2 Geography Capital: Mogadishu Coastline = 2,720 km Horn of Africa North hillyCentral & Southflat"Somalia Map - African Countries, Map of Somalia Facts Landforms - World Atlas." World Atlas including Geography Facts, Maps, Flags - Worldatlas.com. Web. 07 Jan <http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/so.htm>.
3 Somalia GeographyPay close attention here.Somalia is the easternmost country in all of Africa.Together with Ethiopia, Somalia occupies what is called The Horn of Africa.The Horn of Africa takes its name from the fact that if you look at this part of Africa (on a map), it looks like the horn of a rhinoceros.On your maps, label (1) Somalia (2) Mogadishu (3) The Horn of Africa
4 GeographyMogadishu, at 1.5 million people, is the largest and most important city in Somalia. It is a coastal city (shown in the picture). Somalia has a predominantly desert climate—rain is irregular, and the weather is hot year-round. One last thing is that Somalia is mostly flat. The only highlands in Somalia are in the northern part of the country.
5 Climate Annual Rainfall Seasons NE: Less than 4 inches Central: 8-12 inchesSW and NW: inchesSeasonsGu (rainy) April-JuneHagaa (dry) July-SeptemberDay (rainy) October-NovemberJiilaal (dry) December-MarchPrimary Factor in Much of Somali lifeNomadic population- Timing and amount of rainfall determines adequacy of grazing and prospects of prosperityTemperatures*Some of the highest mean temperatures in worldBerbera: Northern coast: over 100°F June-SeptemberMaximums higher inlandAlong Indian Ocean- considerably lower (cold offshore current)Mogadishu: 83°F (july), 90°F (April)Hot throughout the year except in high elevations of northNorth: Great temperature extremesBelow freezing in highlands in December45 °C (113F) in the coastal plain in the Gulf of AdenRainfallArid in NE, less than 4 inchesSemi-arid in NW and SouthSome indication that it has become drier in the past centuryGrowing # of people and animals put a growing burden on water and vegetationSeasonsGu – Main Rainy seasonbrief period where the desert turns into a gardenLush vegetationWater= plentifulPerson’s age is calculated in terms of the number of Gus livedHagaa-dry seasonRains fall in coastal areasJiilall- Main dry seasonharshest for pastoralists and herdsDay-second rainy season
6 Climate (cont.) Somalia mainly has a desert climate. They experience irregular rainfall.The northeast experiences monsoons from December through February. The southwest region experiences monsoons from May to October.Hot and humid periods exist between monsoons.Moderate temperatures exist in the north, and hot temperatures in the south.
7 Natural Disasters Droughts Dust Storms Floods A recurring disaster in SomaliaDust StormsUsually occur over the eastern plains during the summer seasonFloodsOnly occur during the rainy seasonDrought PicturesDry river bedAbdi ObleyOne of richest nomads in his region180 Cattle- only 2 are now aliveBeing treated for severe malnutritionFamily from Western SomaliaBegging day and night for waterTheir well has run dryNearest water = 12kmPeople in region are nomads, rely on animals to surviveEven hardy camels feeling the effects of draughtLess resistant animals are dyingSome still being used to transport waterDust storms – frequent over the Eastern plains in the summerFloods- during rainy seasonExample- December Central and Southern SomaliaShabelle River overflowed after 8 hours of rain locally and extensive rains in the Ethiopian highlandsless than 1 year ago it was bone dryAfected over 300,000 peopleMalaria risk –standing water is a breeding ground for mosquetosFlood effects: destruction of crops, displacement, knocked out bridges, impassible road, housing destroyed, animals diedTsunami: 2004: toxic waste washed ashore
8 Environmental Issues Famine Use of Contaminated Water The UN declared a famine in 5 southern regions of Somalia in 20113.2 Million people survive on food aid2.8 million of those live in Southern SomaliaUse of Contaminated WaterCostal ContaminationLoss of BiodiversityFamine:: 300,000 Somali’s starved to death, displaced up to 2 millionIDP reference: many living on less than 1 meal/dayPiracy reference: Warships must escort food shipsManipulating food aid could become a weaponUse of Contaminated WaterWater shortages (climate and geography) have led to the use of unsanitary waterWater-related diseasesLoss of BiodiversityIllegal fishingCostal ContaminationEuropean and Asian firms dumping toxic/hazardous waste on Somali coastlineBegan in early 1990’sMany Types of wasteUranium radioactive wasteLeadHeavy metals: Cadmium and MercuryIndustrial wasteChemical wasteHospital waste**Affects healthLand Degradation:due to inappropriate land use, the original vegetation cover, especially in Northern Somalia, has been heavily degraded and in various places entirely destroyedDestruction of plant life has impaired animal habitats and reduced their foodBoth livestock (main resource) and wildlifeCharcoal Productionbushes, graze and other small plants are used for the burning of larger trees;Soil is burnt, can cause forest firesthe vehicles and huge trucks that carry charcoal damage the pasture land in their transit, creating hundreds of dusty and useless tracks which end up as eroded gullies after a few rains.
