms include:  Full normalization of relations  Jordan River set as border; Israel gives Jordan 300km 2 of land  Israel gives Jordan 50 million m 3 of water per year and allows Jordan to divert 75% of water from Yarmouk River  Jordan given special rights as keeper of sacred Muslim sites in Jerusalem ►Hezbollah fires rockets at northern Israel 20 min before signing of Treaty of Peace Rabin and Hussein sign Washington Declaration (July 25, 1994) “I hope what has happened today under the brilliant leadership of King Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin will go on, will walk on, will march on until the whole Middle East will be a region of peace, of promise and prosperity.” – FM Peres, at signing of Treaty of Peace (Oct 24, 1994)

90 90 Rabin Assassination (1995) ►Signing of Oslo Accords and surge in Palestinian terrorism leads to polarization of Israeli society, with intense right-wing opposition to more Israeli concessions ►As Rabin exits Tel Aviv rally in support of Oslo Accords, he is shot twice by Yigal Amir, a religious extremist strongly opposed to Israeli withdrawal from West Bank and Gaza (Nov 4, 1995); Rabin dies 40 min later ►Amir had been under surveillance by Israel’s internal security service, but was not considered threat to Rabin ►Amir sentenced to life in prison + 6 years for injuring Rabin’s bodyguard (Mar 1996), with another 8 years added later for conspiracy to murder; Amir kept mostly in solitary confinement until Jul 2012 Yigal Amir (b. 1970) “Shalom, chaver” (goodbye, friend) – Final words in President Clinton’s eulogy at Rabin’s funeral (Nov 1995)

91 91 Yitzhak Rabin ►Born in Jerusalem to Ukrainian/Belarusian parents (1922); his mother is one of first members of Haganah ►Volunteers for Palmach (commando unit of Haganah) (1941)  Participates in allied invasion of Lebanon (Jun 1941) and liberation of 200 Jewish immigrants from British detention camp (Oct 1945) ►Arrested by UK and imprisoned for 5 months; after release, rises in ranks of Palmach to become Chief Operations Officer (1947) ►During War of Independence (1948), directs operations in Jerusalem and fights Egyptians in southern Israel; participates in fight against Irgun during Altalena Affair (Jun 1948) ►Becomes IDF Chief of Staff (1964) and commands IDF during Six-Day War (1967); one of first IDF members to enter Old City of Jerusalem Rabin as IDF officer (c. 1948)

92 92 Yitzhak Rabin ►Resigns from IDF and becomes ambassador to US (1968); US-Israel ties improve during his 5 years as ambassador ►Appointed Labor Minister in Golda Meir’s gov’t (Mar 1974) and, as head of Labor Party, becomes PM when she resigns (Apr 1974) ►Orders Entebbe Rescue raid (Jul 1976) ►During election campaign, resigns as PM upon revelation that his wife holds US bank account (1977) ►Becomes opposition member of Knesset until 1984, when he becomes Defense Minister and serves under multiple unity gov’ts ( )  Orders partial withdrawal of IDF from Lebanon and firm response to Intifada ►As head of Labor Party, elected as PM (1992) Rabin (right) and Dayan (left) after capturing Old City of Jerusalem (Jun 1967)

93 93 Yitzhak Rabin ►Supportive of secret negotiations with PLO, culminating in Oslo Accords ( ) ►Negotiates and signs peace treaty with Jordan (1994) ►In what turns out to be his last address to Knesset, Rabin indicates his support for united Jerusalem, Jordan Valley as Israeli security border and autonomy – not statehood – for Palestinians (Oct 5, 1995) ►Assassinated by Yigal Amir, extremist fiercely opposed to Oslo Accords, after rally in Tel Aviv in support of the Accords (Nov 4, 1995) ►Legacy as strong military leader who was dedicated to pursuit of peace; voted “greatest Israeli of all time” in major Israeli poll (2005) Yitzhak Rabin ( ) “I, who have sent armies into fire and soldiers to their death, say today: We sail onto a war which has no casualties, no wounded, no blood nor suffering. It is the only war which is a pleasure to participate in – the war for peace. – Rabin’s speech to US Congress (Jul 1994)

