Presentation on theme: "The Somali Civil War. Geography Capital: Mogadishu Coastline = 2,720 km Horn of Africa North hilly Central & South flat "Somalia Map - African Countries,"— Presentation transcript:
The Somali Civil War
Geography Capital: Mogadishu Coastline = 2,720 km Horn of Africa North hilly Central & South flat "Somalia Map - African Countries, Map of Somalia Facts Landforms - World Atlas." World Atlas including Geography Facts, Maps, Flags - Worldatlas.com. Web. 07 Jan
Somalia Geography Pay close attention here. Somalia is the easternmost country in all of Africa. Together with Ethiopia, Somalia occupies what is called The Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa takes its name from the fact that if you look at this part of Africa (on a map), it looks like the horn of a rhinoceros. On your maps, label (1) Somalia (2) Mogadishu (3) The Horn of Africa
Geography Mogadishu, at 1.5 million people, is the largest and most important city in Somalia. It is a coastal city (shown in the picture). Somalia has a predominantly desert climate—rain is irregular, and the weather is hot year-round. One last thing is that Somalia is mostly flat. The only highlands in Somalia are in the northern part of the country.
Climate Annual Rainfall NE: Less than 4 inches Central: 8-12 inches SW and NW: inches Seasons Gu (rainy) April-June Hagaa (dry)July-September Day (rainy)October-November Jiilaal (dry)December-March
Climate (cont.) Somalia mainly has a desert climate. They experience irregular rainfall. The northeast experiences monsoons from December through February. The southwest region experiences monsoons from May to October. Hot and humid periods exist between monsoons. Moderate temperatures exist in the north, and hot temperatures in the south.
Natural Disasters Droughts A recurring disaster in Somalia Dust Storms Usually occur over the eastern plains during the summer season Floods Only occur during the rainy season
Environmental Issues Famine The UN declared a famine in 5 southern regions of Somalia in Million people survive on food aid 2.8 million of those live in Southern Somalia Use of Contaminated Water Costal Contamination Loss of Biodiversity
Land Degradation Deforestation Overgrazing Soil erosion Desertification
People There are only 10 million people in Somalia. Somalia is sparsely populated due to the desert-like climate and history of civil war. Almost all Somalis are Muslim. They worship Allah. Pictured is an Islamic mosque in Mogadishu.
People 60% = nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists (north) 25% = farmers who live mainly in the fertile agricultural zone (south) 15% = urban "Understanding Somalia." MercatorNet: promoting human dignity. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan
Somalia Population Year Population Rank Percent Change Date of Information ,558, % July 2008 est. Population growth rate: 2.824% (2008 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.7% (male 2,143,758/female 2,132,869) years: 52.8% (male 2,525,562/female 2,516,879) 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 100,655/female 138,943) (2008 est.) urban population: 37% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change ( )
Population Birth rate: per 1,000 persons in the population Death rate: per 1,000 persons in the population Median age: total: 17.5 years male: 17.4 years female: 17.6 years (2008 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births male: deaths/1,000 live births female: deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Population Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (2008 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: years male: years female: years (2008 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Population of Somaliland Estimated at 3.5 million Average population growth rate: Estimated at 3.1% Average life expectancy for: males: 50 females: 55
People Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) Religions: Sunni Muslim Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
People Somalis maintain Islamic traditional norms about handshaking, limiting physical contact to persons of the same sex. Not all people from Somalia are ethnic Somali. The Bantus, in particular, may have special needs because of their historical marginalization in Somalia and distinct language and culture.
People Social Structure, Family, and Gender The family is deeply valued in Somali culture Approximately one-fifth of the population lives in polygamous households Marriages traditionally have been arranged, but marriages based on love are increasingly permitted. The previous socialist regime made some efforts to improve opportunities for women so that Somali women generally have more freedom to learn, work, and travel than most other Muslim women.
People Somali Clans can serve as a source of conflict or solidarity They often form alliances for protection, access to water, or political power These alliances are very important to many Somalis and can outweigh their allegiance to a unified country of Somalia
Economy Somalia is poor, yeah...Did you expect it to be rich? Per capita GDP is around $600. Somalia is a very large livestock producer. Many Somalis were nomads and pastoralists who work their livestock. Livestock produces about 40% of GDP and 65% of export earnings. Somalia currently has very little industry.
Economy GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.387 billion (2007 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2007 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $600 (2007 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 65% industry: 10% services: 25% (2000 est.)