9 Land DegradationDeforestation Overgrazing Soil erosion Desertification
10 PeopleThere are only 10 million people in Somalia. Somalia is sparsely populated due to the desert-like climate and history of civil war. Almost all Somalis are Muslim. They worship Allah. Pictured is an Islamic mosque in Mogadishu.
11 People 60% = nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists (north) 25% = farmers who live mainly in the fertile agricultural zone (south)15% = urban" Somalia Tips." Somalia Tips. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan <http://somaliatips.files.wordpress.com"Understanding Somalia." MercatorNet: promoting human dignity. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan <http://www.mercatornet.com/articles/
13 Year Population Rank Percent Change Date of Information Somalia PopulationYear Population Rank Percent Change Date of Information,558, % July 2008 est.urban population: 37% of total population (2008)rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change ( )Population growth rate: 2.824% (2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 years: 44.7%(male 2,143,758/female 2,132,869)15-64 years: 52.8%(male 2,525,562/female 2,516,879)65 years and over: 2.5% (male 100,655/female 138,943) (2008 est.)
14 PopulationBirth rate: per 1,000 persons in the population Death rate: per 1,000 persons in the populationMedian age: total: 17.5 years male: 17.4 years female: 17.6 years (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births male: deaths/1,000 live births female: deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
15 PopulationTotal fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (2008 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: years male: years female: years (2008 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
16 Population of Somaliland Estimated at 3.5 millionAverage population growth rate:Estimated at 3.1%Average life expectancy for: males: 50females: 55
17 Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) Religions: Sunni Muslim Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, EnglishPeople
18 PeopleSomalis maintain Islamic traditional norms about handshaking, limiting physical contact to persons of the same sex.Not all people from Somalia are ethnic Somali.The Bantus, in particular, may have special needs because of their historical marginalization in Somalia and distinct language and culture.
19 People Social Structure, Family, and Gender The family is deeply valued in Somali cultureApproximately one-fifth of the population lives in polygamous householdsMarriages traditionally have been arranged, but marriages based on love are increasingly permitted.The previous socialist regime made some efforts to improve opportunities for women so that Somali women generally have more freedom to learn, work, and travel than most other Muslim women.People
20 People Somali Clans can serve as a source of conflict or solidarity They often form alliances for protection, access to water, or political powerThese alliances are very important to many Somalis and can outweigh their allegiance to a unified country of Somalia
21 EconomySomalia is poor, yeah. . .Did you expect it to be rich? Per capita GDP is around $600. Somalia is a very large livestock producer. Many Somalis were nomads and pastoralists who work their livestock. Livestock produces about 40% of GDP and 65% of export earnings. Somalia currently has very little industry.
22 EconomyGDP (purchasing power parity): $5.387 billion (2007 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2007 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP): $600 (2007 est.)GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 65% industry: 10% services: 25% (2000 est.)
