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Ch11. Hakka, language and culture Wang, Kuo-shu National Taiwan University 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch11. Hakka, language and culture Wang, Kuo-shu National Taiwan University 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch11. Hakka, language and culture Wang, Kuo-shu National Taiwan University 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”.

2 2 Overview  Part 1 Background Knowledge Hakka in Taiwan Origins, some historical and geographical facts  Part 2 Linguistic Notes Phonology Morphology Syntax  Part 3 Cultural Phenomenon Music Customs and architecture Food

3 3 Before the talk…  What does Hakka mean? The name of the Hakka people who are the predominant original native speakers of the language literally means "guest families" or "guest people" Hak means guests Ka means home/house It explains the origin of Hakka.

4 4  PART I. Background Knowledge

5 5 Origins…  Three accepted theories: Hakka people are Han Chinese originating solely from the Central Plain in China containing today's Shanxi and Henan province. Hakka people are Han Chinese from the Central Plain with some inflow of those already in the south. The majority of Hakka people are Han Chinese from the south with portions coming from those in the north

6 6 Early History  It is known that the earliest major waves of Hakka migration started due to the attacks of just these tribes during the Jin Dynasty.  The ancestors of the Hakka migrated southwards several times because of social unrest, upheaval and invasions since the Qin Dynasty.  Hakka have suffered persecution and discrimination ever since they started migrating to southern parts of China.

7 7 Hakka in Taiwan  Population Distribution Hokkien occupies 73% Hakkanese comprise 12% (Huang, 1993)  Seven Different Dialects. Sixian Hailu Dabu Zhaoan Yongding Raoping Fengshun Huang, Heng-Ciu. (1993). Hakkanese Taiwan Literature Thesis.

8 8 Adapted by NTU 王維新 Original work: Wiki NordNordWest

9 9 行政院客家委員會 Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan)

10 10 行政院客家委員會 Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan)

11 11  PART II. Linguistic Notes

12 12 Prelude  Why is important to research Hakka? Hakka is quite conservative, and is generally closer to Middle Chinese than other modern Chinese languages. The presence of many archaic features occur in modern Hakka, including final consonants -p -t -k, as are found in other modern southern Chinese languages, but which have been lost in Mandarin.

13 13 Phonology…  Basic syllabic structure Onset + Rhyme + Tone ( consonant ) ( vowel ) ( tone )

14 14 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異。

15 15  Different combinations 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異。

16 16  Consonants Shared among all dialects: 18 鍾榮富 (2002) , 台灣各客家方言的語音差異。

17 17 Vowels  The main reason causes the intangibility between different Hakka dialects. 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異。

18 18  Tone 鍾榮富 (2002) , 台灣各客家方言的語音差異。

19 19 鍾榮富 (2002) , 台灣各客家方言的語 音差異。

20 20  Tone sandhi 13  22/__T (any tone)  等車 等車  手掌 手掌  老人 老人 55  32/__T (any tone)  鴨毛 鴨毛  台北市

21 21 Morphology  1. Numerous names of places where we raise different kinds of animals People Chicken, duck Pig, cow, dog, ants Horse

22 22  2. Semantic magnification and contraction Ex. WATER  liquid and the rain EAT  Any verbs involving mouth

23 23  Abundant nouns/descriptions of mountains and hills. Protrudent terrain  Gun, Lian, Lun, Lung, Chi, Pai, … Flat terrain  Young, Pu, Pin Hollow terrain  Hu, Kun, Li, Wo, Kun, Ku, …

24 24  The First Person Plural Exclusive  Ai Diou Inclusive  Li Diou 邱湘雲 (2006) , 海陸客家話和閩南語構詞對比研究。

25 25  Different gender affixes … 邱湘雲 (2006) ,海陸客家話和閩南語構詞對比研究。

26 26 Syntax --The usage of You (have)  1. You + Verb  past/ perfect 有食無?  Did you eat? 有買 le  I bought it 他有來過  He has even been here.  2. You + Adjective  Is it … ? 有甜無?  Is it sweet enough? 有燒無?  Is it too hot? 這細妹有靚  This girl is pretty.

27 27  3. You + Modal Adverb + V + Mo(No)  Can S V … 這有好買無?  Can we buy this? 有車賣無?  Is there any car to sell? 車有賣嗎?  Do you have car to sell? 去新竹有遠無?  Is it far to Hsinchu? 有學過無?  Have you ever studied … ?