94 94 Shimon Peres Peres in front of portrait of his mentor, David Ben-Gurion (1981) ►Born Szymon Perski, in Poland (1923); immigrates to Tel Aviv (1934) ►Spends several yrs at Kibbutz Geva and founds Kibbutz Alumot; elected Secretary of Labor Zionist youth movement (1941) ►Peres’s relatives who remain in Europe die in Holocaust ►Joins Haganah; responsible for manpower and arms procurement (1947) ►Appointed Director-General of Defense Ministry ( ); plays key role in forging strategic alliance with France, which leads to major arms purchases, building of Israel’s nuclear reactor and cooperation in Suez War ►Elected to Knesset (1959); becomes Defense Minister ( ), where he strengthens IDF and engineers Entebbe Rescue raid (1976) ►Becomes unofficial acting PM when Rabin resigns (1977), but loses elections to Begin’s Likud Party (1977)

95 95 Shimon Peres Peres (center), receiving Nobel Peace Price together with Arafat and Rabin (1994) ►Becomes acting PM when Rabin resigns (1977), but loses elections to Likud Party one month later ►Leads opposition until 1984, then forms unity gov’t with Shamir’s Likud Party; serves as PM in rotation with Shamir ( , ) ►Plays important role in withdrawal of IDF into security zone in southern Lebanon (1985) ►Negotiates secret agreement with Jordan’s King Hussein for Arab-Israeli peace initiative, with Palestinians represented by Jordan (1987); Shamir rejects agreement and Jordan later renounces claims to West Bank (1988) ►Becomes FM when Labor Party wins 1992 elections; leads secret negotiations with PLO, culminating in Oslo Accords ( ), and promotes improved relations with Arab states, resulting in peace treaty with Jordan (1994) “We are leaving behind us the era of belligerency and are striding together toward peace.” – Peres’s speech to Nobel Prize Committee (Dec 1994)

96 96 Shimon Peres ►After Rabin’s assassination, Peres appointed as new PM (Nov 1995); after wave of Palestinian terrorism, loses election to Likud’s Benjamin Netanyahu (May 1996) ►Appointed FM and Deputy PM in unity gov’t led by PM Ariel Sharon (Mar 2001), but resigns in Oct 2002 ►Rejoins Sharon gov’t after Sharon decides to withdraw Israeli forces and communities from Gaza (Jan 2005) ►After losing election for Labor Party leadership (Nov 2005), Peres quits and joins Sharon’s new Kadima Party; appointed Deputy PM when Kadima wins elections (Mar 2006) ►Elected President of Israel (Jun 2007), becoming first PM to be elected to that post ►Legacy as close associate of Ben-Gurion and supporter of settling West Bank & Gaza, who later became fervent supporter of Israeli withdrawal from those territories; widely respected statesman by int’l community Shimon Peres (born Aug 2, 1923) “I stand here, before you, a hopeful man. Proud to be Jewish, proud to be Israeli, proud to be there at the birth of Israel, proud to have served it for 65 years, proud of our alliance with the US.” – Peres’s speech to AIPAC (Mar 2012)

97 97 Israel’s High Tech Boom ►Intel sets up R&D facility in Israel (1974); Intel Israel subsequently develops some of Intel’s leading microprocessors, including Centrino ►Israeli government initiates Yozma program (1993), giving tax incentives and matching funds to foreign venture capital investment in Israel; Yozma leads to boom in Israel’s venture capital industry ►Israeli inventions include the cell phone, anti- virus software and USB flash memory drives; Israel pioneered technologies such as text messaging, instant messaging, network firewalls and capsule endoscopy ►High rate of Israeli innovation fueled by factors such as high immigration rate (especially from USSR) and emphasis on creativity and questioning of authority in the IDF (where service is mandatory) Israeli Science/Technology: Global Rankings (c. 2010) Ranking Category Scientists/engineers per capita #1 Patents per capita #1 Scientific papers per capita #4 Venture cap. invstmt. per capita #1 # of Tech startups #2 Solar water heaters per capita #1 # of NASDAQ companies #3 # of Biotech patents #4 % of Water recycled #1

