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Objectives 1 of 3 Understand ventilation as a fire service tool. Understand ventilation as a fire service tool. Know the principles, advantages, and effects.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives 1 of 3 Understand ventilation as a fire service tool. Understand ventilation as a fire service tool. Know the principles, advantages, and effects."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Objectives 1 of 3 Understand ventilation as a fire service tool. Understand ventilation as a fire service tool. Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation. Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation. Know the origins and effects of heat, smoke, and toxic gases. Know the origins and effects of heat, smoke, and toxic gases. Differentiate between flashover, backdraft, and rollover. Differentiate between flashover, backdraft, and rollover.

3 Objectives 3 of 3 Identify safety considerations when venting operations are in progress. Identify safety considerations when venting operations are in progress. Identify the factors affecting ventilation. Identify the factors affecting ventilation. Describe ventilation techniques. Describe ventilation techniques. Identify the types of ventilation. Identify the types of ventilation. Identify the mechanics of ventilation. Identify the mechanics of ventilation.

4 Introduction Ventilation is the planned and systematic removal of pressure, heat, gases, and smoke. Ventilation is the planned and systematic removal of pressure, heat, gases, and smoke. Ventilation is a very complex subject area with many factors. Ventilation is a very complex subject area with many factors. Ventilation is a part of the coordinated fire attack. Ventilation is a part of the coordinated fire attack. Ventilation will be in place before fire attack!! Ventilation will be in place before fire attack!!

5 Principles, Advantages, and Effect of Ventilation 1 of 3 Ventilation is the relief of the products of combustion from an enclosed area. Ventilation is the relief of the products of combustion from an enclosed area. This is a very essential part of fire suppression effort. This is a very essential part of fire suppression effort. This prevents fire from heating up other parts of the structure. This prevents fire from heating up other parts of the structure.

6 Principles, Advantages, and Effect of Ventilation 2 of 3 As heat is exhausted and dissipated its ability to spread the fire is reduced As heat is exhausted and dissipated its ability to spread the fire is reduced Ventilation channels smoke out of the structure. Ventilation channels smoke out of the structure. As smoke builds up vision is obscured. As smoke builds up vision is obscured. Heavy smoke conditions can obscure light completely. Heavy smoke conditions can obscure light completely.

7 Principles, Advantages, and Effect of Ventilation 3 of 3 Unburned hydrocarbons irritate eyes. Unburned hydrocarbons irritate eyes. Smokes contain many deadly substances. Smokes contain many deadly substances. Removal of smoke will add survival time to a victim, increasing the chance of successful rescue. Removal of smoke will add survival time to a victim, increasing the chance of successful rescue.

8 Heat, Smoke, and Toxic Gases When fire burns, air heats, expands, becomes lighter, and rises. When fire burns, air heats, expands, becomes lighter, and rises. Heated air spreads by convection and radiation. Heated air spreads by convection and radiation. Fire gases consists of many deadly products of combustion. Fire gases consists of many deadly products of combustion. Newer approach to construction makes ventilation even more important. Newer approach to construction makes ventilation even more important.

9 Considerations for Proper Ventilation 1 of 3 Important to understand behavior of fire gases. Important to understand behavior of fire gases. Smoke rises and mushrooms. Smoke rises and mushrooms. Vertical ventilation is the removal of gases and smoke through vertical channels. Vertical ventilation is the removal of gases and smoke through vertical channels. Horizontal ventilation is channel smoke through horizontal openings. Horizontal ventilation is channel smoke through horizontal openings. Without ventilation, heat, smoke and steam have no where to go. Without ventilation, heat, smoke and steam have no where to go.

10 Path of Travel for Smoke

11 Considerations for Proper Ventilation 2 of 3 An opening is needed for smoke and by- products to exit as attack team moves in. An opening is needed for smoke and by- products to exit as attack team moves in. Ventilation can be as critical as applying water. Ventilation can be as critical as applying water. Many factors must be considered when venting. Many factors must be considered when venting.

12 Considerations for Proper Ventilation 3 of 3 A size up of the structure is very important. A size up of the structure is very important. Height of building will also have an impact. Height of building will also have an impact. Wind can alter ventilation. Wind can alter ventilation. Bad weather affects smoke’s ability to travel. Bad weather affects smoke’s ability to travel. Through proper ventilation the fire’s ability to extend can be removed. Through proper ventilation the fire’s ability to extend can be removed.

