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The Somali Civil War.

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1 The Somali Civil War

2 Geography Capital: Mogadishu Coastline = 2,720 km Horn of Africa North
hilly Central & South flat "Somalia Map - African Countries, Map of Somalia Facts Landforms - World Atlas." World Atlas including Geography Facts, Maps, Flags - Worldatlas.com. Web. 07 Jan <http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/so.htm>.

3 Somalia Geography Pay close attention here. Somalia is the easternmost country in all of Africa. Together with Ethiopia, Somalia occupies what is called The Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa takes its name from the fact that if you look at this part of Africa (on a map), it looks like the horn of a rhinoceros. On your maps, label (1) Somalia (2) Mogadishu (3) The Horn of Africa

4 Geography Mogadishu, at 1.5 million people, is the largest and most important city in Somalia. It is a coastal city (shown in the picture). Somalia has a predominantly desert climate—rain is irregular, and the weather is hot year-round. One last thing is that Somalia is mostly flat. The only highlands in Somalia are in the northern part of the country.

5 Climate Annual Rainfall Seasons NE: Less than 4 inches
Central: 8-12 inches SW and NW: inches Seasons Gu (rainy) April-June Hagaa (dry) July-September Day (rainy) October-November Jiilaal (dry) December-March Primary Factor in Much of Somali life Nomadic population- Timing and amount of rainfall determines adequacy of grazing and prospects of prosperity Temperatures *Some of the highest mean temperatures in world Berbera: Northern coast: over 100°F June-September Maximums higher inland Along Indian Ocean- considerably lower (cold offshore current) Mogadishu: 83°F (july), 90°F (April) Hot throughout the year except in high elevations of north North: Great temperature extremes Below freezing in highlands in December 45 °C (113F) in the coastal plain in the Gulf of Aden Rainfall Arid in NE, less than 4 inches Semi-arid in NW and South Some indication that it has become drier in the past century Growing # of people and animals put a growing burden on water and vegetation Seasons Gu – Main Rainy season brief period where the desert turns into a garden Lush vegetation Water= plentiful Person’s age is calculated in terms of the number of Gus lived Hagaa-dry season Rains fall in coastal areas Jiilall- Main dry season harshest for pastoralists and herds Day-second rainy season

6 Climate (cont.) Somalia mainly has a desert climate.
They experience irregular rainfall. The northeast experiences monsoons from December through February. The southwest region experiences monsoons from May to October. Hot and humid periods exist between monsoons. Moderate temperatures exist in the north, and hot temperatures in the south.

7 Natural Disasters Droughts Dust Storms Floods
A recurring disaster in Somalia Dust Storms Usually occur over the eastern plains during the summer season Floods Only occur during the rainy season Drought Pictures Dry river bed Abdi Obley One of richest nomads in his region 180 Cattle- only 2 are now alive Being treated for severe malnutrition Family from Western Somalia Begging day and night for water Their well has run dry Nearest water = 12km People in region are nomads, rely on animals to survive Even hardy camels feeling the effects of draught Less resistant animals are dying Some still being used to transport water Dust storms – frequent over the Eastern plains in the summer Floods- during rainy season Example- December Central and Southern Somalia Shabelle River overflowed after 8 hours of rain locally and extensive rains in the Ethiopian highlands less than 1 year ago it was bone dry Afected over 300,000 people Malaria risk –standing water is a breeding ground for mosquetos Flood effects: destruction of crops, displacement, knocked out bridges, impassible road, housing destroyed, animals died Tsunami: 2004: toxic waste washed ashore