98 98 Camp David Summit (Jul 2000) ►President Clinton invites Israeli PM Ehud Barak and PA Chairman Arafat to final status negotiations; sides hold summit at Camp David (Jul 11-25, 2000) ►Arafat is offered non-militarized Palestinian State on 100% of Gaza + 91% of West Bank + 1% land swap from Israel, as well as Arab neighborhoods in east Jerusalem, sovereignty over Temple Mount and land corridor between Gaza and West Bank ►Israel would annex major settlement blocs in West Bank and maintain security presence along 15% of Palestinian border with Jordan ►Palestinian refugees would be permitted to re-settle in Palestinian State, not Israel ►Arafat rejects offer, provides no counteroffers and claims Jewish Temple never existed ►Summit ends in failure; in press conference, Clinton implicitly blames Arafat for intransigence Barak, Clinton and Arafat at Camp David (Jul 2000) “A summit’s purpose is to have discussions that are based on sincere intentions and you, the Palestinians, did not come to this summit with sincere intentions.” – Clinton remarks to Palestinian team, according to diary of Shlomo Ben- Ami, Israel’s top negotiator at Camp David (Jul 15, 2000)

99 99 Camp David Summit: Aftermath ►Following failure of Camp David summit, Palestinian attacks against Israeli soldiers and civilians increase, especially in mid-Sep 2000 ►Likud leader Ariel Sharon visits Temple Mount (Sep 28, 2000); Palestinians claim visit is provocation, despite it occurring during normal tourist hours ►Palestinian riots become increasingly widespread and violent after Sharon visit; in first 5 days after visit, 47 Palestinians & 5 Israelis killed ►Clashes continue to grow in intensity (173 Palestinians & 30 Israelis killed from Nov-Dec 2000) ►Substantial evidence, including statements by Palestinian gov’t and terrorist leaders, later emerges of Palestinian violence being pre-planned by Arafat “[the uprising] was carefully planned since the return of Arafat from the Camp David negotiations rejecting the US conditions” – PA Communications Minister Imad Falouji (Dec 2000) Palestinian showing blood- stained hands to mob after lynching 2 IDF reservists who accidentally stray into Ramallah (Oct 12, 2000)

100 100 Camp David Summit: Aftermath ►Clinton invites Barak and Arafat to add’l negotiations at White House (Dec 19-23, 2000) and presents “Clinton Parameters” as guidelines for final agreement; deal previously offered to Arafat improved by increasing Palestinian control to 97% of West Bank (incl. 1-3% land swap from Israel) and eliminating Israeli security presence in Jordan Valley after 3yrs ►Barak and Israeli Cabinet formally accept Parameters, with reservations that fall within them; Arafat does not formally accept Parameters, and places reservations that fall outside them (essentially rejecting them) ►Israelis and Palestinians hold further talks at Taba, Egypt (Jan 21-27, 2001), but fail to reach agreement ►In Israeli election (Feb 6, 2001), Sharon defeats Barak in landslide (62% to 38%) Map of Clinton Parameters (illustrative; no formal map was presented) “I regret that in 2000 [Arafat] missed the opportunity to bring that nation into being and pray for the day when the dreams of the Palestinian people for a state and a better life will be realized in a just and lasting peace.” – Clinton statement after Arafat’s death (Nov 2004)

