Presentation on theme: "Mike Meakin, B. Sc., PMP President, InnUVative Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1Land, Sea and Air: The Application of JAUS and STANAG 4586 for Cross-Domain Unmanned Vehicle Control Mike Meakin, B. Sc., PMPPresident, InnUVative SystemsPrepared for: Unmanned Systems Interoperability ConferenceSan Diego, Oct 2010
2Outline Background Description of STANAG 4586 system Description of 4CE Control StationJAUS VSM Implementation ProcessDifficulties & Successes EncounteredPath Forward for InteroperabilityConclusion
3Company BackgroundSoftware development company founded in January 2007 by three individuals with more than 19 years experience in the UAV software development industrySpecifically targeted at the unmanned vehicles industrySpecializing in UV software developmentUsing well recognized engineering practices within an established and controlled development environmentFollow fundamental project management principles as recognized by the Project Management Institute
4Accomplishments Member of STANAG-4586 Working Group Developed STANAG-4586 Vehicle Specific Module (VSM) for the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) protocolallows control of a JAUS compliant vehicle from a STANAG-4586 compliant UAV Control StationActive with SAE AS-4 JAUS Committee defining JAUS standardIntegrated and flew Aeryon Labs Scout MAV with STANAG-4586 VSMMember of Transport Canada UAV Working Group defining regulations for UAV operations in Canadian air spaceWorking with Singaporean customer to develop military UAV capability and ConOps including integration of CCI backend for data and control distributionDeveloped and delivered Introductory UAV course for PMs, engineers and military officers in Singapore (2009 & 2010)Currently integrating MicroPilot UAV autopilot, used by dozens of fixed wing and rotary wing UAVsWorking on Canadian Space Agency manipulator solution for Lunar rover
8Simplified Interfaces This- complicated 4586 connection logic…Becomes this- a simplified user interface for connectingUsing simplified interfaces to hide the underlying complexity of the system, the operator is able to quickly and easily place the vehicles and payloads where he needs them to accomplish his mission.
9Advanced Status PanelThe Status Panel not only informs the operator when situations arise requiring their attention, it also supplies them with a fully interactive checklist wizard that guides them through the corrective action necessary for specific problems.
10User ConfigurabilityThe emergency checklist wizard is xml-based, allowing the user to modify it without coming back to InnUVative Systems. Likewise, the end user can define their own warning messages to post to the status panel using the STANAG 4586 warning message format. All source code developed for the customer is delivered to customer, along with the STANAG 4586 message set libraries. This allows the customer to modify their protocol and map the changes to the 4586 message set- or even generate a system-specific dialog- without engaging InnUVative Systems
11JAUS VSM Implementation: Requirements The SysML approach allowed the two ICDs to be placed into the same format for increased ease in mapping of ICD elements, despite the fact that the two ICDs were constructed in totally different manners:
12JAUS VSM Implementation: Requirements Reviewing the two ICDs side-by-side certainly highlights the differences between the two:JAUS assumed commands such as iris and gain settings and location wrt CofG for a camera that STANAG does not include as part of its basic message setJAUS assumes information such as the platform boundaries, platform geometry, turn radius, static rollover limit, etc. would be importantSTANAG assumes barometric pressure is important information to be exchangedEach protocol clearly reflected it’s heritage…The JAUS protocol was well-suited to supporting intra-system “plug n play” hardware and utilizes protocol extensibility via use of “experimental” messages to achieve thisSTANAG protocol is designed with inter-system interoperability as its explicit goal and uses abstraction via the use of standard graphical interfaces to achieve thisThe conclusion was that JAUS is truly a well thought out architecture with a protocol that is extensible while STANAG is a truly well thought out protocol with little to no aspirations as an architecture…
13JAUS VSM Implementation: Requirements The original intent was to make this exercise as challenging to a VSM implementation as possible:Identified specific datalink, vehicle and manipulator messages to supportOpportunity arose with a vehicle manufacturer who was interested in using our VSM for a sea vehicle demoModified version of STANAG from 2.1 to 2.4 and JAUS from 3-2 to 3-3Also changed manipulator messages for camera messagesSet of JAUS messages supported (uplink and downlink):10 of 23 system messages;4 of 8 datalink messages (start/ stop, hi/ low power, point, etc. supported);10 of 41 vehicle messages (steering, attitude, engine and waypoint supported);6 of 18 camera messages (pointing, zoom, focus, etc. supported)Zero manipulator messagesNo support for service connections (just queried periodically)- this accounted for most of the unsupported system messages
14Difficulties & Successes Encountered Change to STANAG 4586 version and modification to target messages for JAUSThe lack of backwards compatibility- even from STANAG 2.1 to 2.4- made this kind of switch non-trivialUse of the SysML approach to requirements shielded the developers from these issuesAmbiguity in ICDsVehicle_ID_Update: “This is the vehicle ID that will be replace the current Vehicle ID” this was corrected but is an example of the issues found when actually implementing an ICD for realSTANAG Connection LogicNeed sequence diagram and use cases to explainIntent of virtual vehicles may not be needed in real life…SVN proved very capable of rolling back code when neededSupport for Presence Vector within JAUS was not clearly understood by developers in first implementation
15Results of JAUS VSM Implementation As a measure of the VSM capability itself, we had:A total of 321 tests were developed and executed for the VSM, with only12 failures (only minor functionality) for a 96.3% pass rateThe EA tool allowed explicit checks of traceability to ensure that all requirements have both a “Realization” link and a “Test” linkThe level of effort expended for this development effort was approximately one person yearThis yielded not only a functional JAUS VSM but also two test tools and a re-usable code base that makes the futureVSM development much faster and lower risk
16The Future of Interoperability Based on our experience of developing this System Specific Module for JAUS, InnUVative Systems has developed an approach to interoperability between the two standards that allows a high degree of supported functionality between units, even in the absence of specific training on a given vehicle or system...