8 Environmental Issues Famine Use of Contaminated Water
The UN declared a famine in 5 southern regions of Somalia in 2011 3.2 Million people survive on food aid 2.8 million of those live in Southern Somalia Use of Contaminated Water Costal Contamination Loss of Biodiversity Famine: : 300,000 Somali’s starved to death, displaced up to 2 million IDP reference: many living on less than 1 meal/day Piracy reference: Warships must escort food ships Manipulating food aid could become a weapon Use of Contaminated Water Water shortages (climate and geography) have led to the use of unsanitary water Water-related diseases Loss of Biodiversity Illegal fishing Costal Contamination European and Asian firms dumping toxic/hazardous waste on Somali coastline Began in early 1990’s Many Types of waste Uranium radioactive waste Lead Heavy metals: Cadmium and Mercury Industrial waste Chemical waste Hospital waste **Affects health Land Degradation: due to inappropriate land use, the original vegetation cover, especially in Northern Somalia, has been heavily degraded and in various places entirely destroyed Destruction of plant life has impaired animal habitats and reduced their food Both livestock (main resource) and wildlife Charcoal Production bushes, graze and other small plants are used for the burning of larger trees; Soil is burnt, can cause forest fires the vehicles and huge trucks that carry charcoal damage the pasture land in their transit, creating hundreds of dusty and useless tracks which end up as eroded gullies after a few rains.

9 Land Degradation Deforestation Overgrazing Soil erosion Desertification

10 People There are only 10 million people in Somalia. Somalia is sparsely populated due to the desert-like climate and history of civil war. Almost all Somalis are Muslim. They worship Allah. Pictured is an Islamic mosque in Mogadishu.

11 People 60% = nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists (north)
25% = farmers who live mainly in the fertile agricultural zone (south) 15% = urban " Somalia Tips." Somalia Tips. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan <http://somaliatips.files.wordpress.com "Understanding Somalia." MercatorNet: promoting human dignity. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan <http://www.mercatornet.com/articles/


13 Year Population Rank Percent Change Date of Information
Somalia Population Year Population Rank Percent Change Date of Information ,558, % July 2008 est. urban population: 37% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change ( ) Population growth rate: 2.824% (2008 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.7% (male 2,143,758/female 2,132,869) 15-64 years: 52.8% (male 2,525,562/female 2,516,879) 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 100,655/female 138,943) (2008 est.)

14 Population Birth rate: per 1,000 persons in the population Death rate: per 1,000 persons in the population Median age: total: 17.5 years male: 17.4 years female: 17.6 years (2008 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: deaths/1,000 live births male: deaths/1,000 live births female: deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

15 Population Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (2008 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: years male: years female: years (2008 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

16 Population of Somaliland
Estimated at 3.5 million Average population growth rate: Estimated at 3.1% Average life expectancy for: males: 50 females: 55

17 Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) Religions: Sunni Muslim Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English People

18 People Somalis maintain Islamic traditional norms about handshaking, limiting physical contact to persons of the same sex. Not all people from Somalia are ethnic Somali. The Bantus, in particular, may have special needs because of their historical marginalization in Somalia and distinct language and culture.

19 People Social Structure, Family, and Gender
The family is deeply valued in Somali culture Approximately one-fifth of the population lives in polygamous households Marriages traditionally have been arranged, but marriages based on love are increasingly permitted. The previous socialist regime made some efforts to improve opportunities for women so that Somali women generally have more freedom to learn, work, and travel than most other Muslim women. People

20 People Somali Clans can serve as a source of conflict or solidarity
They often form alliances for protection, access to water, or political power These alliances are very important to many Somalis and can outweigh their allegiance to a unified country of Somalia

21 Economy Somalia is poor, yeah. . .Did you expect it to be rich? Per capita GDP is around $600. Somalia is a very large livestock producer. Many Somalis were nomads and pastoralists who work their livestock. Livestock produces about 40% of GDP and 65% of export earnings. Somalia currently has very little industry.

22 Economy GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.387 billion (2007 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2007 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $600 (2007 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 65% industry: 10% services: 25% (2000 est.)