23 Economy Currency: Somali shilling Exchange rates: Somali shillings per US dollar - 1,438.3 (2006) official rate; the unofficial black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per dollar as of February 2007Labor force: 3.7 million (few skilled laborers) (1975 estimate)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 71% (reminder: arable land: 1.64%) industry and services: 29%(1975 estimate)
24 EconomyExports: $300 million f.o.b. (2006) Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal Exports - partners: UAE 50.7%, Yemen 21%, Oman 6.1% (2007)
25 EconomyImports: $798 million f.o.b. (2006) Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat Imports - partners: Djibouti 34.4%, India 9.1%, Kenya 9%, Oman 6%, UAE 5.6%, Yemen 5.5% (2007)
26 Child laborUNICEF estimates 41.9 % of children (5 to 14 years) working.Most worked in agriculture and domestic service.Children used for forced labor or sexual exploitation.in 1999
27 Social Well-Being Indicators Poverty RateExtreme Poverty: 43%General Poverty: 73%Income InequalityLiteracyTotal: 37.8%Male: 49.7%Female: 25.8%2 million Somalis need daily help to survivePovertyExtreme: less that $1/day, 10% higher for rural/nomadicGeneral: less than $2/day, 80% for rural/nomadicIncome InequalityOne source suggests that poorest 10% receive 1.5% total incomeLiteracyOne source said that over 81% of the population is now illiterate
28 Education Lowest in the World! Primary Education Attendance Male: 24%Female: 22%Secondary School AttendanceMale: 8%Female: 4%Lowest in the World!!In 1999 UNICEF estimated that 58.4 percent of primary school-age children attended school, and that 72.5 percent of children who had started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.Education
29 EducationNo government operated public school system or required education since1991.62 % of primary schools in Somalia required students to pay fees.School in Somali Refugee Camp ↑Another study estimated that the fees were approximately USD per year for each child.In 1999 UNICEF estimated that 58.4 percent of primary school-age children attended school, and that 72.5 percent of children who had started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.
30 Access to Water and Sanitation Access to improved drinking source: 29%Access to improved sanitation: 25%High prices: $7Long walks: 20kmPrioritizingChildren and IDPsdiarrheal diseasesHigh Prices-Even when it is available, few can afford it200,000 shillings ($7)REMEMBER almost 50% live on less than $1/day (weeks budget)Many people selling whatever they have to buy waterLong walks10-15km in unsafe environmentsMany people send children to collect itPrioritizingDrinking and cooking = priorityWashing and cleaning = luxuryChildren and IDPsLack of hygiene and clean water has led diarrhea cases among young children to increase dramaticallyAccounts for 20% of under 5 mortality rateDiarrheal diseasesJan-July 200736,275 reported cases1,102 deathsIDPs (Internally Displaced Persons)- flee to areas with little water availabilityOver 80% have no access to water/sanitation****Degree of Problem: Schools do no have access to water/sanitationMost healthcare facilities don’t have a clean water source
31 HealthMalnutrition Maternal Health Communicable Diseases HIV/AIDS STIsMalnutrition20% of children get food and medicine necessary for survivalYoung children are suffering from the highest level of malnutrition ever recorded in the area (UN 2007)Camp life: increasing number of children suffering from malnutrition and diarrhea**show other pictureMaternal HealthOne of poorest in the worldInfant mortality reference over 10% dieGenital mutilation: over 90% incidenceCommunicable DiseasesMajor cause of preventable diseases87% of population at risk for malaria and TBFlood reference standing water creates environment for mosquitoesUpper respiratory illnesses commonCholera- endemic in Mogadishu: seasonal outbreaks November to May (dieharria)MeaslesMeningitisHIV/AIDSPrevalence: 0.5%Religion reference muslimSTISexually transmitted infectionsPrevalent***vulnerability factors could facilitate a rapid escalation12% contraceptive rate
32 Colonial Background Britain and Italy colonized Somalia After WWII Italy had to give its holding to EnglandIn 1960, Somalia declared independenceDespite sharing the same language, ethnicity and religion there are deep divisionsA system of rival clans and sub-clans made establishing a stable government almost impossible
33 History Clans Imperialism (late 1800s) Britain,Italy,France Independence (June 26th,1960)United Republic of SomaliaAbdullahi Issa & Aden Abdullah Osman DaarAbdirashid Ali Shermarke
34 History (cont.) Assassination of President Sharmarke Army seizes power, 1969General Siad Barre leads overthrow regime
35 History Somalia was formed in 1960. Military takeover in 1969. Mohamed Siad Barre became dictator.Overthrown in 1991.-when Britain withdrew from British Somaliland allowing it to join with Italian Somaliland.-SIAD Barre In office October 21, 1969 – January 26, 1991Put into place an authoritarian socialist rule.It drew heavily from the traditions of China. "Volunteer" labor planted, harvested, and built roads and hospitals. Almost all industry, banks, and businesses were nationalized. Cooperative farms were promoted. The government forbade tribalism and stressed loyalty to the central authorities. An entirely new script for the Somali language was introduced.-that managed to impose a degree of stability in the country for a couple of decades.- 1991power struggle between clan warlords Mohamed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohamed.
