5The five W’s The WHO The WHAT Readers love stories that focus on people.WHO keeps it real.Who’s involved?Who’s affected?Who’s going to benefit?Who’s getting screwed?WHAT gives news its substance.Stories become dry and dull if they focus too much on WHAT.Need WHO.
6The five W’s The WHEN The WHERE Timeliness essential to every story. When events happened or will happen.How long they lasted or will last.The closer the event, the more relevant it is for readers.Many stories require supplements.MapDiagramPhoto
7The five W’s The WHY The HOW Finding explanations difficult. The WHY is what makes news meaningful.Often requires detailed explanation.Sometimes omitted to save space.Readers love “how-to” stories.
8The inverted pyramidNewswriting format summarizes most important facts at story’s startThis is the lead, which summarizes the story’s most important factsThis paragraph adds more details or backgroundThis paragraph adds even more detailsThis adds more detailsMore details
9The inverted pyramid The typical news story uses the inverted pyramid Summarize first.Explain later.Resolve everything in the beginning.Allows editors to trim stories from bottom.So should you use this format for every story?No. It works best for hard news.
10The inverted pyramidWhy writing a good lead actually matters to readersIf a story takes too long to make sense…Readers flee like rats from a sinking ship.A summary lead is a diagram for the story to come.
11Writing basic news leads How to write an effective news leadCollect all your facts.Lead should summarize.The more you know, the easier it is to summarize.Sum it up. Boil it down.List who, what, when, where, why of story.
12Writing basic news leads How to write an effective news leadPrioritize the five W’s.Lead contains the most important facts.Which of the key facts deserves to start the first sentence?Rethink. Revise. Rewrite.Is it clear?Is it active?Is it wordy?Is it compelling?
13Writing basic news leads How to write an effective news leadWriting leads often a process of trial and error.Try different approaches.Create different leads using the…Who.What.When.Where.Why.
14Summary lead lecture points Mission: Invite the reader in and give the gist of the story.Works best with hard news/breaking news.Answers key questions such as who, what, where, when, why and how.35 word limitOne sentence. One sentence. One sentence!!A good lead can serve as a diagram for a hard news storyClear, concise writing is the key to success
15Summary leads in the news… A man hiding in the attic of a St. Petersburg home opened fire on officers trying to arrest him Monday morning, sparking a firefight that left two police officers dead and a U.S. Marshal wounded.(35 words)
16Summary lead rules One-sentence No more than 35 words. No less than 15.Usually past tense verbsConcise, clearProminence dictates if a person’s name is used in the lead.Answers as many questions as possible: Who, what, where, why, when, how…
17Summary leads in the news Heath Slocum sank a 21-foot putt for par on the final hole for a dramatic win at The Barclays in Jersey City, N.J. on Sunday.(25)
18A summary leadHundreds of people hunkered down in emergency shelters and thousands stuck it out in darkened homes after a winter storm that left 54 dead in nine states Wednesday. (27 words)
19Leads answer key questions Think about which questions are answered in this lead.Shattered mausoleum walls were discovered Tuesday morning at historic St. Michael's Cemetery in downtown Pensacola, and slabs were overturned on above-ground tombs in what could have been an attempt to unearth the dead. (33)
20Leads answer key questions… Shattered mausoleum walls were discovered Tuesday morning at historic St. Michael's Cemetery in downtown Pensacola, and slabs were overturned on above-ground tombs in what could have been an attempt to unearth the dead. (33)What: shattered wallsWhere: St. Michael’sWhen: Tuesday morningWhy: attempt to unearth the dead…(creepy)
21Summary lead focus Figuring out key questions to be answered.. What happened? When? Where?You must determine the focusA fast-moving string of thunderstorms toppled trees, flooded streets and prompted a tornado warning Tuesday in northwest Florida. (Just 18 words answers what, where and when questions)
22Summary leads: Finding focus This lead focuses on who, what, when and whereSteve Irwin, the hugely popular Australian television personality and conservationist known as the "Crocodile Hunter," was killed Monday by a stingray while filming off the Great Barrier Reef. (26)
