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The English Language & World Englishes

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1 The English Language & World Englishes

2 Facts about English worldwide
English has official or special status in at least 75 countries with a total population of over 2 billion English is the main language of books, newspapers, airports and air-traffic control, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sport, international competitions, pop music and advertising

3 More facts about English worldwide
over 2/3 of the world's scientists read in English • 3/4 of the world's snail mail is written in English • 80% of the world's electronically stored information is in English • 80% of web sites are in English (German: 4.5%; Japanese: 3.1%) • of the estimated 200 million users of the Internet, about 35% communicate in English

4 English as a Global Language
¾ of the World’s Mail ½ of the World’s technical & scientific journals ½ of all newspapers 80 % of the information in computers All International Air Pilots All International Sea Captains Many movies, songs, and much business ½ of European business deals 7 of the Largest TV Broadcasters (CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC, CNN, C-Span) TV Televangelism of Christianity (McCrum 10) 19

5 Will English go the way of Latin?
Small wonder that there should have been in recent years fresh talk of the diaspora of English into several mutually incomprehensible languages. The fate of Latin after the fall of the Roman Empire presents us with such distinct languages today as French, Spanish, Romanian, and Italian. With the growth of national separatism in the English-speaking countries, linguistically endorsed not least by the active encouragement of the anti-standard ethos I have just mentioned, many foresee a similar fissiparous future for English. A year or so ago, much prominence was given to the belief expressed by R.W. Burchfield that in a century from now the languages of Britain and America would be as different as French is from Italian. Randolph Quirk, English in the World (1984), p. 3

6 How many people speak English?
million million million million million Today (first language) ~ 375 million (second language) ~ 375 million (foreign language) ~ 750 million Total around 1.5 billion (of the 6 billion in the world, about 1 in 4) (source: British Council Website)

7 Venues for the spread of English
Books Newspapers Internet Airports/air traffic control International business Academic conferences Science technology

8 More venues Medicine Diplomacy Sports International competitions
Pop music Advertising

9 One clear advantage… English does have one clear advantage, attitudinally and linguistically: it has acquired a neutrality in a linguistic contexts where native languages, dialects, and styles sometimes have acquired undesirable connotations….It was originally the foreign (alien) ruler's language, but that drawback is often overshadowed by what it can do for its users. True, English is associated with a small and elite group; but it is in their role that the neutrality of a language becomes vital. Braj Kachru, The Alchemy of English (1986)

10 Ngugi Wa’Thiongo on English in Kenya in his youth
Nobody could go on to wear the undergraduate red gown, no matter how brilliantly they had performed in all the papers in all other subjects, unless they had a credit (not even a simple pass!) in English. Thus the most coveted place in the pyramid and in the system was only available to holders of an English-language credit card. English was the official vehicle and the magic formula to colonial elitedom. Ngugi wa Thiong'o, "The Language of African Literature" (1985

11 Economic Aspects of English Language
What economic benefits does English bring to the UK? • British English language products are worth over 800 million pounds a year to the UK • the total expenditure of the 700,000 visitors to the UK annually to learn English is over 700 million pounds - possibly over one billion pounds • the English language makes it possible for British companies to develop markets, sell into them and form commercial alliances; it brings direct benefits through the supply of English teaching goods and services.

12 Economical factors for English Spread
What other benefits does English have for the UK? • tourists are encouraged to visit the UK • businesspeople are encouraged to invest and build partnerships with the UK • people are encouraged to watch British films, read books by British authors, and listen to British radio and popular music.

13 World Englishes What is/are World English(es)? “The expression ‘world Englishes’ is capable of a range of meanings and interpretations.” (p. 240, Bolton, 2006): “…an umbrella label referring to a wide range of differing approaches to the description and analysis of English(es) worldwide.” “…the ‘new Englishes’ found in the Caribbean and in West African and East African societies…and to…Asian Englishes…” RO

14 Kachru’s “Circles” Theory
Many varieties of English are found across the globe. Kachru (1992) has classified these varieties as those used in the ‘inner circle’, the ‘outer circle’, and the ‘expanding circle’. RO