36 Civil WarSocialist dictator, Muhammad Siad Barre, is president from , when he is deposed in military coupEssentially, the parties involved are:1. the US supported Transitional Federal Government2. the Union of Islamic Courts which has a militant wing3. various warlords
37 Republic of Somaliland Declared its own local government in 1991.Remains unrecognized by any international organization.Rebelled against the Siad Barre style dictatorship.Since May 1991, Northern Somalia declared itself the independent Republic of Somaliland. that now includes the administrativeAlthough not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections.Having declared its own local government in Somalia in 1991, Somaliland remains unrecognized by any country or international organization.
38 Rise of Siad Barre Scientific Socialism Marxism + Koranic interpretationExpansionist Somali nationalismHomogenous, centralized nation-stateUnstable because of clansAttempted to reclaim territory from Ethiopia
39 Siad Barre's Dictatorship Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC)End "tribalism, nepotism, corruption, and misrule"Aligned with Soviet UnionNational Security Services (NSS)'Somali Gestapo'Clan favoritismM.O.D (the Mareehaan, Ogaden and Dulbahante)
40 Ogaden War (1977-1978) Ogaden region in Ethiopia Somali National Army 3 years after fall of Ethiopia’s Emperor Haile SellasieSoviet Union & Cuba alliance changeSupported new Marxist EthiopiaWithdrew support from Barre
41 Ogaden War (1977-1978) cont. Effects of the war Economy in the north 1983 → 1.3 million refugees in SomaliaEconomy in the northClan favoritism & resentmentIssaq clanOgadeen clan
42 Brief History of Somalia Post-World War IIWas a protectorate of Great Britain1960Achieved independence1970sMilitary dictatorshipUnder Mohamed Siad Barre1980sSomalia's strategic importance was diminished due to end of the Cold WarGovernment became even more totalitarian
43 Uprising in the NW (1978-1982) Majeerteen clan The Red Berets Destroyed water reservoirs2,000 Majeerteen died from thirstViolence against women/children
44 Overthrow of Siad Barre United States government provided $163.5 million to BarreLost Iranian ally1979 revolutionHorn of Africa to Gulf oil shipping routesBarre's army =120,000 troopsSomali National Movement (SNM)1979Isaaq exiles1980s → Ogadeen refugees in (north) Isaaq clan territory1988 SNM raided refugee campBarre = civilian assault
45 Overthrow of Siad Barre (cont.) United Somali Congress (USC)1989Hawiye clan exilesRed BeretsViolence against Hawiye and Isaaq clansBombing of Hargeisa, 2nd largest city, 70% destroyed, 400,000 fled to EthiopiaJanuary 27th,1991 → USC fought backDrove Siad Barre out of Mogadishu
46 The Result Republic of Somaliland United Somali Congress (USC) Somali National Movement (SNM)NWMohammad Ibrahim Egal → “president of SomalilandUnited Somali Congress (USC)Seized MogadishuSiad Barre dies in exile 4 years later → Nigeria
47 Civil WarThe civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in Somalia. The tribes waged vicious wars against each other to control water, and pasture, and cattle. With the country embroiled in a civil war, famine struck, and many Somalis began to die—an estimated 300,000.