Economy Currency: Somali shilling Exchange rates: Somali shillings per US dollar - 1,438.3 (2006) official rate; the unofficial black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per dollar as of February 2007 Labor force: 3.7 million (few skilled laborers) (1975 estimate) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 71% (reminder: arable land: 1.64%) industry and services: 29% (1975 estimate)
Economy Exports: $300 million f.o.b. (2006) Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal Exports - partners: UAE 50.7%, Yemen 21%, Oman 6.1% (2007)
Economy Imports: $798 million f.o.b. (2006) Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat Imports - partners: Djibouti 34.4%, India 9.1%, Kenya 9%, Oman 6%, UAE 5.6%, Yemen 5.5% (2007)
Child labor UNICEF estimates 41.9 % of children (5 to 14 years) working. Most worked in agriculture and domestic service. Children used for forced labor or sexual exploitation.
Social Well-Being Indicators Poverty Rate Extreme Poverty: 43% General Poverty: 73% Income Inequality Literacy Total: 37.8% Male: 49.7% Female: 25.8%
Education Primary Education Attendance Male: 24% Female: 22% Secondary School Attendance Male: 8% Female: 4% Lowest in the World! !
Education No government operated public school system or required education since % of primary schools in Somalia required students to pay fees. School in Somali Refugee Camp ↑
Access to Water and Sanitation Access to improved drinking source: 29% Access to improved sanitation: 25% High prices: $7 Long walks: 20km Prioritizing Children and IDPs diarrheal diseases
Health Malnutrition Maternal Health Communicable Diseases HIV/AIDS STIs
Colonial Background Britain and Italy colonized Somalia After WWII Italy had to give its holding to England In 1960, Somalia declared independence Despite sharing the same language, ethnicity and religion there are deep divisions A system of rival clans and sub-clans made establishing a stable government almost impossible
History Clans Imperialism (late 1800s) Britain,Italy,France Independence (June 26th,1960) United Republic of Somalia Abdullahi Issa & Aden Abdullah Osman Daar Abdirashid Ali Shermarke
History (cont.) Assassination of President Sharmarke Army seizes power, 1969 General Siad Barre leads overthrow regime
History Somalia was formed in Military takeover in Mohamed Siad Barre became dictator. Overthrown in 1991.
Civil War Socialist dictator, Muhammad Siad Barre, is president from , when he is deposed in military coup Essentially, the parties involved are: 1. the US supported Transitional Federal Government 2. the Union of Islamic Courts which has a militant wing 3. various warlords
Republic of Somaliland Declared its own local government in Remains unrecognized by any international organization. Rebelled against the Siad Barre style dictatorship.
Rise of Siad Barre Scientific Socialism Marxism + Koranic interpretation Expansionist Somali nationalism Homogenous, centralized nation-state Unstable because of clans Attempted to reclaim territory from Ethiopia
Siad Barre's Dictatorship Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) End "tribalism, nepotism, corruption, and misrule" Aligned with Soviet Union National Security Services (NSS) 'Somali Gestapo' Clan favoritism M.O.D (the Mareehaan, Ogaden and Dulbahante)
Ogaden War ( ) Ogaden region in Ethiopia Somali National Army 3 years after fall of Ethiopia’s Emperor Haile Sellasie Soviet Union & Cuba alliance change Supported new Marxist Ethiopia Withdrew support from Barre
Ogaden War ( ) cont. Effects of the war 1983 → 1.3 million refugees in Somalia Economy in the north Clan favoritism & resentment Issaq clan Ogadeen clan
Brief History of Somalia Post-World War II Was a protectorate of Great Britain 1960 Achieved independence 1970s Military dictatorship Under Mohamed Siad Barre 1980s Somalia's strategic importance was diminished due to end of the Cold War Government became even more totalitarian
Uprising in the NW ( ) Majeerteen clan The Red Berets Destroyed water reservoirs 2,000 Majeerteen died from thirst Violence against women/children
Overthrow of Siad Barre Somali National Movement (SNM) 1979 Isaaq exiles 1980s → Ogadeen refugees in (north) Isaaq clan territory 1988 SNM raided refugee camp Barre = civilian assault United States government provided $163.5 million to Barre Lost Iranian ally 1979 revolution Horn of Africa to Gulf oil shipping routes Barre's army =120,000 troops
Overthrow of Siad Barre (cont.) United Somali Congress (USC) 1989 Hawiye clan exiles Red Berets Violence against Hawiye and Isaaq clans Bombing of Hargeisa, 2 nd largest city, 70% destroyed, 400,000 fled to Ethiopia January 27 th,1991 → USC fought back Drove Siad Barre out of Mogadishu
The Result Republic of Somaliland Somali National Movement (SNM) NW Mohammad Ibrahim Egal → “president of Somaliland United Somali Congress (USC) Seized Mogadishu Siad Barre dies in exile 4 years later → Nigeria
Civil War The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in Somalia. The tribes waged vicious wars against each other to control water, and pasture, and cattle. With the country embroiled in a civil war, famine struck, and many Somalis began to die—an estimated 300,000.