28 28 鍾榮富 (2004) ,《台灣客家話語音導讀》。

29 29  Part III. Cultural Phenomenon

30 30 Classic Music  1. The Hakka Eight Tones It refers to the eight materials used to make instruments, namely metal, stone, string, bamboo, fruit shell, earthenware, animal hide and wood. There are the big and the small ceremonial music.

31 31 The orchestrated music is also divided into two categories. The first is concerted music played mostly with string and bamboo instruments at ceremonies.

32 32  2. Mountain Songs Mountain songs could have been hooraying or sighing in monotone. Later, melodies were developed for entertainment while people were doing labor work like picking tea, carrying loads or tilling. They may also have been rhythms for people working in the hills to greet or cheer up each other.

33 33 Architecture and Customs  1. Architecture Weilong House Wiki 文子言木 Wiki Gisling

34 34  A central axis with a north-south meridian line, rooms symmetrical east to west, at least one upper and one lower hall; the front part of the houses are lower in comparison to the back parts.  In front of the house, there is usually a large field and semicircular pond. The field is used to dry grain, the pond is used to store water, farm fish, prevent fire, fight drought etc.  The East-West wing is called the horizontal house (Hengwu).  At the end of horizontal house, there is a circle house which encloses the central house, the mid-house is called Dragon hall.

35 35 Wiki Irrons 傅豪

36 36 Cigar House Flickr yifany 大阪式建築 ( 櫓 ) from 【鳳林菸樓暖心房】 By 花蓮

37 37 Tulou  A tulou is usually a large, enclosed and fortified earth building, rectangular or circular in configuration, with very thick load-bearing rammed earth walls between three and five storeys high and housing up to 80 families.  Smaller interior buildings are often enclosed by these huge peripheral walls which can contain halls, storehouses, wells and living areas, the whole structure resembling a small fortified city.

38 38 Wiki Gisling

39 39  2. Customs Emphasize the importance of Education in particular Flickr 棟樑‧ Harry ‧黃基峰‧ Taiwan

40 40  Tomb-sweeping  Aka “ Hanging paper ” Flickr Taekwonweirdo

41 41  3. Ripped Sky Festival The compassionate goddess Nuwa tempered a five-colored stone to repair the walls of heaven and ended the misery caused by two Other deities. Ripped Sky Festival falls on the twentieth of the first month in the lunar calendar. On this day, Hakka villages would prepare a traditional Hakka delicacy — the sweet rice cake or fried rice cake — as a symbolic offering of assistance to Nuwa to repair the walls of heaven. 行政院客家委員會 Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan) Wiki user: Stout256

42 42 Food  1. Characteristics Obtaining ingredients locally The cooking is simple: to save cooking time and expense, Hakka ’ s ingredients and cooking methods are quite simple with no extra changes. Aromatic, oily, salty and cooked with year old ingredients: this is Hakka food ’ s representative feature.

43 43  1. Hakka Rice Rice is Hakka people ’ s stable food. They eat rice three meals a day. In addition to plain rice, they use rice to make all kinds of snacks. They include sweet, salty oil rice, rice noodles, Mi Tai Mu, and Mian Pa Ban. There are rice snacks that are available only on Chinese New Year, festivals, weddings, and funerals such as Hon Ban, Gui Ban, and Yu Ban.

44 44 There are also Bo Ban made of baking powder, Mi Ci Ba made of glutinous rice, and Jiu Ceng Gao made of two different kinds of powder of different qualities. All these fully exemplify Hakka women ’ s ingenious cooking skills that have created such diverse Ban products.

45 45  2. Hakka pickles Pickled vegetables have always been a Hakka specialty. They are food items that can be preserved for a long time. Various dishes have been invented using pickled vegetables. An example is planting radish between harvests of rice. In addition to eating it fresh, it can be cut into chunks (Luo Bo Gan), shredded (Luo Bo Si), or sliced (Luo Bo Qian). They become three different kinds of foodstuff that look different while all are made of radish.