13 Fire and Its By-Products During combustion energy is released. During combustion energy is released. Molecules reunite to form new substances. Molecules reunite to form new substances. These substances can be caustic to humans. These substances can be caustic to humans. Ventilation will remove some substances. Ventilation will remove some substances. Ventilation has many other benefits. Ventilation has many other benefits. Flashover, backdraft, and rollover can occur without ventilation. Flashover, backdraft, and rollover can occur without ventilation.

14 Fire Phenomena Flashover. Flashover. Backdraft (smoke explosion). Backdraft (smoke explosion). Rollover. Rollover.

15 Flashover Light, smoke, and heat are liberated as part of the combustion process. Light, smoke, and heat are liberated as part of the combustion process. Everything in a confined area ignites at almost the same time. Everything in a confined area ignites at almost the same time. It is important to know the mechanics of a flashover to understand its development. It is important to know the mechanics of a flashover to understand its development.

16 Backdraft (Smoke Explosion) 1 of 2 A rapid ignition of smoke. A rapid ignition of smoke. Incomplete combustion occurs as oxygen levels decrease. Incomplete combustion occurs as oxygen levels decrease. As fire consumes greater amounts of oxygen, the production of CO increases. As fire consumes greater amounts of oxygen, the production of CO increases. With the heat, pressure builds in the confined space. With the heat, pressure builds in the confined space.

17 Backdraft (Smoke Explosion) 2 of 2 When an opening occurs, a billow of smoke escapes. When an opening occurs, a billow of smoke escapes. Cooler air causes air to contract. Cooler air causes air to contract. Mixture increases CO concentration. Mixture increases CO concentration. Once CO concentration reaches the flame, components are primed for ignition. Once CO concentration reaches the flame, components are primed for ignition.

18 Signs of Potential Backdraft Smoke-stained windows. Smoke-stained windows. Puffing of smoke at seams and cracks. Puffing of smoke at seams and cracks. Smoke pushing out under pressure. Smoke pushing out under pressure. No visible flames. No visible flames. Heavy black smoke. Heavy black smoke. Tightly sealed building. Tightly sealed building. Large, open area or void. Large, open area or void. Extreme heat. Extreme heat.

19 Rollover Heated products of combustion rise to higher levels. Heated products of combustion rise to higher levels. Heated gases reach their ignition and begin to spread across the room along the ceiling. Heated gases reach their ignition and begin to spread across the room along the ceiling. When the upper thermal layer is disrupted, the heat is forced down. When the upper thermal layer is disrupted, the heat is forced down.

20 Expanding Heat and Steam

21 What Needs to be Vented? Without ventilation expanding heated steam and smoke will roll over. Without ventilation expanding heated steam and smoke will roll over. Small voids and compartments need to exhaust increasing pressure. Small voids and compartments need to exhaust increasing pressure. Areas such as cockloft need to be checked. Areas such as cockloft need to be checked. Horizontal and vertical voids. Horizontal and vertical voids.

22 Areas to Vent

23 Mechanics of Ventilation Ventilation is simply the movement of air from high pressure to lower pressure. Ventilation is simply the movement of air from high pressure to lower pressure. Knowing the natural tendency of air movement is important. Knowing the natural tendency of air movement is important. Improvement of air conditions is crucial. Improvement of air conditions is crucial. Horizontal and vertical ventilation conform to the same rules. Horizontal and vertical ventilation conform to the same rules.

24 Mechanics of Ventilation SYSTEMATIC removal of products of combustion. SYSTEMATIC removal of products of combustion. Ventilation controlled fire. Ventilation controlled fire.

25 Ventilation controlled fire

26 Ventilation Techniques Break glass. Break glass. Open doors. Open doors. Rope and a tool. Rope and a tool. Hook or pike pole. Hook or pike pole. Iron or Halligan. Iron or Halligan. Ax. Ax. Portable ladder. Portable ladder. Aerial ladder tip. Aerial ladder tip. Negative pressure. Negative pressure. Positive pressure. Positive pressure.

27 Types of Ventilation Ventilation can occur using several methods: Ventilation can occur using several methods: –Natural. –Mechanical:  HVAC.  Smoke fans.  Positive pressure.  Hydraulic.