Famine and Starvation in Somalia When Somalia’s government collapsed in 1991, the resulting civil war led to severe disruptions in food production and distribution. An estimated 300,000 Somalis starved to death.
Somali Civil War – 1991 Results of the Somali Civil War Barre is ousted from leadership Disrupted agriculture, food & water distribution Based on clan allegiances and competition for resources
Somali Civil War – 1991 More Results Famine – approx. 300,000 dead UN Security Council authorized the limited peacekeeping operation Completely disregarded by the warring factions
More Violence in Somalia USC has no plans for permanent government No reconciliation between factions and armed groups USC splits Muhammad Fara Aidid & Ali Mahdi Mahdi → Somali Salvation Alliance (SSA) Declared himself “president of Somalia”
Warlords The country was ruled by a number of warlords A person with power who has military and civil control over a an area Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central government Alliance of warlords was formed in 1992 Operated under the authority of Mohamed Farrah Aidid Declared himself President of Somalia
More Violence in Somalia (cont.) Somali National Front (SNF) Siad Barre's supporters Guerbaharre 1991 → 6 months open combat between groups September 1991 → USC dominated, more street fighting in Mogadishu
Effects of Turmoil Government & civil society decayed Food distribution collapsed Drought exacerbated the effects Famine in south 1992, international aid 80% food shipments looted by armed groups & government The United Nations decides to intervene
Role of United Nations In 1992, the United Nations (UN) authorized a peacekeeping force, whose objective was to provide food supplies to Somalia and a safe, orderly way of distributing that food. In a way, the UN’s actions in Somalia were similar to what see saw in Rwanda. Remember that? The difference in Somalia is that UN forces were there to provide food during a famine. The problem the UN encountered, though, was that the warring tribes simply attacked the UN food supplies, stole the food, and then sold it themselves, making lots of $. The worst of these thieves was a ruthless warlord named Mohammed Farah Aidid.
United States Response In December of 1992, President Bush ordered Operation Restore Hope Primary mission of restoring order in Somalia President Bill Clinton took office in January 1993 and continued the Operation
The United States in Somalia “Operation Restore Hope” August – October 1992
Mohammed Farah Aidid / Operation Restore Hope Mohammed Farah Aidid was a tribal warlord at the center of Somalia’s civil war in Aidid became notorious for attacking and plundering UN food and medical supplies. While thousands of Somalis were starving to death, Aidid’s forces were stealing relief supplies, then selling them make money. In December 1992, under President George HW Bush, the United States organized a military coalition whose objective was to stop the warlords (including Aidid) and to create a safe environment in Somalia so that food and medicine could be distributed. This mission was called Operation Restore Hope. Initially, Operation Restore Hope was successful. The famine was alleviated, and by May 1993, most of the US troops were withdrawn. Aidid did not give up, however, and after May 1993 he devised new attacks on the UN peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in Somalia. The US then made the fateful decision to either kill or capture Aidid. This set the stage for what became known as “Blackhawk Down.”
United Nations Operation in Somalia I (April March 1993) Monitor cease fire Escort delivery of humanitarian supplies Resolution 751 (1992) Mission strengthens Resolution 767 (1992) Operational zones: Berbera, Bossasso, Mogadishu and Kismayo Military of 750 units, all ranks Worked with United Task Force (UNITAF) Resolution 794 (1992): “All means necessary” 24 countries led by the USA
US Involvement UN and US begin to provide humanitarian and nation building aid prior to 1993 In June of UN workers were brutally murdered prompting the UN to demand the arrest and trial of those responsible US led air raids resulted in the death of respected clan leaders and resentment
UNOSOM I (cont.) 100-Day Action Plan massive infusion of food aid aggressive expansion of supplementary feeding provision of basic health services and mass measles immunization urgent provision of clean water, sanitation and hygiene provision of shelter materials, blankets and clothes simultaneous delivery of seeds, tools and animal vaccines with food rations prevention of further refugee outflows institution-building and rehabilitation of civil society. Factions shelled and hijacked supply ships and vehicles
The Home-Front Many Somalis resented the international forces Many took up arms and actively resisted the UN and US On June 5, 1993, one of the deadliest attacks on UN forces in Somalia occurred 24 UN soldiers were killed in Mogadishu (controlled by Aidid)
The UN Responds The next day, the UN issued Resolution 837 calling for the arrest and trial of those responsible for the ambush US and UN began an attack on Aidid’s control Aidid remained defiant, and the violence between Somalis and UN troops escalated
The Battle of Mogadishu Fought on October 3 and 4, 1993, in Mogadishu, Somalia Operation was to capture top officials to Aidid
Blackhawk Down (1993) Essentially, the US put together an elite team of soldiers called Task Force Ranger to hunt down and kill or capture Mohammed Farah Aidid and Aidid’s top lieutenants. On October 3, 1993, the US knew that Aidid was in a building in the city of Mogadishu (the capital city of Somalia). Task Force Ranger attempted to execute a complex “snatch and grab” mission to capture Aidid. As part of this mission, several Blackhawk helicopters were used to drop elite US forces off at specific locations in Mogadishu.