48 Famine and Starvation in Somalia When Somalia’s government collapsed in 1991, the resulting civil war led to severe disruptions in food production and distribution.An estimated 300,000 Somalis starved to death.
49 Somali Civil War – 1991 Results of the Somali Civil War Barre is ousted from leadershipDisrupted agriculture, food & water distributionBased on clan allegiances and competition for resources
50 Somali Civil War – 1991 More Results Famine – approx. 300,000 dead UN Security Council authorized the limited peacekeeping operationCompletely disregarded by the warring factions
51 More Violence in Somalia USC has no plans for permanent governmentNo reconciliation between factions and armed groupsUSC splitsMuhammad Fara Aidid & Ali MahdiMahdi → Somali Salvation Alliance (SSA)Declared himself “president of Somalia”
52 Warlords The country was ruled by a number of warlords A person with power who has military and civil control over a an areaArmed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central governmentAlliance of warlords was formed in 1992Operated under the authority of Mohamed Farrah AididDeclared himself President of Somalia
53 More Violence in Somalia (cont.) Somali National Front (SNF)Siad Barre's supportersGuerbaharre1991 → 6 months open combat between groupsSeptember 1991 → USC dominated, more street fighting in Mogadishu
54 Effects of Turmoil Government & civil society decayed Food distribution collapsedDrought exacerbated the effectsFamine in south1992, international aid80% food shipments looted by armed groups & governmentThe United Nations decides to intervene
55 Role of United NationsIn 1992, the United Nations (UN) authorized a peacekeeping force, whose objective was to provide food supplies to Somalia and a safe, orderly way of distributing that food. In a way, the UN’s actions in Somalia were similar to what see saw in Rwanda. Remember that? The difference in Somalia is that UN forces were there to provide food during a famine. The problem the UN encountered, though, was that the warring tribes simply attacked the UN food supplies, stole the food, and then sold it themselves, making lots of $. The worst of these thieves was a ruthless warlord named Mohammed Farah Aidid.
56 United States Response In December of 1992, President Bush ordered Operation Restore HopePrimary mission of restoring order in SomaliaPresident Bill Clinton took office in January and continued the Operation
57 The United States in Somalia “Operation Restore Hope”August – October 1992
58 Mohammed Farah Aidid / Operation Restore Hope Mohammed Farah Aidid was a tribal warlord at the center of Somalia’s civil war inAidid became notorious for attacking and plundering UN food and medical supplies.While thousands of Somalis were starving to death, Aidid’s forces were stealing relief supplies, then selling them make money.In December 1992, under President George HW Bush, the United States organized a military coalition whose objective was to stop the warlords (including Aidid) and to create a safe environment in Somalia so that food and medicine could be distributed.This mission was called Operation Restore Hope.Initially, Operation Restore Hope was successful. The famine was alleviated, and by May 1993, most of the US troops were withdrawn.Aidid did not give up, however, and after May 1993 he devised new attacks on the UN peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in Somalia.The US then made the fateful decision to either kill or capture Aidid.This set the stage for what became known as “Blackhawk Down.”