23 Economy Currency: Somali shilling
Exchange rates: Somali shillings per US dollar - 1,438.3 (2006) official rate; the unofficial black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per dollar as of February 2007 Labor force: 3.7 million (few skilled laborers) (1975 estimate) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 71% (reminder: arable land: 1.64%) industry and services: 29% (1975 estimate)

24 Economy Exports: $300 million f.o.b. (2006) Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal Exports - partners: UAE 50.7%, Yemen 21%, Oman 6.1% (2007)

25 Economy Imports: $798 million f.o.b. (2006) Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat Imports - partners: Djibouti 34.4%, India 9.1%, Kenya 9%, Oman 6%, UAE 5.6%, Yemen 5.5% (2007)

26 Child labor UNICEF estimates 41.9 % of children (5 to 14 years) working. Most worked in agriculture and domestic service. Children used for forced labor or sexual exploitation. in 1999

27 Social Well-Being Indicators
Poverty Rate Extreme Poverty: 43% General Poverty: 73% Income Inequality Literacy Total: 37.8% Male: 49.7% Female: 25.8% 2 million Somalis need daily help to survive Poverty Extreme: less that $1/day, 10% higher for rural/nomadic General: less than $2/day, 80% for rural/nomadic Income Inequality One source suggests that poorest 10% receive 1.5% total income Literacy One source said that over 81% of the population is now illiterate

28 Education Lowest in the World! Primary Education Attendance
Male: 24% Female: 22% Secondary School Attendance Male: 8% Female: 4% Lowest in the World! ! In 1999 UNICEF estimated that 58.4 percent of primary school-age children attended school, and that 72.5 percent of children who had started primary school were likely to reach grade 5. Education

29 Education No government operated public school system or required education since1991. 62 % of primary schools in Somalia required students to pay fees. School in Somali Refugee Camp ↑ Another study estimated that the fees were approximately USD per year for each child. In 1999 UNICEF estimated that 58.4 percent of primary school-age children attended school, and that 72.5 percent of children who had started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.

30 Access to Water and Sanitation
Access to improved drinking source: 29% Access to improved sanitation: 25% High prices: $7 Long walks: 20km Prioritizing Children and IDPs diarrheal diseases High Prices-Even when it is available, few can afford it 200,000 shillings ($7) REMEMBER almost 50% live on less than $1/day (weeks budget) Many people selling whatever they have to buy water Long walks 10-15km in unsafe environments Many people send children to collect it Prioritizing Drinking and cooking = priority Washing and cleaning = luxury Children and IDPs Lack of hygiene and clean water has led diarrhea cases among young children to increase dramatically Accounts for 20% of under 5 mortality rate Diarrheal diseases Jan-July 2007 36,275 reported cases 1,102 deaths IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons)- flee to areas with little water availability Over 80% have no access to water/sanitation ****Degree of Problem: Schools do no have access to water/sanitation Most healthcare facilities don’t have a clean water source

31 Health Malnutrition Maternal Health Communicable Diseases HIV/AIDS STIs Malnutrition 20% of children get food and medicine necessary for survival Young children are suffering from the highest level of malnutrition ever recorded in the area (UN 2007) Camp life: increasing number of children suffering from malnutrition and diarrhea **show other picture Maternal Health One of poorest in the world Infant mortality reference  over 10% die Genital mutilation: over 90% incidence Communicable Diseases Major cause of preventable diseases 87% of population at risk for malaria and TB Flood reference  standing water creates environment for mosquitoes Upper respiratory illnesses common Cholera- endemic in Mogadishu: seasonal outbreaks November to May (dieharria) Measles Meningitis HIV/AIDS Prevalence: 0.5% Religion reference  muslim STI Sexually transmitted infections Prevalent ***vulnerability factors could facilitate a rapid escalation 12% contraceptive rate

32 Colonial Background Britain and Italy colonized Somalia
After WWII Italy had to give its holding to England In 1960, Somalia declared independence Despite sharing the same language, ethnicity and religion there are deep divisions A system of rival clans and sub-clans made establishing a stable government almost impossible