) Task Force Ranger was not expecting to encounter hostile resistance from Aidid’s men. However, as the Blackhawk helicopters began dropping the US soldiers into Mogadishu, the Americans ran into one hell of a firefight. Some of the Somalis were using RPGs (Rocket-Propelled Grenades), and they used these weapons to shoot down 2 of the Blackhawks.
For the next 24 hours, US forces scrambled to save the crews of the two downed Blackhawks. This became a red-hot firefight between American forces and Somali tribal soldiers. 19 Americans were killed. One of slain Blackhawk pilots was dragged through the streets of Mogadishu, footage that sickened Americans.
The Battle of Mogadishu During the operation, two US Black Hawk helicopters were shot down Some soldiers were trapped at the crash sites A combined task force was sent to rescue the trapped soldiers Results US Forces 19 Killed 84 Wounded Somali Forces Est Killed Est. 1,500 Wounded
Fallout from Mogadishu
Black Hawk Down Somalis shot down a Black Hawk helicopter killing the soldiers on board and the US withdrew-policy during Clinton Administration After 9/11 the US was very concerned about terrorism and the strategic location of Somalia as a breeding ground for terrorists US began aiding warlords, training Ethiopian forces and providing counter-terrorism training to other nations in the region
Black Hawk Down "Black Hawk Down (2001) - IMDb." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 07 Jan Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden Web. 07 Jan
Fallout from Mogadishu American Foreign Policy Became a cautionary influence on US policy When US considers sending soldiers into foreign crisis zones – “remember Somalia” Americans were repulsed at the images of soldiers' corpses being dragged through the streets
Reconciliation January 1993, meeting convened by the Secretary-General 14 Somali political movements agreed on a ceasefire pledged to hand over all weapons to UNITAF and UNOSOM General Agreement of 8 January 1993 Agreement On Implementing The Cease-fire And On Modalities Of Disarmament Agreement On The Establishment Of An Ad Hoc Committee The Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia (March 1993) leaders of 15 political movements endorsed an accord on disarmament, reconstruction and the formation of a transitional government.
Transition to UNOSOM II Supplanted UNITAF To help ensure a secure environment in Somalia Rebuild and reestablish Infrastructure Economy Chapter VII, Resolution 814 (1993)
UNOSOM II (cont.) Soldiers killed by factions → disregarded agreements of ceasefire Resolution 837 (1993) Take all necessary measures to defend armed attacks Quick Reaction Force Nairobi Declaration & Addis Ababa Agreement Peace throughout Somalia & ceasefire Factions/clans broke agreement Secretary-General urged another conference to appoint new government
UNOSOM II(March March 1995) Transition of operational control from UNITAF Effective deployment and consolidation of United Nations operational control throughout Somalia and the border regions Reduction of UNOSOM II military activity, and assistance to civil authorities in exercising greater responsibility Reduction of UNOSOM II force
End of UNOSOM II Secretary-General: only the Somalis themselves could establish acceptable peace International community could help the process → can't be sustained indefinitely Withdraw of UNOSOM II force → March 28,1995 United Nations agencies and organizations NGOs
The End of International Involvement Withdrawal President Clinton called for a full withdrawal by March Marines were completely removed from the area by 1995 The UN also withdrew forces Ended the UN effort to help a country in anarchy and civil war
The End of International Involvement Results Secretary of Defense Les Aspin resigned Blamed for denying the US Army permission to use tanks US politicians didn’t want tanks in Somalia Thought it would look bad for “peacekeeping”
Post UNOSOM Somalia Central government Law system
TNG and the ICU International Conferences Area of conflict ICU dominance Effect of ICU rule Al-Shabaab declares black Islamic flag in Somalia
ICU and Ethiopia ICU's power spread Ethiopian outlook African Union
ICU-TNG Conflict African Union thwarted Arms buildup Jihad Baidoa
Puntland State of Somalia Claimed autonomy in 1998 Do not want to be fully independent of Somalia. Have developed at a greater rate than mainland Somalia.