59 United Nations Operation in Somalia I (April 1992 - March 1993) Monitor cease fireEscort delivery of humanitarian suppliesResolution 751 (1992)Mission strengthensResolution 767 (1992)Operational zones: Berbera, Bossasso, Mogadishu and KismayoMilitary of 750 units, all ranksWorked with United Task Force (UNITAF)Resolution 794 (1992): “All means necessary”24 countries led by the USA
60 US InvolvementUN and US begin to provide humanitarian and nation building aid prior to 1993In June of UN workers were brutally murdered prompting the UN to demand the arrest and trial of those responsibleUS led air raids resulted in the death of respected clan leaders and resentment
61 UNOSOM I (cont.) 100-Day Action Plan massive infusion of food aid aggressive expansion of supplementary feedingprovision of basic health services and mass measles immunizationurgent provision of clean water, sanitation and hygieneprovision of shelter materials, blankets and clothessimultaneous delivery of seeds, tools and animal vaccines with food rationsprevention of further refugee outflowsinstitution-building and rehabilitation of civil society.Factions shelled and hijacked supply ships and vehicles
62 The Home-Front Many Somalis resented the international forces Many took up arms and actively resisted the UN and USOn June 5, 1993, one of the deadliest attacks on UN forces in Somalia occurred24 UN soldiers were killed in Mogadishu (controlled by Aidid)
63 The UN RespondsThe next day, the UN issued Resolution 837 calling for the arrest and trial of those responsible for the ambushUS and UN began an attack on Aidid’s controlAidid remained defiant, and the violence between Somalis and UN troops escalated
64 The Battle of Mogadishu Fought on October 3 and 4, 1993, in Mogadishu, SomaliaOperation was to capture top officials to Aidid
65 Blackhawk Down (1993)Essentially, the US put together an elite team of soldiers called Task Force Ranger to hunt down and kill or capture Mohammed Farah Aidid and Aidid’s top lieutenants.On October 3, 1993, the US knew that Aidid was in a building in the city of Mogadishu (the capital city of Somalia).Task Force Ranger attempted to execute a complex “snatch and grab” mission to capture Aidid.As part of this mission, several Blackhawk helicopters were used to drop elite US forces off at specific locations in Mogadishu.
66 )Task Force Ranger was not expecting to encounter hostile resistance from Aidid’s men.However, as the Blackhawk helicopters began dropping the US soldiers into Mogadishu, the Americans ran into one hell of a firefight.Some of the Somalis were using RPGs (Rocket-Propelled Grenades), and they used these weapons to shoot down 2 of the Blackhawks.
67 For the next 24 hours, US forces scrambled to save the crews of the two downed Blackhawks. This became a red-hot firefight between American forces and Somali tribal soldiers. 19 Americans were killed. One of slain Blackhawk pilots was dragged through the streets of Mogadishu, footage that sickened Americans.
68 The Battle of Mogadishu During the operation, two US Black Hawk helicopters were shot downSome soldiers were trapped at the crash sitesA combined task force was sent to rescue the trapped soldiersResultsUS Forces19 Killed84 WoundedSomali ForcesEst KilledEst. 1,500 Wounded
70 Black Hawk DownSomalis shot down a Black Hawk helicopter killing the soldiers on board and the US withdrew-policy during Clinton AdministrationAfter 9/11 the US was very concerned about terrorism and the strategic location of Somalia as a breeding ground for terroristsUS began aiding warlords, training Ethiopian forces and providing counter-terrorism training to other nations in the region
71 Black Hawk Down Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden "Black Hawk Down (2001) - IMDb." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 07 Jan <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt />.Web. 07 Jan<http://inquirer.philly.com/packages/somalia/>
72 Fallout from Mogadishu American Foreign PolicyBecame a cautionary influence on US policyWhen US considers sending soldiers into foreign crisis zones – “remember Somalia”Americans were repulsed at the images of soldiers' corpses being dragged through the streets
73 Reconciliation January 1993, meeting convened by the Secretary-General 14 Somali political movements agreed on a ceasefirepledged to hand over all weapons to UNITAF and UNOSOMGeneral Agreement of 8 January 1993Agreement On Implementing The Cease-fire And On Modalities Of DisarmamentAgreement On The Establishment Of An Ad Hoc CommitteeThe Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia (March 1993)leaders of 15 political movements endorsed an accord on disarmament, reconstruction and the formation of a transitional government.