23Lead rules 35 words Past tense verb Answers as many questions as possibleWhich questions are answered here?Prosecutors asked a judge Tuesday to impose the maximum sentence on a couple found guilty of planting a human fingertip in a bowl of Wendy's chili in a scheme to extort money from the restaurant chain. (35)
24ProminenceThis lead identifies Naomi because she has prominence (and a bad temper)Naomi Campbell apologized yesterday for hitting her maid in the head with a cell phone, but said it was an accident. (21)
25Note the boys aren’t identified by name… An early morning joy ride on a train engine in Nelsonville, Ohio- with the whistle blowing, ended back in juvenile detention for two boys who walked away from an unlocked detention home, authorities said. (The boys don’t have prominence so their full names aren’t used in the lead)
26Rules It’s one-sentence, Clarice. Unless a person has prominence…they are not identified in the lead.FRANKFURT (Reuters) - A German cannibal who killed a man who wanted to be eaten told a court Monday that he had only been carrying out his victim's wishes and had not expressly sought to kill him. (34 words)
27Prominence ruleA woman charged as an accessory in the Billings double homicide was arrested Thursday on a bigamy charge and released from jail again. (23)
28Summary lead: Attribution Attribution is nearly always placed at the end of the lead set off by a comma.Definition of Attribution: Who said it? Who is the source? Attribution is underlined in the following lead.A 2½-year-old Gulf Breeze girl nearly drowned Sunday at Johnson Beach, a Gulf Islands National Seashore park ranger said. (19)
29Summary lead: Time element After the verb works well…usually the best place, but sometimes after the object or end of the sentence is best. Time element NEVER begins a summary lead.Celebrity Paris Hilton was arrested in Hollywood early on Thursday on suspicion of drunken driving, Los Angeles police said.(18)
30Time element After the verb works best … most of the time. Sometimes you have to put it at the end of a sentence too.Or after the objectOr where it reads bestBut never at the beginning of a leadWrong: Tuesday a man was found dead at the beach.Correct: A man was found dead on Tuesday at the beach.
31Avoid cluttered messes like this… CINCINNATI (AP) - Democratic Sen. John Kerry, at a site where President Bush made his case that Iraq was a threat to the United States, argued on Wednesday that the president left a trail of broken promises on the path to war and has squandered money that could be put to better use for health care, education and jobs. (56 awful, dreadful words.)
32Fixing cluttered mess… (AP) - Democratic Sen. John Kerry, at a site where President Bush made his case that Iraq was a threat to the United States, argued on Wednesday that the president left a trail of broken promises on the path to war and has squandered money that could be put to better use for health care, education and jobs. (56 awful, dreadful words.)Democratic Sen. John Kerry said Wednesday that President George Bush left a trail of broken promises on the path to war and squandered billions of dollars. (26)Many of the details in the other lead can be used in the next two paragraphs of the news story…no need putting them in the lead.
33What can go wrong…Run-on sentences derail summary leads all the time when two sentences make up one lead.They are called fused sentences or comma splices…here’s a fused sentence. (underlined)Sixteen cars of a Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corp. freight train carrying hazardous chemicals jumped the tracks Wednesday morning 100 miles northeast of Los Angeles no one was injured.
34Fixing a run-on sentence Fix with a coordinating conjunction (but)Sixteen cars of a Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corp. freight train carrying hazardous chemicals jumped the tracks Wednesday morning 100 miles northeast of Los Angeles but no one was injured.Lesson: Don’t write run-on sentences they are hard to read. (LOL)
35What can go wrong…Don’t use semi-colons to join two complete clauses in your summary lead.Use connecting conjunctions instead: And, but…Wrong: A freight train derailed Wednesday morning; a broken rail is suspected.Better: A freight train derailed Wednesday morning and a broken rail is suspected.