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WORDS and POWER Oh Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy Father, and refuse thy name… Tis but thy name that is my enemy…O! be some other name:

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Presentation on theme: "WORDS and POWER Oh Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy Father, and refuse thy name… Tis but thy name that is my enemy…O! be some other name:"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORDS and POWER Oh Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy Father, and refuse thy name… Tis but thy name that is my enemy…O! be some other name: What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called, Retain that dear perfection which he owes without that title. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet 莎士比亚

2 Romeo & Juliet 罗密欧与朱丽叶 Oh Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy Father, and refuse thy name… Tis but thy name that is my enemy…O! be some other name: What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called, Retain that dear perfection which he owes without that title.

3 Emotive or Connotative Meaning The Word ’ s implications. Its The emotional power, its social, cultural, political and ideological associations. Cognitive or Denotative Meaning: The literal sense or reference of a word or expression. Definitional, literal, obvious and ‘common sense’ meaning.

4 “Snake” Snake\, n. [AS. snaca; akin to LG. snake, schnake, Icel. sn[=a]kr, sn?kr, Dan. snog, Sw. snok; of uncertain origin.] (Zo["o]l.) Any species of the order Ophidia; an ophidian; a serpent, whether harmless or venomous. See Ophidia, and Serpent. OphidiaSerpent Note: Snakes are abundant in all warm countries, and much the larger number are harmless to man.

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11 Cultural Myths: the differences between Business men & Business women Insisting on what one wants –A Businessman is assertive –A Businesswoman is pushy Paying close attention to detail –A Businessman is meticulous –A Businesswoman is picky Doggedly pursuing a point –A Businessman is persistent –A Businesswoman is a nag Not changing position –A Businessman is firm –A Businesswoman is stubborn

12 Businessmen vs.Businesswomen Keeping things quiet –A Businessman is discrete –A Businesswoman is secretive Showing anger –A Businessman has a quick temper –A Businesswoman is hysterical Acting quickly –A Businessman is decisive –A Businesswoman is impulsive

13 Religious & Philosophical Connotations Abortion/Reproductive Rights Pro-abortion Pro-choice Pro-life Anti-abortion

14 A Rose by any Other Name Cult? Religion? Sect? Spiritual Movement?

15 法輪大法 Falungong Religion? Spiritual Movement? Cult? Sect?

16 LABELS “Palestinian Gunmen Exchange Fire with Israeli Troops in the City of Nablus. “ TIME Magazine, April, 2002

17 LABELS “Palestinian Gunmen Exchange Fire with Israeli Troops in the City of Nablus. “ TIME Magazine, April, 2002

18 “Gunman” + =

19 Gunmen

20 As the Syrian regime steps up its military campaign to regain control of the city of Aleppo, the unequipped FSA fighters keep battling Bashar Al Assads military inside buildings and on the streets. Syria, 2012, Time Magazine

21 Troops

22 Israeli “Troops”

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24 “Troops”

25 “Terror”

26 Labels Shape Our Thinking: “ Terror”

27 “Terrorism”: U.S. State Department Definition: Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant* targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience."

28 Japanese Invasion of China

29 A Rose by any other name… Can you spot the terrorist attack? Terrorist attack Anti-Insurgency Operation Carpet Bombing Air Strike

30 “12 year old boy dies in father’s arms after being shot in firefight. shot and killed in firefight as father pleads for mercy.” 12 year old shot by soldiers dies in father’s arms

31 Terror and Terrorism

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33 Labels that Shape our Thinking “terror”

34 Headlines: Political Labels? Murder Atrocity/Barbaris m State Sponsored Terrorism War Crime Tragedy Accident Incident Cycle of Violence

35 Euphemism Polite usage vs. common or vulgar usage Specific vs. General Hyponyms (specific) vs. superordinates (general) –Hyponyms: (More specific examples) ‘Cockroach’, ‘snake’, and ‘puppy’ are each hyponyms of ‘animal’ Derogatory vs. neutral or positive

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37 Euphemism Intestinal gas Flatus Flatulence Passing gas Breaking wind

38 Euphemisms In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible. George Orwell

39 “Collateral Damage”

40 Pre-emptive Strike

41 Acadespeak Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compels the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account.

42 Non-academic version I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Ecclesiastes

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44 The Measurement of Meaning Charles E. Osgood Associations Cultural, religious, visual, sound, smell 2.Evaluation Bad or Good 3.Potency Weak or Strong 4.Activity Passive or Active

45 Bioweapons Tested in US Source: Associated Press, October 9, 2002.Associated Press Bioweapons Tested in U.S. in 1960s By MATT KELLEY, Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- The United States secretly tested chemical and biological weapons on American soil during the 1960s, newly declassified Pentagon reports show. The tests included releasing deadly nerve agents in Alaska and spraying bacteria over Hawaii, according to the documents obtained Tuesday. The United States also tested nerve agents in Canada and Britain in conjunction with those two countries. The summaries of more than two dozen tests show that biological and chemical tests were much more widespread than the military has acknowledged previously.

46 Bioweapons The documents did not say whether any civilians had been exposed to the poisons. Military personnel exposed to weapons agents would have worn protective gear, the Pentagon says. "Our focus must be on quickly identifying those veterans who were involved, assessing whether they suffered any negative health consequences and, if warranted, providing them with adequate health care and compensation for their service,'' said Rep. Chris Smith, R-N.J. The tests were part of Project 112, a military program in the 1960s and 1970s to test chemical and biological weapons and defenses against them. Parts of the testing program done on Navy ships were called Project SHAD, or Shipboard Hazard and Defense. Earlier this year, the Defense Department acknowledged for the first time that some of the 1960s tests used real chemical and biological weapons, not just benign stand- ins.

47 Bioweapons Language

48 More Bioweapons Language

49 Yet More Bioweapons Language

50 Israeli “Troops”

51 Naval Confrontation between US & China, March 2009

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55 “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet. “ “Surveillance Vessel” “Unarmed US vessel” “Civilian personnel” “Routine Operations”

56 Hong Kong Moral and National Education: The Nation (USA) article: ng-kong-students-fight-integrity-their- education# China Daily Article: 10/09/content_ htm 10/09/content_ htm New York Times article:

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58 Language Analysis Take an article on a current hot topic with a conflict frame (e.g. Diaoyu Islands, National Education, or Syrian conflict) Have students make a list of 10 words from the article that have strong emotive meaning Have students break into two teams, Team A will come up with a list of replacement words to subtly favor one party to the conflict while Team B will come up with a list of replacement words to sublty favor the other party. TA should judge/comment on effectiveness of choices in terms of cultural, emotional, visceral associations of words selected as well as the subtlety (i.e. don't let on that you're trying to manipulate the reader's emotions through word choice.


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