101 101 Second Intifada ►Palestinian terrorism skyrockets in , including 89 suicide attacks that kill 300+; largest attacks include: LocationDate# Killed Dolphinarium disco Jun 1, Sbarro pizzeria Aug 9, Egged bus #16 Dec 2, Seder at Park Hotel Mar 27, Pool hall at Rishon Lezion May 7, Egged bus #830 Jun 5, Egged bus #32A Jun 18, ►1,050+ killed by Palestinian terrorism from ►Most attacks carried out by Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Al- Aksa Martyrs’ Brigade (part of PLO’s Fatah party) ►Terrorism fueled by incitement in Palestinian media ►Attacks subside after Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield (Mar 2002) and constructs security fence to stop Palestinians from illegally entering Israel Hussam Abdo 14-yr old Palestinian suicide bomber arrested at Israeli checkpoint (Mar 24, 2004)

102 102 During Second Intifada and beyond, Palestinian Authority gov’t-sponsored media and schools glorify terrorism and demonize Jews Incitement by Palestinian Gov’t “The Prophet said: The Resurrection will not take place until the Muslims fight the Jews, and the Muslims kill them. Rejoice in Allah's victory... Everything wants vengeance on the Jews... these pigs on the face of the earth. And the day of our victory, Allah willing, will come.” – Ibrahim Mudayris, most prominent religious authority on PA TV (Oct 2004) Cartoon of PM Sharon butchering Palestinian baby – PA gov’t website (Jun 2003) “Your enemies seek life while you seek death... Death is not bitter in the mouth of the believers. These drops of blood that gush from your bodies will be transformed tomorrow into blazing red meteors that will fall down upon the heads of your enemies.” – PA textbook for 8th graders, in use since 2006 Photo of child with weapons – PA gov’t website Image of dagger in Star of David – shown hundreds of times on PA TV ( )

103 103 Operation Defensive Shield (2002) ►Initially, Israel responds to Palestinian terrorism with restraint; actions typically consist of targeting terror leaders, imposing financial sanctions on PA, destroying empty PA buildings and restricting Palestinian entry into Israel ►At end of Mar 2002, a month in which Israel suffers 15 suicide bombings culminating in Park Hotel Seder massacre, PM Sharon launches Operation Defensive Shield ►During Apr 2002, IDF re-asserts control over major Palestinian cities in West Bank, kills/arrests thousands of terrorists and destroys terror infrastructure (bomb labs, weapons caches, etc.)  30 IDF soldiers and 240 Palestinians killed ►Operation reduces number of Palestinian terrorist attacks by 70% from 1 st half of 2002 to 2 nd half IDF tanks surrounding Arafat’s HQ (Mar-Apr 2002) “We must wage an uncompromising fight against this terror, uproot these weeds, and smash their infrastructure because there is no compromise with terror.” – PM Sharon speech to Israeli public (Mar 31, 2002)

104 104 Gaza Disengagement (2005) ►Sharon, who was elected on pro-settlement platform, announces plan to withdraw IDF from and destroy all Gaza settlements (Dec 2003)  Sharon presents plan as “seizing diplomatic initiative”, but is suspected of currying favor with media / justice system to avoid corruption charges ►In letter to Sharon supporting plan, Pres. Bush says Pal. refugees should be re-settled in Pal. State (not Israel), and it would be unrealistic for Israel to withdraw to 1949 lines (Apr 2004) ►Sharon holds Likud Party referendum for “disengagement plan” (May 2004); 65% vote against, but Sharon proceeds with it anyway ►Sharon forms unity gov’t with Labor Party (Jan 2005); Knesset approves plan (Feb 2005), which includes destruction of 4 settlements in northern West Bank Synagogue in Netzarim (Israeli settlement in Gaza) before disengagement “The fate of Netzarim [a settlement in Gaza] is the fate of Negba [a southern Israeli town] and Tel Aviv... Such an evacuation would encourage terrorism and bring pressure on us.” – PM Sharon address to a Knesset committee (Apr 23, 2002)