33 History Clans Imperialism (late 1800s) Britain,Italy,France
Independence (June 26th,1960) United Republic of Somalia Abdullahi Issa & Aden Abdullah Osman Daar Abdirashid Ali Shermarke

34 History (cont.) Assassination of President Sharmarke
Army seizes power, 1969 General Siad Barre leads overthrow regime

35 History Somalia was formed in 1960. Military takeover in 1969.
Mohamed Siad Barre became dictator. Overthrown in 1991. -when Britain withdrew from British Somaliland allowing it to join with Italian Somaliland. -SIAD Barre In office October 21, 1969 – January 26, 1991 Put into place an authoritarian socialist rule. It drew heavily from the traditions of China. "Volunteer" labor planted, harvested, and built roads and hospitals. Almost all industry, banks, and businesses were nationalized. Cooperative farms were promoted. The government forbade tribalism and stressed loyalty to the central authorities. An entirely new script for the Somali language was introduced. -that managed to impose a degree of stability in the country for a couple of decades. - 1991power struggle between clan warlords Mohamed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohamed.

36 Civil War Socialist dictator, Muhammad Siad Barre, is president from , when he is deposed in military coup Essentially, the parties involved are: 1. the US supported Transitional Federal Government 2. the Union of Islamic Courts which has a militant wing 3. various warlords

37 Republic of Somaliland
Declared its own local government in 1991. Remains unrecognized by any international organization. Rebelled against the Siad Barre style dictatorship. Since May 1991, Northern Somalia declared itself the independent Republic of Somaliland. that now includes the administrative Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. Having declared its own local government in Somalia in 1991, Somaliland remains unrecognized by any country or international organization.

38 Rise of Siad Barre Scientific Socialism
Marxism + Koranic interpretation Expansionist Somali nationalism Homogenous, centralized nation-state Unstable because of clans Attempted to reclaim territory from Ethiopia

39 Siad Barre's Dictatorship
Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) End "tribalism, nepotism, corruption, and misrule" Aligned with Soviet Union National Security Services (NSS) 'Somali Gestapo' Clan favoritism M.O.D (the Mareehaan, Ogaden and Dulbahante)

40 Ogaden War (1977-1978) Ogaden region in Ethiopia Somali National Army
3 years after fall of Ethiopia’s Emperor Haile Sellasie Soviet Union & Cuba alliance change Supported new Marxist Ethiopia Withdrew support from Barre

41 Ogaden War (1977-1978) cont. Effects of the war Economy in the north
1983 → 1.3 million refugees in Somalia Economy in the north Clan favoritism & resentment Issaq clan Ogadeen clan

42 Brief History of Somalia
Post-World War II Was a protectorate of Great Britain 1960 Achieved independence 1970s Military dictatorship Under Mohamed Siad Barre 1980s Somalia's strategic importance was diminished due to end of the Cold War Government became even more totalitarian

43 Uprising in the NW (1978-1982) Majeerteen clan The Red Berets
Destroyed water reservoirs 2,000 Majeerteen died from thirst Violence against women/children

44 Overthrow of Siad Barre
United States government provided $163.5 million to Barre Lost Iranian ally 1979 revolution Horn of Africa to Gulf oil shipping routes Barre's army =120,000 troops Somali National Movement (SNM) 1979 Isaaq exiles 1980s → Ogadeen refugees in (north) Isaaq clan territory 1988 SNM raided refugee camp Barre = civilian assault

45 Overthrow of Siad Barre (cont.)
United Somali Congress (USC) 1989 Hawiye clan exiles Red Berets Violence against Hawiye and Isaaq clans Bombing of Hargeisa, 2nd largest city, 70% destroyed, 400,000 fled to Ethiopia January 27th,1991 → USC fought back Drove Siad Barre out of Mogadishu

46 The Result Republic of Somaliland United Somali Congress (USC)
Somali National Movement (SNM) NW Mohammad Ibrahim Egal → “president of Somaliland United Somali Congress (USC) Seized Mogadishu Siad Barre dies in exile 4 years later → Nigeria

47 Civil War The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in Somalia. The tribes waged vicious wars against each other to control water, and pasture, and cattle. With the country embroiled in a civil war, famine struck, and many Somalis began to die—an estimated 300,000.