46 46 Leaf mustard is the kind of vegetable Hakka people grow between rice harvests. With their skillful pickle technique, Hakka people turn leaf mustard into several famous Hakka specialties. Depending on the degree of dryness, there are Suan Cai, Fu Cai, and Mei Gan Cai. Add salt to leaf mustard and dry. Put it in a jar and let it ferment. This is Suan Cai. Put it under the sun for several days. This is Fu Cai. Fu Cai becomes Mei Gan Cai after it dehydrates completely.

47 47 Flickr JyChen Flickr Quin t_t Flickr lumei

48 48 Flickr Richard, enjoy my life! Blog 《新屋庄的客家人》

49 49 Flickr 頎 Flickr Ernesto JT

50 50 Flickr mana_wu Flickr adar.que

51 行政院農業委員會 Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan) 51 高雄市政府客家事務委員會 Hakka Affairs Commission, Kaohsiung City Government

52 52 Flickr Ray Yu Flicrk =SK= N.Hayden 順峰

53 53  Thank you!

54 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Adapted by NTU 王維新 Original work: Wiki NordNordWest location_map.svg 2011/11/27 visited 腔調分佈圖 (2008) from 行政院客家委員會 Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan) ctNode=1772&mp=1771&ps= and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 54

55 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source 台灣客家人口統計 (2008) from 行政院客家委員會 Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan) ctNode=1772&mp=1771&ps= and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW Wiki Gisling 4_rings.JPG 2011/11/26 visited 55

56 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki 文子言木 %E6%BA%AA%E5%9C%9F%E6%A5%BC%E7 %BE%A4.jpg 2011/11/26 visited Wiki Irrons 2011/11/26 visited 傅豪 ogAlbumAction.do?method=doViewAlbumImg&i mageFileId=65901&albumId= /11/27 visited 56

57 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr yifany 4/ 2011/11/27 visited 大阪式建築 ( 櫓 ) from 【鳳林菸樓暖心房】 By 花蓮 (2007) tw/article?mid=148&prev=158&next=140&l=f&fi d=48 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW Wiki Gisling jpg 2011/11/26 visited 57

58 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr 棟樑‧ Harry ‧黃基峰‧ Taiwan / 2011/11/26 visited Flickr Taekwonweirdo 907/ 2011/11/26 visited Ripped Sky Festival (2010) from Council for Hakka Affairs, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan) &ctNode=216&mp=1 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 58

59 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Wiki user: Stout256 Fuxi_and_N%C3%BCwa3.jpg 2011/11/26 visited Flickr JyChen 1/ 2011/11/26 visited Flickr Quin t_t 008/ 2011/11/26 visited Flickr lumei 48/ 2011/11/26 visited 59

60 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr Richard, enjoy my life! 92/ 2011/11/26 visited 《新屋庄的客家人》 cleAction.do?method=doViewBlogArticle&articleI d=NDgzNzc= 2011/11/26 visited Flickr Ernesto JT 7/ 2011/11/26 visited Flickr 頎 9747/ 2011/11/26 visited 60

61 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source Flickr mana_wu 8954/ 2011/11/26 visited Flickr adar.que / 2011/11/26 visited 客家菜包 from 高雄市政府客家事務委員會 Hakka Affairs Commission, Kaohsiung City Government 7&strlink=CookbookDetail&coo_id=17 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 61

62 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source 客家菜包 from 行政院農業委員會 Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan) (2011) anDetail&func=K&id=K_shujune_ &graph_idx=1 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW Flickr Ray Yu / 2011/11/26 visited Flicrk =SK= N.Hayden 順峰 / 2011/11/26 visited 62

63 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.7 Huang, Heng-Ciu. (1993). Hakkanese Taiwan Literature Thesis. Gaosyong, Taiwan: Ai-hua and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.14 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異,頁 56 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.15 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異,頁 57 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.16 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異,頁 65 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.17 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異,頁 112 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 63

64 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.18 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異, 頁 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.19 鍾榮富 (2002) ,台灣各客家方言的語音差異, 頁 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.24 邱湘雲 (2006) ,海陸客家話和閩南語構詞對比研究,頁 73 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 64

65 Copyright Declaration WorkLicensingAuthor/Source p.25 邱湘雲 (2006) ,海陸客家話和閩南語構詞對比研究,表 68 ,頁 278 。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW p.28 鍾榮富 (2004) ,《台灣客家話語音導讀》,頁 。 台北:五南。 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by NTU OCW 65


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