Presentation on theme: "Air & Smoke Movement in and around High Rise buildings (Air Tracks) Mark Fishlock 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Air & Smoke Movement in and around High Rise buildings (Air Tracks) Mark Fishlock 2011
Understanding the dynamics of air or smoke movement is critical to safely working in high rise buildings!!
Affecting Factors FRS Operations: Wind Effect Built-in ventilation systems -HVAC Fire pressurisation systems Fire shafts Lift shafts (Piston affect) Stack Effect Combustion pressure Compartmentation breeching AND THEY CAN ALL COMBINE!!
Built in Ventilation systems Common on newer buildings ie HVAC Will have over-rides (either manual or automatic) Built in smoke control and detection
Fire Pressurisation systems Usefulness now brought into doubt by BRE bd2410 (2005) PPV ?
Fire fighting shafts Requirement of Approval Document B BS 9999 / BS 5588 Part 5: 2004. Naturally vented with AOV on roof and shutters dampers on each floor Research FR 11.24
Lifts and Lift Shafts Normal lift are not/can not be smoke tight Lift shafts can have a micro-climate Lift movement can create a noticeable air flow
Combustion Pressure High Rise are designed as hermetically sealed buildings BRE bd2410 (2005) shown pressure increases in small mixed load fire (plastic/carbonaceous domestic) @ 1.5 MW is 35 Pascal's.00035 Bar Applying water increases it to 190 Pascal's Pressurised protection of buildings aims for 50 Pascal’s
WIND Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. Measures in KPH (MPH) or Knots Strongest gust UK (1989) 146mph (low level) Strongest sustained wind UK (1971) 73MPH
Wind: Behaviour Winds can go from still state to Hurricane force in under 5 minutes (RAF Lossiemouth 1981) Wind can change direction by up to 90 degrees in 20 mins (RN Boatcraft D3)
Wind: Pressure Wind blowing on an object creates pressure
Wind: Pressure Wind blowing around an object can create a reduced pressure
Wind: Pressure The basic formula for wind pressure is: P =.00256 V2 where P = the wind pressure (pounds per square foot) V = wind speed (miles per hour) The force created by the wind on a structure is: F = P × A × Cd where P = the wind pressure A = the flat projected area of the structure (square feet) Cd = drag coefficient for the shape of the structure’s members. The coefficient for a flat surface is 2.0.
Wind: Pressure SO for a failed window opening 4’ x 3’ and a wind of 40mph P =.00256 V2 = 4 psi 18PSI = 128.6% increase Effectively 27% O2 (Dalton law of partial pressure) F = P × A × Cd = 98 pounds
Wind: Pressure SO for a failed balcony patio door 7’ x 6’6” and a gust of 60mph P =.00256 V2 = 9.2 psi 23.2PSI = 166% increase Effectively 35% O2 (Dalton law of partial pressure) F = P × A × Cd = 839 pounds
Wind and fire compartment Primarily has two effects: To create wind driven fire (an air pathway) or to pressurise or depressurise a compartment. Wind driven fires are FORCE VENTILATED Pressurised fires are Oxygen rich De-pressurised fires can be under ventilated
Wind driven fire There are inlet AND outlet to compartments creating an air path Very high energy release rates 17Mw + Fuel used quickly
Wind driven fire If air pathway runs FROM the fire compartment and travels inside building then extremely hazardous to Ff’s
Wind driven fire If air pathway runs FROM inside the building and travels to the fire compartment then less hazardous to Ff’s
Compartment pressurisation There is no simple air path. (An in and out) Fire compartment has opening(s) on same face Fire is ventilated and fed from same window CONTAIN & Let it burn out??? C
Compartment pressurisation Wind blowing onto opening (+ Pressure) Smoke bleeding into corridor Fire could be well ventilated Very dangerous to enter !!
Compartment pressurisation Wind blowing across or away from opening (-Pressure) Air being sucked from corridor. Ensure its not a developing Backdraft: Confirm its vented Safer but still poses serious risk to enter
Unventilated compartment. MAY BECOME VENTILATED AT ANY TIME (DOOR OPENING/WINDOW FAILIURE). May be sucking or blowing depending of phase of fire. Risk of sudden escalation or Backdraft upon Ff entry. May be impossible to externally ventilate. Dangerous to enter
Wind Effect sometimes called the “Blow torch effect” ?? Has the greatest bearing on abnormal fire development in High Rise Incidents Window failure or Fire-fighters ventilating create direct air tracts Fire energy is rated as its energy release over a period of time (MW). One of the primary effectors of this time span is availability of O2 and wind can greatly enhance this supply
SAFETY FIREFIGHTERS WORKING IN THE BUILDING CHANGE ITS DYNAMICS KNOW THE BUILDING LAYOUT AND ITS FIXED SYSTEM KNOW ITS VENTILATION SYSTEM AND HOW IT WORKS KNOW THE STATE OF THE HOUSEKEEPING ALWAYS BE AWARE OF UNPREDICTED SMOKE TRAVEL (Safety officers) MINIMISE USE OF LIFTS STRIVE TO MAINTAIN COMPARTMENTATION (especially to stairwells) BE AWARE THAT WEATHER (WIND & TEMP) WILL HAVE A SERIOUS EFFECT ON AIR/SMOKE TRAVEL