48 Famine and Starvation in Somalia
When Somalia’s government collapsed in 1991, the resulting civil war led to severe disruptions in food production and distribution. An estimated 300,000 Somalis starved to death.

49 Somali Civil War – 1991 Results of the Somali Civil War
Barre is ousted from leadership Disrupted agriculture, food & water distribution Based on clan allegiances and competition for resources

50 Somali Civil War – 1991 More Results Famine – approx. 300,000 dead
UN Security Council authorized the limited peacekeeping operation Completely disregarded by the warring factions

51 More Violence in Somalia
USC has no plans for permanent government No reconciliation between factions and armed groups USC splits Muhammad Fara Aidid & Ali Mahdi Mahdi → Somali Salvation Alliance (SSA) Declared himself “president of Somalia”

52 Warlords The country was ruled by a number of warlords
A person with power who has military and civil control over a an area Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central government Alliance of warlords was formed in 1992 Operated under the authority of Mohamed Farrah Aidid Declared himself President of Somalia

53 More Violence in Somalia (cont.)
Somali National Front (SNF) Siad Barre's supporters Guerbaharre 1991 → 6 months open combat between groups September 1991 → USC dominated, more street fighting in Mogadishu

54 Effects of Turmoil Government & civil society decayed
Food distribution collapsed Drought exacerbated the effects Famine in south 1992, international aid 80% food shipments looted by armed groups & government The United Nations decides to intervene

55 Role of United Nations In 1992, the United Nations (UN) authorized a peacekeeping force, whose objective was to provide food supplies to Somalia and a safe, orderly way of distributing that food. In a way, the UN’s actions in Somalia were similar to what see saw in Rwanda. Remember that? The difference in Somalia is that UN forces were there to provide food during a famine. The problem the UN encountered, though, was that the warring tribes simply attacked the UN food supplies, stole the food, and then sold it themselves, making lots of $. The worst of these thieves was a ruthless warlord named Mohammed Farah Aidid.

56 United States Response
In December of 1992, President Bush ordered Operation Restore Hope Primary mission of restoring order in Somalia President Bill Clinton took office in January and continued the Operation

57 The United States in Somalia
“Operation Restore Hope” August – October 1992

58 Mohammed Farah Aidid / Operation Restore Hope
Mohammed Farah Aidid was a tribal warlord at the center of Somalia’s civil war in Aidid became notorious for attacking and plundering UN food and medical supplies. While thousands of Somalis were starving to death, Aidid’s forces were stealing relief supplies, then selling them make money. In December 1992, under President George HW Bush, the United States organized a military coalition whose objective was to stop the warlords (including Aidid) and to create a safe environment in Somalia so that food and medicine could be distributed. This mission was called Operation Restore Hope. Initially, Operation Restore Hope was successful. The famine was alleviated, and by May 1993, most of the US troops were withdrawn. Aidid did not give up, however, and after May 1993 he devised new attacks on the UN peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in Somalia. The US then made the fateful decision to either kill or capture Aidid. This set the stage for what became known as “Blackhawk Down.”

59 United Nations Operation in Somalia I (April 1992 - March 1993)
Monitor cease fire Escort delivery of humanitarian supplies Resolution 751 (1992) Mission strengthens Resolution 767 (1992) Operational zones: Berbera, Bossasso, Mogadishu and Kismayo Military of 750 units, all ranks Worked with United Task Force (UNITAF) Resolution 794 (1992): “All means necessary” 24 countries led by the USA

60 US Involvement UN and US begin to provide humanitarian and nation building aid prior to 1993 In June of UN workers were brutally murdered prompting the UN to demand the arrest and trial of those responsible US led air raids resulted in the death of respected clan leaders and resentment