74 Transition to UNOSOM II Supplanted UNITAFTo help ensure a secure environment in SomaliaRebuild and reestablishInfrastructureEconomyChapter VII, Resolution 814 (1993)
75 UNOSOM II (cont.)Soldiers killed by factions → disregarded agreements of ceasefireResolution 837 (1993)Take all necessary measures to defend armed attacksQuick Reaction ForceNairobi Declaration & Addis Ababa AgreementPeace throughout Somalia & ceasefireFactions/clans broke agreementSecretary-General urged another conference to appoint new government
76 UNOSOM II(March 1993 - March 1995) Transition of operational control from UNITAFEffective deployment and consolidation of United Nations operational control throughout Somalia and the border regionsReduction of UNOSOM II military activity, and assistance to civil authorities in exercising greater responsibilityReduction of UNOSOM II force
77 End of UNOSOM IISecretary-General: only the Somalis themselves could establish acceptable peaceInternational community could help the process → can't be sustained indefinitelyWithdraw of UNOSOM II force → March 28,1995United Nations agencies and organizationsNGOs
78 The End of International Involvement WithdrawalPresident Clinton called for a full withdrawal by March 1994.Marines were completely removed from the area by 1995The UN also withdrew forcesEnded the UN effort to help a country in anarchy and civil war
79 The End of International Involvement ResultsSecretary of Defense Les Aspin resignedBlamed for denying the US Army permission to use tanksUS politicians didn’t want tanks in SomaliaThought it would look bad for “peacekeeping”
80 Post UNOSOM SomaliaCentral governmentLaw system
81 TNG and the ICU International Conferences Area of conflict ICU dominanceEffect of ICU ruleAl-Shabaab declares black Islamic flag in Somalia
82 ICU and EthiopiaICU's power spreadEthiopian outlookAfrican Union
83 African Union thwarted Arms buildup Jihad Baidoa ICU-TNG ConflictAfrican Union thwartedArms buildupJihadBaidoa
84 Puntland State of Somalia Claimed autonomy in 1998 Do not want to be fully independent of Somalia. Have developed at a greater rate than mainland Somalia.
85 Population of Puntland Estimated at 2.4 million Population growth rate of Puntland State is currently very high due to the influx of people from war-torn southern Somalia and from neighboring countries.
86 Puntland: Signs of Development Ministry of Women Development and Family AffairsMinistry of FinanceMinistry of HealthMinistry of EducationGender roles---In traditional Somali, women were assigned to household tasks and other related issues such as cooking, collection of water and firewood, child-bearing, caring sick people, etc.1. What? A Policy that promotes gender equity, and women’s development• Takes inspiration from Islam religious values and engages with appropriate cultural identity, while ultimately promoting women economic, political and social mobility, climbing up the ladder in leadership and policy makingHow to achieve these targets? Through:(1) Adhering to the UN Security Council Resolution 1325, observing and adopting in conformity with the pressure of the international community spearheaded by the United Nation’s adamant insistence-to adopt Gender Equality and observe Human Rights. This pressure is also being exercised on the preparations underway for undertaking the so-called Joints Needs Assessment (JNA) to be jointly managed by the United Nations, the World Bank, and the Somali Authorities that would result in a Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP), based upon priorities that are being identified by the Somali counterparts, the AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality followed by the IGAD regional group. However it is necessary to guard study and dissect UN Resolution1325; then, pick and choose the parts and language that is compatible to Islam.(2) Adopting and implementing the landmark achievement, one of the first built constitutions of a new Somalia State (PUNTLAND) that enables Somali Women to make history with the first ever Gender Sensitive Charter for Somalia; credit goes to the pressure of the International Community and the Somali Women Activists that got involved in the process at an early stage.(3) Policy that requires Education and Awareness on values of gender equity/women in development to economic development and prosperity of the community and the nation as a whole.
87 Somalia Overall, the government has little control and is instable. Forbes magazine ranked Somalia as the most dangerous destination in the world.3 strait years.