105 105 Gaza Disengagement (2005) ►All Gaza settlements evacuated from Aug and 4 settlements in northern West Bank evacuated by Sep 22 (total of over 8,500 settlers evacuated) ►Following evacuation, Palestinians loot and destroy synagogues and greenhouses that IDF had left standing ►Gov’t mismanages compensation and re- settlement of evacuees; as of Jun 2010, 70% of evacuees still live in temporary housing ►Following withdrawal, Hamas wins parliamentary elections (Jan 2006) and takes power in Gaza after violently overthrowing Fatah (Jun 2007) IDF soldiers and a settler in Gaza during disengagement (Aug 2005) “If they fire a single rocket from Gaza, we will respond more strongly than ever.” – PM Sharon, prior to the Gaza disengagement

106 106 Ariel Sharon ►Born Ariel Scheinermann, in Palestine Mandate (1928), to Lithuanian parents; joins Zionist youth movement, Hassadeh, at age 10 and Haganah at age 14 ►Fights as company commander in War of Independence (1948); severely injured in battle to break siege of Jerusalem ►Founds Unit 101 (1953), special commando unit that raids Palestinian villages and neighboring Arab states in retaliation for Palestinian fedayeen (terrorist) attacks ►Commands Paratroopers Brigade during Suez War (1956), in which he carries out controversial operation to seize strategic Mitla Pass in Sinai ►In Six-Day War (1967), Sharon commands strongest armored division; credited with winning breakthrough Battle of Abu-Ageila that leads to Israel conquering Sinai ►Appointed Head of Southern Command (1969) Sharon as Haganah fighter (Feb 1948)

107 107 Ariel Sharon ►Retires from army (Aug 1973), but called back to command armored division in Yom Kippur War (Oct 1973) ►In Yom Kippur War, Sharon leads crossing of Suez Canal which leads to encirclement of Egypt’s Third Army and Israeli victory against Egypt ►Plays key role in founding Likud Party (Jul 1973); elected to Knesset (Dec 1973), but resigns a year later and serves as security adviser to PM Rabin (1975) ►Elected to Knesset again after founding his own party (1977), which he subsequently merges with Likud ►Strongly promotes expansion of Jewish settlements in West Bank & Gaza ►Appointed Defense Minister (1981); helps renew diplomatic relations w/African countries and strengthen Israel’s defense ties w/other states Sharon and Dayan at Suez Canal bridgehead (Oct 1973) “Everybody has to move, run and grab as many hilltops as they can to enlarge the settlements, because everything we take now will stay ours... Everything we don't grab will go to them.” – Sharon addressing Tzomet Party meeting (1998)

108 108 Ariel Sharon ►Serves as Defense Minister during Operation Peace for Galilee (First Lebanon War), in which IDF destroys PLO’s infrastructure in Lebanon ►However, Christian Phalangists’ killing of hundreds of civilians at Sabra & Shatila refugee camps (Sep 1982) leads to Israeli commission (Feb 1983), which finds IDF indirectly responsible for the massacre and Sharon responsible for ignoring danger of bloodshed ►Sharon resigns as Defense Minister after Israeli protestor dies in anti-war demonstration (Feb 1983) ►Serves in various gov’ts from ; roles include finalizing free trade agreement w/US (1985), managing absorption of Jewish immigrants from USSR ( ) and leading negotiations with Palestinian Authority (1998) ►Becomes head of Likud Party (Sep 1999) and is elected Prime Minister (Feb 2001) after commencement of Second Intifada Sharon visiting Temple Mount (Sep 28, 2000) Palestinians used visit as pretext for Second Intifada