15 Using Kachru’s circle theory
Studies suggest that there were (in 2001) an estimated 375 million users of English in Inner-Circle societies, 375 million in Outer-Circle (ESL) societies, and 750-1,000 million in the Expanding (EFL) Circle (McArthur, 2001) The vast majority of teachers of English as a second and foreign language in the world today are ‘non-native’ teachers working in a wide range of settings in Outer-Circle and Expanding-Circle societies. (p. 261, Bolton, 2006). Non-native English speaking teachers = NNESTs RO

16 A historical overview mentioning Kachru’s circles
The spread of Englishes from the United Kingdom to countries where native English speakers have settled down in large numbers (Kachru’s Inner Circle countries, 1992): Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States as a first language for many as a second language (Kachru’s Outer Circle, 1992): Examples - Hong Kong, India, Singapore or a foreign language (Kachru’s Expanding Circle, 1992): Examples - Germany, Hungary, Poland, China, and Japan Reasons for the spread (Kandiah, 1998): colonization; ‘global village’ RO

17 Canagarajah on Kachru’s model of the three circles
Canagarajah: “The Circles are leaking.” Reasons: Human migration, historical and current Technology connects peoples (call center example) Rashi

18 (Notice numbers are different from McArthur’s estimates.)
LOOKING AGAIN AT KACHRU’S CIRCLES What do circles include, and what do they exclude? How would we change these circles? (Notice numbers are different from McArthur’s estimates.) Rashi Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008 Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008

19 Another way of classifying Englishes
New Englishes Older Englishes (English-based) Pidgins, Creoles and Decreolized varieties Africa Kenyan English Nigerian English South Asia Indian English Lankan English Pakistani English Southeast Asia Filipino English Malaysian English Singpore English Etc. North America American English Canadian English Great Britain English English Scots Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland Irish English Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans Australian English New Zealand English West African Pidgin Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin Sierra Leone Krio USA Black English Vernacular Hawaii English Creole Vanuatu Bislama Rashi Source: p. 9, Kandiah, T. (1998) Why New Englishes?

20 World Standard English
McArthur’s Concept: World Standard English Should and could there be a World Standard English? Whose? Why? Rashi Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008 Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008

21 Canagarajah on McArthur’s model
“There is nothing in the center.” Reasons: There is NO universal English language, nor a World Standard English (WSE). People construct English as suits their purposes in a given context at a given time. Functionality and pragmatics are more relevant than WSE. Rashi

22 Non-native standards (ideas from Kachru)
Multiple literary canon = Multicanonical Nativization (locale’s effect on English in locale), acculturation (effect of English on native lang.) “Liberation linguistics” Debate with Quirk – Kachru favors development of non-native standards (norms) RO

23 English as a double-edged sword
Even though the majority of ESL & EFL teachers in the world are NNESTs, some institutions fight to get NESTs (e.g., some Korea universities) Ambivalence about non-native varieties in Outer Circle Center still controls English language industry textbooks professional journals (changing somewhat) the concept of who the “experts” RO with comments from Rashi

24 Legitimacy However, in some some ESL contexts, such as India, locally produced materials in English may be given preference over Center-produced materials, and locally trained teachers are seen as legitimate English language teacher India

25 Varieties of English The World of Englishes: The emergence and establishment of the many varieties of English, both international and intranational. Reasons for the ‘varieties’: (p.3, Kandiah, 1998) Development of language in ‘new and unfamiliar contexts’ Contexts marked by different ecological, cultural, linguistic, social, etc. characteristics. Rashi

26 Government desire for standardization of English in Singapore:
The Anti-Singlish Campaign RO Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008

27 Can standardization and identity become balanced?
What is an error, and what is a difference? Who is a native speaker? And is that important? Rashi What things can non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) do better? What things can native English-speaking teacher (NESTs) do better? Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008 Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008

28 A Translation Lol Laugh out loud Gtg Got to go
Lylas Love you like a sister Brb Be right back waz↑ What’s up? Nm Nothing much Ctn Can’t talk now Ctn Can’t talk now Tmi Too much information Luvya Love ya Bf Boyfriend Bff Best friend Gf Girlfriend RO And as we close . . . Ttfn Tata for now Cul8r See you later Ttyl Talk to you later Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008 Rebecca L. Oxford (c) 2008