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30 Objectives: Objectives: –Describe all safety concerns with vertical ventilation –Describe advantages and disadvantages of vertical ventilation –Describe common procedures for vertical ventilation –Demonstrate ability to determine roof integrity –Identify proper tools used during vertical ventilation

31 Vertical Ventilation This next section will cover Vertical Ventilation, both on Residential and Commercial Buildings This next section will cover Vertical Ventilation, both on Residential and Commercial Buildings We will cover the basics on how to ventilate these types of buildings We will cover the basics on how to ventilate these types of buildings There are several types of material that is used for the roof decking There are several types of material that is used for the roof decking We will start out with the Residential Roofs We will start out with the Residential Roofs

32 Vertical Ventilation Residential Roofs Residential Roofs These types of roofs can be either flat or pitched These types of roofs can be either flat or pitched The procedure is fairly simple The procedure is fairly simple Whether the roof is pitched or not, the procedure is the same Whether the roof is pitched or not, the procedure is the same

33 Vertical Ventilation Tools Vertical Ventilation Tools –Cutting  Pick head or flat head axe  K12 Circular Saw (All Engine Companies)  Chain Saw (T82) –Stripping  Pike Pole  Rubbish Hook (T82)

34 Existing Roof Openings Existing Roof Openings –Scuttle Hatches  Commercial Occupancies –Skylights  Residential and Commercial –Air Handlers  Residential and Commercial –Exhaust Vents  Commercial –Attic Vents

35 Safety Concerns Safety Concerns –One of the most dangerous jobs on the fire scene –Use of power tools –Visibility –Smoke/Heat  Full PPE –Access/Egress  Multiple points –Roof Integrity  SOUND IT!!, SOUND IT!!, SOUND IT!!

36 –Accessing the Roof  Minimum on 2 access/egress points –Place on different walls of building  Ground or Aerial Ladders –Aerial Placement  Interior roof access –Scuttles

37 Size Up the Roof Size Up the Roof –Construction type and features  Ridge Line/Truss Direction  Weight Bearing Walls  Lightweight Construction  Age of Building/Roof  Loads on Roofs  Drop Offs –Existing Openings  Skylights, Scuttles, etc

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39 Size Up Size Up –Roof Covering  Tile vs. Shingles  Torch Down  Metal  Synthetic Foam Membrane –Signs of Integrity  Sagging Roof lines –Vents growing  Fire Smoke Venting

40 Getting on the Roof Getting on the Roof –Sound the Roof  Before you step on the roof  Strike the roof with a tool (axe, rubbish hook)  Feel and sound solid  Regularly sound the path you choose and stick to the sounded path.  Scan the roof continuously

41 Working on the Roof Working on the Roof –NEVER cross roof diagonally –Walk on ridges, trusses, outside walls –Work from roof ladders if possible –Work from aerials if possible –Consider safety hoseline (controversial)

42 Open the Roof Open the Roof –BE SAFE ALWAYS –Never cut in line with your body or that of your partner –Work in teams of two minimum –One person cuts, the other backs him up –If you fall and begin to slide, flatten out and your partner will jump on you

43 Open the Roof Open the Roof –Inspection Holes  Helps find direction of trusses  Triangle in shape  1-2 foot per side

44 ALWAYS work on the WINDWARD ALWAYS work on the WINDWARD –(Wind at your back) Don’t get caught down wind – that is where the fire is going Don’t get caught down wind – that is where the fire is going

45 Louver Opening Louver Opening –Fast and Efficient = less time on roof –Must know direction of trusses/rafters –NEVER stand on the hole you are cutting –Always work back to your egress

46 Vertical Ventilation The goal is to get a hole at least 4’ x 8’ The goal is to get a hole at least 4’ x 8’ It can be cut in line with the trusses or perpendicular to the trusses It can be cut in line with the trusses or perpendicular to the trusses If the cut is made perpendicular to the trusses, you have to cross at least three trusses. Three on the top and three on the bottom If the cut is made perpendicular to the trusses, you have to cross at least three trusses. Three on the top and three on the bottom If the cut is made in line with the trusses, you will only have to cross the truss once at the top and one at the bottom If the cut is made in line with the trusses, you will only have to cross the truss once at the top and one at the bottom

47 Louver Opening Louver Opening 1st Cut Mark Trusses 2 nd Cut 3 rd Cut 4 th Cut Last Cut

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49 After the hole is cut After the hole is cut –Open the ceiling –Contact Command –GET OFF THE ROOF!!

50 Trench Opening Trench Opening –Typically used in commercial –Long, narrow opening –Assist in stopping the fire spread –Long time to accomplish = long time on roof –Can also be louvered

51 VERTICAL VENTILATION Trench Opening Trench Opening Hoseline

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54 Trench Opening Trench Opening –Defensive cut. –Q-deck / rolled roof. –Considered outdated by some tactic and strategy subject matter experts.

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57 Summary Summary –BE SAFE –Size up the roof –Sound the roof –Make your hole –Get OFF!!!