174586 UAV Interoperability Combined UAV Combat Operations Giving the soldier an organic air capability is importantAllowing that organic air capability to leverage off wide area surveillance platforms allows him to put what he sees into context with the wider battle…It’s useful for the soldier to know:There is a fire fight two blocks NorthA bridge is out three blocks EastEtc.Mixed assets:C7mortars andartilleryLikewise:micro/ smalltactical andMALE UAVsNeed mixed assets for different tasks
18Interoperability with STANAG 4586 In this example, every fielded MAV system (e.g Ravens) becomes an RVT for every 4586 tactical or MALE (e.g. Sky Warrior) vice the half dozen or so RVTs currently available for each tactical/ MALE systemSTANAG 4586Core MsgVehicle SpecificSTANAG 4586Core MsgVehicle SpecificVehicle SpecificModuleSTANAG 4586 Compliant control station with no Vehicle Specific ModuleLevel of Interoperability 3/4 (~80% mission capability after launch)STANAG 4586 Compliant control station with Vehicle Specific ModuleLevel of Interoperability 5 (FULL)
19InteroperabilityIt is important to note that the common protocol solution is only one part of the interoperability problemNeed common waveform solution (STANAG 7085 TCDL, STANAG 4660 Common C2 link, etc.)For given control station, features supported by common protocol are presented as the same user interface across all systemsAllows operators untrained on specific systems to safely take control knowing system will behave as expectedGreatly reduces delta training as new UV systems are added
20Cross Domain Interoperability Combined UGV/ UAV Combat OperationsGiving the soldier the ability to see what threats are around the corner has been extremely importantThe next step is to relieve the soldier of having to be first around the corner to address the threatSome systems have already anticipated the push to arm UGVsIntegration of armed UGVs- via JAUS or native protocol- into STANAG4586 allows the combined operations goal identified in the UAS Roadmap from OSD
21STANAG 4586/ JAUS Interoperability Use of domain agnostic control and status interfaces is key to allowing operator control of different systemsSTANAG 4586Core MsgVehicle SpecificJAUSCoreMsgJAUSExperimentalMsgVehicle SpecificModuleSupport for JAUS Core message set allows operation of most of a mission even by operators unfamiliar with the systemJAUSVSMSTANAG 4586 Compliant control station with JAUS VSMLevel of Interoperability 3/4 (~80% of mission??)
22STANAG 4586/ JAUS Interoperability By adding a vehicle-specific plug-in, the JAUS control set can be expanded to support the full vehicle functionalitySTANAG 4586Core MsgVehicle SpecificJAUSCoreMsgJAUSExperimentalMsgVehicle SpecificModuleJAUSVSMAn additional plug-in translates the JAUS Exp Msg set to 4586 and VSM GUIVeh Spec ModuleSTANAG 4586 Compliant control station with JAUS VSM + Veh specific tranlsationLevel of Interoperability 5 (FULL)
23Harmonization of 4586 & JAUS Not surprisingly, there is a large overlap between the two core message sets alreadyCoordination between the two standards authorities could further increase this overlap, thus improving interoperability between systems, even in the absence of vehicle-specific supportJAUSMessage Set4586Message Set
24ConclusionsInteroperability between STANAG 4586 and JAUS is possible to a significant degree right nowGreater interoperability is inevitable in the futureThe two standards do not have to be treated as competitive but can instead be complementaryCoordination between the two standards bodies could define a largely common core message set that supports the “~80% mission” via the core message sets onlyThis then supports many of the inter-unit and international interoperability goals on an opportunistic basis!Use of a common control station supporting domain-agnostic control interfaces will allow interoperation with low risk and very low training overhead
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