29 Varieties of Global English, each with its Own Peculiar Flavor
Deutschlish Franglish (la langue du Coca-Cola) Indian English Japlish (man-shon vs. mai-homu, basaburo, aisu-kurimu, mai-com [my computer]) Russlish Spanglish (McNeal 10, 38-39) 19

30 La Langue du Coca-Cola In France, In Canada, Loi 101 :
hot money  capitaux fébariles Jumbo jet  gros porteur Fast food  prêt-à-manger In Canada, Loi 101 : English billboards, posters and storefronts are banned. Many students are not allowed to attend English-language schools. 19

31 Competing Global Languages
Arabic Russian (before the breakup of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe) Mandarin Spanish French 19

32 Education Act of 1870: RP Cockney (Cock’s Egg)
RP (Received Pronunciation) Posh (Portside Out Starboard Home) 19

33 World War II (McCrum 23) GI Bases in England, Italy, France, Germany
GI Language was vivid, profane & abbreviated: Black Market Blitz Flak Nylons Pin-Up R & R Snafu Yank 19

34 Pin-Ups and Yank Magazine
Every issue of Yank Magazine featured a pin-up to remind soldiers of the girls back home. A pin-up of Rita Hayworth is said to have been taped to Fat Boy, the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945. Compare this with the movie Dr. Strangelove: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb. 19

35 Atomic-Bomb Words (McCrum 24)
Atomic Holocaust Chain Reaction (cf. Vonnegut’s “Ice Nine”) Fallout Fireball Fission Fusion Mushroom Cloud Test Site (NOTE: The possibility of nuclear proliferation was one of the causes of Postmodernism & Deconstructionism) 19

36 Coca-Colonialism (McCrum 24)
Budweiser Coca Cola Gillette Kellogg’s Cornflakes Kellogg’s Rice Krispies (“Snap Crackle and Pop” has to be translated into various languages) Kodak Maxwell House Coffee Schlitz Lucky Strike Marlboro 19

37 Korean and Vietnam Wars (McCrum 25-26)
Brainwashing Chopper (Helicopter) Vietnam: Defoliate Domino Theory Escalation Firefight Friendly Fire Hawks & Doves Moratorium Napalm Pacification Search and Destroy The Silent Majority (ct. the Vocal Minority) 19

38 David Ofgor, Attaché to the US Embassy in Phnom Penh:
Talking to journalists: “You always write it’s bombing, bombing, bombing. It’s not bombing. It’s air support.” (McCrum 27) 19

39 Regional Dialects (McCrum 27-29)
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Eastern Money) Harry Truman (Twangy Missouran) Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon & Gerald Ford (American Midwest) Lyndon Johnson (Southern) Ronald Reagan & Dan Rather (Network Standard) Kennedy Family (New England) George W. Bush (Texas) 19

40 Valley-Girl/Surfer-Dude: Bitchin Dude For sure Goady Rad To the max
Totally Tubular Gay Speech: Gay Out of the closet Queer Queen Women’s Speech: Ms. Letter carrier JOKE: Mannheim Germany  Personheim Gerpersony 19

41 Silicon Valley Words (California) (McCrum 30)
Artificial Intelligence CD (Compact Disk) DVD (Digital Video Disk) Data Processing Disk(ette) Flash Drive Hacker Input Interface Jump Drive Modem On-Line ROM (Read-Only Memory) Software, Hardware, Wetware Word Processor 19

42 Disadvantages of English as a Global Language
/š/  shoe, sugar, issue, mansion, mission, nation, suspicion, ocean, conscious, chaperon, schist, fuchsia, pshaw (spelled 13 ways). <sh> <ch> <ph> <th> <gh> Full, reduced, zero grades of consonants Long, Short, -r, schwa, and zero grades of vowels 15 different vowel phonemes <c> <g> <q> <s> (/s/ /š/ /z/ /ž/) <x> 19

43 !!Advantages of English as a Global Language
Natural Gender, not Grammatical Gender Simplified Word Endings resulting in greater flexibility (N  V, etc.) Teeming Vocabulary (80 % is not Anglo-Saxon) but rather: Arabic, Celtic, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Scandinavian, Spanish, etc. 19

44 To Sum Up…. The Current Status of English
Relationships are harder now because conversation become texting, arguments become phone calls and feeling becomes status updates.

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