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59 Fire Walls Hose line

60 Hydraulic Ventilation

61 Negative Pressure Ventilation

62 Smoke Ejector

63 Structural Ventilation

64 Safety Considerations Will ventilation permit the fire to extend? Will ventilation permit the fire to extend? Will the escape route be cut off? Will the escape route be cut off? Will ventilation endanger others? Will ventilation endanger others? Are firefighters working in teams? Are firefighters working in teams? Is there proper supervision? Is there proper supervision?

65 Obstacles to Ventilation Access. Access. Security devices. Security devices. Height. Height. Poor planning. Poor planning. Unfamiliar building layout. Unfamiliar building layout. Ventilation timing. Ventilation timing. Cut a roof/open a roof. Cut a roof/open a roof.

66 Factors Affecting Ventilation Partial openings. Partial openings. Partially broken windows. Partially broken windows. Screens. Screens. Roof materials Roof materials Dropped or hanging ceilings. Dropped or hanging ceilings. Building size. Building size. Weather. Weather. Opening windows. Opening windows.

67 AN ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION

68 Hush- Compartment #4 Quantum- Compartment #5

69 POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION TODAYS FIRES PRODUCE 20,OOO BTU’s PER POUND COMPARED TO 8,000 BTU’s 10 TO 15 YEARS AGO. TODAYS FIRES PRODUCE 20,OOO BTU’s PER POUND COMPARED TO 8,000 BTU’s 10 TO 15 YEARS AGO. USE OF PLASTICS AND MODERN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS USE OF PLASTICS AND MODERN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

70 POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION INCREASED CO AND TOXIC GASES INCREASED CO AND TOXIC GASES NEW TECHNOLOGY IN PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. NEW TECHNOLOGY IN PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. TYPE V CONSTRUCTION- LIGHT WEIGHT TYPE V CONSTRUCTION- LIGHT WEIGHT

71 ADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES OVER NATURAL VENTILATION ARE OBVIOUS ADVANTAGES OVER NATURAL VENTILATION ARE OBVIOUS PPV VS. NEGATIVE PRESSURE PPV VS. NEGATIVE PRESSURE – PERSONNEL ARE NOT EXPOSED TO INTERIOR ATMOSPHERES – FIRE GASES ARE NOT EXPOSED TO BLOWERS

72 ADVANTAGES - BLOWERS RUN MORE EFFICIENTLY - BLOWERS RUN MORE EFFICIENTLY - INTERIOR DOORWAYS AND HALLS ARE UNOBSTRUCTED - INTERIOR DOORWAYS AND HALLS ARE UNOBSTRUCTED - NO NEED FOR DROP CORDS OR “Z” BARS - NO NEED FOR DROP CORDS OR “Z” BARS - LESS NOISE AND CONFUSION - LESS NOISE AND CONFUSION - REDUCED AIR AGGITATION INSIDE STRUCTURE - REDUCED AIR AGGITATION INSIDE STRUCTURE

73 ADVANTAGES - SUPERIOR IN SPEED AND EFFICIENCY - SUPERIOR IN SPEED AND EFFICIENCY - TWICE AS EFFICIENT IN REMOVING CONTAMINATES - TWICE AS EFFICIENT IN REMOVING CONTAMINATES - HEAT AND SMOKE DIRECTED AWAY FROM EXITS OR UNBURNED AREAS - HEAT AND SMOKE DIRECTED AWAY FROM EXITS OR UNBURNED AREAS

74 ADVANTAGES MORE EFFICIENT IN ROOMS WITH VAULTED CEILINGS MORE EFFICIENT IN ROOMS WITH VAULTED CEILINGS EQUALLY EFFECTIVE WITH HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL VENTILATION EQUALLY EFFECTIVE WITH HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL VENTILATION HAS MINIMAL EFFECTS ON SMOLDERING DEBRIS- IFSTA HAS MINIMAL EFFECTS ON SMOLDERING DEBRIS- IFSTA

75 CHAPEL HILL STUDY 1300 SQ. FT. SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING 1300 SQ. FT. SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING NATURAL VENTILATION- CO LEVELS OVER 600 PPM IN 3.5 MINUTES AFTER IGNITION. REMAINED AT OVER 100 PPM FOR 20 MIN. DESPITE VENTILATION EFFORTS NATURAL VENTILATION- CO LEVELS OVER 600 PPM IN 3.5 MINUTES AFTER IGNITION. REMAINED AT OVER 100 PPM FOR 20 MIN. DESPITE VENTILATION EFFORTS

76 CHAPEL HILL STUDY PPV PRIOR TO FIRE ATTACK. PPV PRIOR TO FIRE ATTACK. 400 PPM IN 3.5 MIN. 400 PPM IN 3.5 MIN. 0PPM IN 16 MIN. 0PPM IN 16 MIN. PPV AFTER FIRE ATTACK PPV AFTER FIRE ATTACK 600PPM IN 5 MIN. 600PPM IN 5 MIN. 0PPM AFTER 16 MIN. 0PPM AFTER 16 MIN.