Population of Puntland Estimated at 2.4 million Population growth rate of Puntland State is currently very high due to the influx of people from war-torn southern Somalia and from neighboring countries.
Puntland: Signs of Development Ministry of Women Development and Family Affairs Ministry of Finance Ministry of Health Ministry of Education
Somalia Overall, the government has little control and is instable. Forbes magazine ranked Somalia as the most dangerous destination in the world.
Presently Somalis are worried they will wind up being ruled by the Ethiopians-resentful of the standing Ethiopian army occupying their country Ethiopia is concerned about Eritrea using the situation (instability in Somalia) to invade them and use Somalia to launch attacks against them
Ethiopia Invades Their civil war in the 1990’s destroyed the country's government In 2006 Ethiopia invaded Somalia (with help from the United States) to prevent it from becoming an Islamist government
Ethiopian Invasion Victory ICU's Fate
Islamist Groups Al-Shabaab Hizbul Islam Islamic Courts Union
War Leads to Piracy As a result of that, foreign fishing ships started fishing in Somali waters for it’s tuna, which caused economic problems in Somalia's fishing industry. The fishermen, with access to small arms and portable rockets, went out to sea to attack the foreign cargo, and cargo ships. This eventually turned into organized piracy
Pirates ?? Due to the extreme limited opportunities to make a living in Somalia many have turned to Piracy in the Gulf of Aiden. Began when neighboring countries began illegally fishing in Somali waters Angry Somali fishermen boarded and demanded “fees” Called themselves ‘Coast guards’, organized like a military
Today Somali pirates seize anything from freighters to luxury cruise liners Pirates in 2008 pulled in as much as $150 million, placing it as Somalia’s biggest industry Bosses can pull in $2 million/year
Why and how they do it They captured merchant ships off the coast of Yemen, Somalia, and Kenya and hold them for ransom The ship owners and the insurance companies pay the ransom because it is cheaper to pay it than to lose the ship and its cargo
Piracy Ships from the United states, United Kingdom, Russia, and India patrol the Somalia coats and try to stop the piracy Ships are now arming themselves to protect against attack from pirates
How to Handle the Piracy Issue Some people have suggested to use amphibious or air attacks on the pirates Others think we should pay them off The best solution is to get a functioning government in Somalia to control it citizens
Coalition Government Moderate Islamists and the TNG Mogadishu Technocratic government
Recent Occurences Drought and famine Al-Shabaab Possible AU peacekeeper increase Kenya UN
Problems that the UN face in Somalia United Nations aid workers in the country are limited as there is no established protection on site. Aid workers face the constant threat of kidnapping for ransom. International aid has been routinely looted due to a variety of factors including government corruption and desperate food and health conditions. Islamist groups view the United Nations with distrust and deny it access to their land, believing that the United Nations has a political agenda.
UN Role In Somalia No large-scale United Nations peacekeeping operation in the country since the UNOSOM II. Passed Resolution 1838, in which an anti-piracy fleet is sanctioned to operate off of Somalia's lawless coastline. The World Food Programme (WFP), a United Nations program, also has a presence in the country. A United Nations program designated towards establishing a functioning government in Somalia called the United Nations Political Office for Somalia is currently active in Kenya.
Solutions 1.UN Peacekeepers – Offensive action – Protection of aid – Protection of government institutions 2.United Nations Political Office for Somalia – Development IMF
Solutions (cont.) 3. International Help – AU – Anti-insurgency – Monetary goals 4. Political Unification – TNG – Puntland – Somaliland 5. End to Piracy 6. Alleviate the Effects of the Famine – Long term and short term goals
Bibliography 1.The United Nations' database on the UNOSOM I & UNOSOM II 2.From United Nations Political Office for Somalia 3.Somalia – Infrastructure, Power, and Communications 4.GlobalSecurity on the Somalia Civil War 5.From AllAfrica, information pertaining to the Islamist's stance on the United Nations was obtained. 6.General history of the Somali Civil War 7.Information on the Somali Civil War was taken from Conciliation Resources. 8.GlobalSecurity on the far-reaching consequences of the Somalia Civil War