61 UNOSOM I (cont.) 100-Day Action Plan massive infusion of food aid
aggressive expansion of supplementary feeding provision of basic health services and mass measles immunization urgent provision of clean water, sanitation and hygiene provision of shelter materials, blankets and clothes simultaneous delivery of seeds, tools and animal vaccines with food rations prevention of further refugee outflows institution-building and rehabilitation of civil society. Factions shelled and hijacked supply ships and vehicles

62 The Home-Front Many Somalis resented the international forces
Many took up arms and actively resisted the UN and US On June 5, 1993, one of the deadliest attacks on UN forces in Somalia occurred 24 UN soldiers were killed in Mogadishu (controlled by Aidid)

63 The UN Responds The next day, the UN issued Resolution 837 calling for the arrest and trial of those responsible for the ambush US and UN began an attack on Aidid’s control Aidid remained defiant, and the violence between Somalis and UN troops escalated

64 The Battle of Mogadishu
Fought on October 3 and 4, 1993, in Mogadishu, Somalia Operation was to capture top officials to Aidid

65 Blackhawk Down (1993) Essentially, the US put together an elite team of soldiers called Task Force Ranger to hunt down and kill or capture Mohammed Farah Aidid and Aidid’s top lieutenants. On October 3, 1993, the US knew that Aidid was in a building in the city of Mogadishu (the capital city of Somalia). Task Force Ranger attempted to execute a complex “snatch and grab” mission to capture Aidid. As part of this mission, several Blackhawk helicopters were used to drop elite US forces off at specific locations in Mogadishu.

66 ) Task Force Ranger was not expecting to encounter hostile resistance from Aidid’s men. However, as the Blackhawk helicopters began dropping the US soldiers into Mogadishu, the Americans ran into one hell of a firefight. Some of the Somalis were using RPGs (Rocket-Propelled Grenades), and they used these weapons to shoot down 2 of the Blackhawks.

67 For the next 24 hours, US forces scrambled to save the crews of the two downed Blackhawks. This became a red-hot firefight between American forces and Somali tribal soldiers. 19 Americans were killed. One of slain Blackhawk pilots was dragged through the streets of Mogadishu, footage that sickened Americans.

68 The Battle of Mogadishu
During the operation, two US Black Hawk helicopters were shot down Some soldiers were trapped at the crash sites A combined task force was sent to rescue the trapped soldiers Results US Forces 19 Killed 84 Wounded Somali Forces Est Killed Est. 1,500 Wounded

69 Fallout from Mogadishu

70 Black Hawk Down Somalis shot down a Black Hawk helicopter killing the soldiers on board and the US withdrew-policy during Clinton Administration After 9/11 the US was very concerned about terrorism and the strategic location of Somalia as a breeding ground for terrorists US began aiding warlords, training Ethiopian forces and providing counter-terrorism training to other nations in the region

71 Black Hawk Down Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden
"Black Hawk Down (2001) - IMDb." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 07 Jan <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt />. Web. 07 Jan <http://inquirer.philly.com/packages/somalia/>

72 Fallout from Mogadishu
American Foreign Policy Became a cautionary influence on US policy When US considers sending soldiers into foreign crisis zones – “remember Somalia” Americans were repulsed at the images of soldiers' corpses being dragged through the streets

73 Reconciliation January 1993, meeting convened by the Secretary-General
14 Somali political movements agreed on a ceasefire pledged to hand over all weapons to UNITAF and UNOSOM General Agreement of 8 January 1993 Agreement On Implementing The Cease-fire And On Modalities Of Disarmament Agreement On The Establishment Of An Ad Hoc Committee The Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia (March 1993) leaders of 15 political movements endorsed an accord on disarmament, reconstruction and the formation of a transitional government.