88 PresentlySomalis are worried they will wind up being ruled by the Ethiopians-resentful of the standing Ethiopian army occupying their countryEthiopia is concerned about Eritrea using the situation (instability in Somalia) to invade them and use Somalia to launch attacks against them
89 Ethiopia InvadesTheir civil war in the 1990’s destroyed the country's government In 2006 Ethiopia invaded Somalia (with help from the United States) to prevent it from becoming an Islamist government
92 Islamist GroupsAl-ShabaabHizbul IslamIslamic Courts Union
93 War Leads to PiracyAs a result of that, foreign fishing ships started fishing in Somali waters for it’s tuna, which caused economic problems in Somalia's fishing industry. The fishermen, with access to small arms and portable rockets, went out to sea to attack the foreign cargo, and cargo ships. This eventually turned into organized piracy
95 Pirates ??Due to the extreme limited opportunities to make a living in Somalia many have turned to Piracy in the Gulf of Aiden. Began when neighboring countries began illegally fishing in Somali waters Angry Somali fishermen boarded and demanded “fees” Called themselves ‘Coast guards’, organized like a military
96 Today Somali pirates seize anything from freighters to luxury cruise liners Pirates in 2008 pulled in as much as $150 million, placing it as Somalia’s biggest industry Bosses can pull in $2 million/year
99 Why and how they do itThey captured merchant ships off the coast of Yemen, Somalia, and Kenya and hold them for ransom The ship owners and the insurance companies pay the ransom because it is cheaper to pay it than to lose the ship and its cargo
101 PiracyShips from the United states, United Kingdom, Russia, and India patrol the Somalia coats and try to stop the piracy Ships are now arming themselves to protect against attack from pirates
102 How to Handle the Piracy Issue Some people have suggested to use amphibious or air attacks on the pirates Others think we should pay them off The best solution is to get a functioning government in Somalia to control it citizens
103 Coalition Government Moderate Islamists and the TNG Mogadishu Technocratic government
104 Recent Occurences Drought and famine Al-Shabaab Possible AU peacekeeper increaseKenyaUN
105 Problems that the UN face in Somalia United Nations aid workers in the country are limited as there is no established protection on site. Aid workers face the constant threat of kidnapping for ransom.International aid has been routinely looted due to a variety of factors including government corruption and desperate food and health conditions.Islamist groups view the United Nations with distrust and deny it access to their land, believing that the United Nations has a political agenda.
106 UN Role In SomaliaNo large-scale United Nations peacekeeping operation in thecountry since the UNOSOM II.Passed Resolution 1838, in which an anti-piracy fleet issanctioned to operate off of Somalia's lawless coastline.The World Food Programme (WFP), a United Nations program, also has a presence in the country.A United Nations program designated towards establishing a functioning government in Somalia called the United Nations Political Office for Somalia is currently active in Kenya.
107 Solutions UN Peacekeepers Offensive action Protection of aid Protection of government institutionsUnited Nations Political Office for SomaliaDevelopmentIMF
108 Solutions (cont.) AU Anti-insurgency Monetary goals 3. International HelpAUAnti-insurgencyMonetary goals4. Political UnificationTNGPuntlandSomaliland5. End to Piracy6. Alleviate the Effects of the FamineLong term and short term goals
109 Bibliography1. The United Nations' database on the UNOSOM I & UNOSOM II <https://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosomi.htm> <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2backgr1.html> 2. From United Nations Political Office for Somalia <http://unpos.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=1911> 3. Somalia – Infrastructure, Power, and Communications <http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/Somalia-INFRASTRUCTURE- POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.html> 4. GlobalSecurity on the Somalia Civil War <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/somalia.htm> 5. From AllAfrica, information pertaining to the Islamist's stance on the United Nations was obtained. <http://allafrica.com/stories/ html> 6. General history of the Somali Civil War <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A html> 7. Information on the Somali Civil War was taken from Conciliation Resources. <http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/somalia/endless-war.php> 8. GlobalSecurity on the far-reaching consequences of the Somalia Civil War