109 109 Ariel Sharon (born Feb 26, 1928) ►Launches Operation Defensive Shield (Mar-Apr 2002) and initiates construction of security fence close to 1949 lines in West Bank to quell Second Intifada ►In complete reversal of his election platform and prior positions, Sharon announces plan to withdraw IDF and demolish all settlements from Gaza (Dec 2003), as well as demolish 4 settlements in northern West Bank; “disengagement plan” carried out in Aug-Sep 2005 ►Fierce opposition to disengagement plan by Likud Party leads Sharon to found new party, Kadima (Nov 2005) ►Suffers two strokes (Dec 2005 & Jan 2006), leaving him permanently incapacitated; dies in Jan 2014 ►Legacy as brilliant military leader and proponent of forceful action – whether in battle, in support of settlement expansion or in support of settlement destruction “I begin with the basic conviction that Jews and Arabs can live together... I know that we are both inhabitants of this land, and although the state is Jewish, that does not mean that Arabs should not be full citizens in every sense of the word.” – Sharon autobiography (2001)

110 110 Second Lebanon War (2006) ►During First Lebanon War, Iran & Syria back creation of Shi’ite terrorist group, Hezbollah, in Lebanon ►At end of First Lebanon War, IDF withdraws to buffer zone in southern Lebanon in order to protect northern Israel (1985) ►Hezbollah consistently attacks IDF over next 15 yrs, leading PM Ehud Barak to unilaterally withdraw from buffer zone to internationally recognized border w/Lebanon (May 2000) ►Hezbollah attacks continue; in Oct 2000, Hezbollah kills 3 IDF soldiers and kidnaps 1 Israeli businessman, later ransoming them for 430 Arab prisoners in Israeli jails (Jan 2004); Israel responds in limited fashion to Oct 2000 attack ►Hezbollah also supports Second Intifada by financing and smuggling weapons to Palestinian terrorist groups Israel’s buffer zone in S. Lebanon ( ) “We really do see it as the government's obligation on the day after the withdrawal from Lebanon to promise two things...the first that the IDF will really be deployed on the border, and anyone that dares think to hurt us will get what he deserves with all our might.” – PM Barak (2000)

111 111 Second Lebanon War (2006) ►Hezbollah attacks IDF patrol in Israel, killing 3 and kidnapping 2 soldiers (both later died), while firing Katyusha rockets at N. Israel (Jul 12, 2006) ►Israel responds with artillery and air strikes; IAF destroys virtually all of Hezbollah’s long-range missiles within first 34 minutes of war ►Israel decides to pursue military campaign, including ground offensive, targeting Hezbollah’s infrastructure in S. Lebanon and HQ in Beirut ►Over next month, Hezbollah fires ~4,000 Katyusha rockets at N. Israel, putting 1mm Israelis in bomb shelters and causing 250k to flee southward ►UN passes Security Council Resolution 1701 (Aug 11, 2006); calls for ceasefire, deployment of UN force in S. Lebanon and disarmament of Hezbollah ►In 2 days prior to Aug 14 ceasefire, IDF greatly escalates ground offensive, but to little effect Ehud Goldwasser (left) and Eldad Regev (right) IDF soldiers kidnapped by Hezbollah, sparking Second Lebanon War (2006) Both died in the attack, a fact confirmed only when Hezbollah exchanged their corpses for Arab terrorists in Israeli jails (2008)

112 112 Second Lebanon War (2006) ►Total of 165 Israelis (incl. 44 civilians) killed; 500+ Hezbollah and 800+ Lebanese civilians killed ►War outcome widely seen as stalemate  Hezbullah maintains steady rocket fire against Israel, paralyzing north of country, but Israeli economy rebounds quickly  Israel inflicts heavy losses on Hezbullah, but fails to destroy / expel the group  War leads to years of quiet along Israel-Lebanon border, but Resolution 1701 proves ineffective; Hezbullah re-arms with far more missiles than it had prior to war and gains control of gov’t (2011) ►IDF Chief of Staff Dan Halutz resigns after it emerges that he sold stock hours before Israel’s counter-attack (Jan 2007) ►Hezbollah exchanges corpses of 2 IDF soldiers it killed that sparked the war for 5 Lebanese terrorists held in Israeli jails and corpses of 199 terrorists (Jul 2008) Hassan Nasrallah Leader of Hezbullah during Second Lebanon War