74 Transition to UNOSOM II
Supplanted UNITAF To help ensure a secure environment in Somalia Rebuild and reestablish Infrastructure Economy Chapter VII, Resolution 814 (1993)

75 UNOSOM II (cont.) Soldiers killed by factions → disregarded agreements of ceasefire Resolution 837 (1993) Take all necessary measures to defend armed attacks Quick Reaction Force Nairobi Declaration & Addis Ababa Agreement Peace throughout Somalia & ceasefire Factions/clans broke agreement Secretary-General urged another conference to appoint new government

76 UNOSOM II(March 1993 - March 1995)
Transition of operational control from UNITAF Effective deployment and consolidation of United Nations operational control throughout Somalia and the border regions Reduction of UNOSOM II military activity, and assistance to civil authorities in exercising greater responsibility Reduction of UNOSOM II force

77 End of UNOSOM II Secretary-General: only the Somalis themselves could establish acceptable peace International community could help the process → can't be sustained indefinitely Withdraw of UNOSOM II force → March 28,1995 United Nations agencies and organizations NGOs

78 The End of International Involvement
Withdrawal President Clinton called for a full withdrawal by March 1994. Marines were completely removed from the area by 1995 The UN also withdrew forces Ended the UN effort to help a country in anarchy and civil war

79 The End of International Involvement
Results Secretary of Defense Les Aspin resigned Blamed for denying the US Army permission to use tanks US politicians didn’t want tanks in Somalia Thought it would look bad for “peacekeeping”

80 Post UNOSOM Somalia Central government Law system

81 TNG and the ICU International Conferences Area of conflict
ICU dominance Effect of ICU rule Al-Shabaab declares black Islamic flag in Somalia

82 ICU and Ethiopia ICU's power spread Ethiopian outlook African Union

83 African Union thwarted Arms buildup Jihad Baidoa
ICU-TNG Conflict African Union thwarted Arms buildup Jihad Baidoa

84 Puntland State of Somalia
Claimed autonomy in 1998 Do not want to be fully independent of Somalia. Have developed at a greater rate than mainland Somalia.

85 Population of Puntland
Estimated at 2.4 million Population growth rate of Puntland State is currently very high due to the influx of people from war-torn southern Somalia and from neighboring countries.

86 Puntland: Signs of Development
Ministry of Women Development and Family Affairs Ministry of Finance Ministry of Health Ministry of Education Gender roles---In traditional Somali, women were assigned to household tasks and other related issues such as cooking, collection of water and firewood, child-bearing, caring sick people, etc. 1. What? A Policy that promotes gender equity, and women’s development • Takes inspiration from Islam religious values and engages with appropriate cultural identity, while ultimately promoting women economic, political and social mobility, climbing up the ladder in leadership and policy making How to achieve these targets? Through: (1) Adhering to the UN Security Council Resolution 1325, observing and adopting in conformity with the pressure of the international community spearheaded by the United Nation’s adamant insistence-to adopt Gender Equality and observe Human Rights. This pressure is also being exercised on the preparations underway for undertaking the so-called Joints Needs Assessment (JNA) to be jointly managed by the United Nations, the World Bank, and the Somali Authorities that would result in a Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP), based upon priorities that are being identified by the Somali counterparts, the AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality followed by the IGAD regional group. However it is necessary to guard study and dissect UN Resolution1325; then, pick and choose the parts and language that is compatible to Islam. (2) Adopting and implementing the landmark achievement, one of the first built constitutions of a new Somalia State (PUNTLAND) that enables Somali Women to make history with the first ever Gender Sensitive Charter for Somalia; credit goes to the pressure of the International Community and the Somali Women Activists that got involved in the process at an early stage. (3) Policy that requires Education and Awareness on values of gender equity/women in development to economic development and prosperity of the community and the nation as a whole.

87 Somalia Overall, the government has little control and is instable.
Forbes magazine ranked Somalia as the most dangerous destination in the world. 3 strait years.