113 113 Bombing of Syrian Reactor (2007) ►In early 2000s, US & Israeli intelligence identify military cooperation between Syria and North Korea ►Mossad covertly downloads data from laptop of Syrian official visiting UK; data includes pictures and blueprints of nuclear reactor being built with North Korean assistance and Iranian financing at al- Kibar, a remote location in Syrian desert (Dec 2006) ►IDF commandos covertly raid al-Kibar and collect soil samples confirming nuclear activity (Aug 2007) ►PM Olmert requests that US attack reactor, but Pres. Bush refuses and suggests diplomatic resolution (Sep 2007) ►Hours later, IAF jets, assisted by ground commandos, bomb and destroy reactor, killing dozens of Syrian and North Korean personnel (Sep 6, 2007) ►Israel does not take credit for attack in order to reduce odds of Syrian response Syrian nuclear reactor before & after Israeli strike (Sep 2007)

114 114 Operation Cast Lead (2008) ►Hamas and other terrorist groups greatly escalate rocket attacks after Israel’s Gaza disengagement (2005)  In 2005, monthly rate of rocket fire rises ~30% after disengagement ►Major escalation of rocket fire in Dec 2008 leads IDF to initiate “Operation Cast Lead” by launching waves of airstrikes at Hamas targets (Dec 27, 2008), catching Hamas by surprise ►IDF launches limited ground invasion (Jan 3); targets Hamas infrastructure and personnel but does not attempt to destroy or overthrow Hamas ►Israel announces unilateral ceasefire (Jan 17) and Hamas follows suit (Jan 18); IDF withdraws forces from Gaza (Jan 21) Gaza disengagement (Aug 2005) Surge in rocket fire post-disengagement “The Palestinian people… created a human shield of women, children, the elderly and the Jihad fighters…We desire death as you desire life.” – Hamas leader Fathi Hamad on Al-Aqsa TV, (Mar 2007)

115 115 Operation Cast Lead (2008) ►Hamas and other terrorist groups, operating out of populated areas, fire 750+ rockets and mortars at Israel during war, deliberately targeting civilians ►Total of 13 Israelis (incl. 3 civilians) killed; 700+ terrorists and ~300 Palestinian civilians killed ►Following end of war, UN establishes investigative commission chaired by South African jurist Richard Goldstone (Apr 2009); Goldstone Report concludes that both Hamas and Israel committed war crimes (Sep 2009), even though IDF went to unprecedented lengths to alert Gaza civilians to impending attacks and ceased fire on a daily basis to deliver humanitarian supplies to Gaza ►Judge Goldstone later retracts portions of report that accuse Israel of targeting civilians (Apr 2011) Hamas terrorists preparing rocket launch against Israel (2009) “Mr. President, based on my knowledge and experience, I can say this: During Operation Cast Lead, the IDF did more to safeguard the rights of civilians in a combat zone than any other army in the history of warfare.” – Col. Richard Kemp, former commander of UK forces in Afghanistan, addressing UN (2009)

116 116 Epilogue ~2,000 years ago, Emperor Domitian constructed the Arch of Titus to celebrate the Roman Empire’s suppression of the Jewish Rebellion (73 AD), resulting in the death, enslavement and exile of hundreds of thousands of Jews The Arch depicts Roman soldiers carrying away a Menorah after destroying the Temple in Jerusalem In 1948, after Israel declared independence, Rome’s Chief Rabbi led the entire Jewish community through the Arch – in the opposite direction of the triumphant Roman soldiers As they walked through the Arch, some Jews likely noticed the graffiti etched below the soldiers, which was added centuries after the Roman Empire collapsed and which states, in Hebrew: עם 'שראל ח' )The Nation of Israel Lives(


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