88 Presently Somalis are worried they will wind up being ruled by the Ethiopians-resentful of the standing Ethiopian army occupying their country Ethiopia is concerned about Eritrea using the situation (instability in Somalia) to invade them and use Somalia to launch attacks against them

89 Ethiopia Invades Their civil war in the 1990’s destroyed the country's government In 2006 Ethiopia invaded Somalia (with help from the United States) to prevent it from becoming an Islamist government


91 Ethiopian Invasion Victory ICU's Fate

92 Islamist Groups Al-Shabaab Hizbul Islam Islamic Courts Union

93 War Leads to Piracy As a result of that, foreign fishing ships started fishing in Somali waters for it’s tuna, which caused economic problems in Somalia's fishing industry. The fishermen, with access to small arms and portable rockets, went out to sea to attack the foreign cargo, and cargo ships. This eventually turned into organized piracy


95 Pirates ?? Due to the extreme limited opportunities to make a living in Somalia many have turned to Piracy in the Gulf of Aiden. Began when neighboring countries began illegally fishing in Somali waters Angry Somali fishermen boarded and demanded “fees” Called themselves ‘Coast guards’, organized like a military

96 Today Somali pirates seize anything from freighters to luxury cruise liners Pirates in 2008 pulled in as much as $150 million, placing it as Somalia’s biggest industry Bosses can pull in $2 million/year

97 http://www. marinebuzz


99 Why and how they do it They captured merchant ships off the coast of Yemen, Somalia, and Kenya and hold them for ransom The ship owners and the insurance companies pay the ransom because it is cheaper to pay it than to lose the ship and its cargo


101 Piracy Ships from the United states, United Kingdom, Russia, and India patrol the Somalia coats and try to stop the piracy Ships are now arming themselves to protect against attack from pirates

102 How to Handle the Piracy Issue
Some people have suggested to use amphibious or air attacks on the pirates Others think we should pay them off The best solution is to get a functioning government in Somalia to control it citizens

103 Coalition Government Moderate Islamists and the TNG Mogadishu
Technocratic government

104 Recent Occurences Drought and famine Al-Shabaab
Possible AU peacekeeper increase Kenya UN

105 Problems that the UN face in Somalia
United Nations aid workers in the country are limited as there is no established protection on site. Aid workers face the constant threat of kidnapping for ransom. International aid has been routinely looted due to a variety of factors including government corruption and desperate food and health conditions. Islamist groups view the United Nations with distrust and deny it access to their land, believing that the United Nations has a political agenda.

106 UN Role In Somalia No large-scale United Nations peacekeeping operation in the country since the UNOSOM II. Passed Resolution 1838, in which an anti-piracy fleet is sanctioned to operate off of Somalia's lawless coastline. The World Food Programme (WFP), a United Nations program, also has a presence in the country. A United Nations program designated towards establishing a functioning government in Somalia called the United Nations Political Office for Somalia is currently active in Kenya.

107 Solutions UN Peacekeepers Offensive action Protection of aid
Protection of government institutions United Nations Political Office for Somalia Development IMF

108 Solutions (cont.) AU Anti-insurgency Monetary goals
3. International Help AU Anti-insurgency Monetary goals 4. Political Unification TNG Puntland Somaliland 5. End to Piracy 6. Alleviate the Effects of the Famine Long term and short term goals

109 Bibliography 1. The United Nations' database on the UNOSOM I & UNOSOM II <https://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosomi.htm> <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2backgr1.html> 2. From United Nations Political Office for Somalia <http://unpos.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=1911> 3. Somalia – Infrastructure, Power, and Communications <http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/Somalia-INFRASTRUCTURE- POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.html> 4. GlobalSecurity on the Somalia Civil War <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/somalia.htm> 5. From AllAfrica, information pertaining to the Islamist's stance on the United Nations was obtained. <http://allafrica.com/stories/ html> 6. General history of the Somali Civil War <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A html> 7. Information on the Somali Civil War was taken from Conciliation Resources. <http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/somalia/endless-war.php> 8. GlobalSecurity on the far-reaching consequences of the Somalia Civil War

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