77 CHAPEL HILL STUDY DECREASE IN SMOKE CONDITIONS AND OTHER TOXIC GASES-CYANIDE DECREASE IN SMOKE CONDITIONS AND OTHER TOXIC GASES-CYANIDE REDUCED TOXICITY FOR VICTIMS REDUCED TOXICITY FOR VICTIMS EASIER FOR FIREFIGHTERS TO LOCATE VICTIMS EASIER FOR FIREFIGHTERS TO LOCATE VICTIMS 50% OF RESIDENTIAL DEATHS DUE TO CO INTOXICATION 50% OF RESIDENTIAL DEATHS DUE TO CO INTOXICATION

78 CHAPEL HILL STUDY MOST RESIDENTIAL FIREFIGHTER DEATHS ARE DUE TO DISORIENTATION AND EXHAUSTING AIR SUPPLIES MOST RESIDENTIAL FIREFIGHTER DEATHS ARE DUE TO DISORIENTATION AND EXHAUSTING AIR SUPPLIES IF USED IN HORIZONTAL APPLICATIONS- REDUCED COLLAPSE IF USED IN HORIZONTAL APPLICATIONS- REDUCED COLLAPSE

79 GUILFORD COLLEGE STUDY TWO STORY 1800 SQ. FT. SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING TWO STORY 1800 SQ. FT. SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING PPV PRIOR TO WATER PPV PRIOR TO WATER PPV AFTER WATER PPV AFTER WATER ATTEMPT TO MOVE FIRE WITH PPV ATTEMPT TO MOVE FIRE WITH PPV

80 GUILFORD COLLEGE STUDY INCREASED VISIBILITY AND REDUCED HEAT INCREASED VISIBILITY AND REDUCED HEAT INITIALLY AND TEMPORARILY INCREASES HEAT IN THE BURN ROOM INITIALLY AND TEMPORARILY INCREASES HEAT IN THE BURN ROOM PPV PLACED BEFORE WATER IS MORE EFFECTIVE IN HEAT REMOVAL IN AREAS DIRECTLY EFFECTED BY THE FIRE PPV PLACED BEFORE WATER IS MORE EFFECTIVE IN HEAT REMOVAL IN AREAS DIRECTLY EFFECTED BY THE FIRE

81 GUILFORD COLLEGE STUDY “ AT NO TIME WAS FIRE VISUALLY SEEN BEING PUSHED THROUGHOUT THE STRUCTURE EVEN WITH AN EXHAUST PORT OPENING IN THE INCORRECT PLACE, OR INCORRECT SIZE.” “ AT NO TIME WAS FIRE VISUALLY SEEN BEING PUSHED THROUGHOUT THE STRUCTURE EVEN WITH AN EXHAUST PORT OPENING IN THE INCORRECT PLACE, OR INCORRECT SIZE.”

82 U.S. COAST GUARD STUDY FIREFIGHTER SKIN TEMP. PRIOR TO EVOLUTION WITHOUT PPV WAS 90.8 DEGREES AFTER FIREFIGHTER SKIN TEMP. PRIOR TO EVOLUTION WITHOUT PPV WAS 90.8 DEGREES AFTER SKIN TEMP WITH USE OF PPV SKIN TEMP WITH USE OF PPV

83 HISTORY INTRODUCED BY THE LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT OVER THIRTY YEARS AGO INTRODUCED BY THE LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT OVER THIRTY YEARS AGO VERY CONTROVERSIAL VERY CONTROVERSIAL USUALLY DUE TO DEPARTMENTS THAT ARE NON-RECEPTIVE TO CHANGE USUALLY DUE TO DEPARTMENTS THAT ARE NON-RECEPTIVE TO CHANGE

84 IMPLEMENTATION SOP’s MUST BE USED TO PREVENT TRAGIC CONSEQUENCES SOP’s MUST BE USED TO PREVENT TRAGIC CONSEQUENCES PERSONNEL MUST BE WELL TRAINED ON MECHANICS AS WELL AS THEORY PERSONNEL MUST BE WELL TRAINED ON MECHANICS AS WELL AS THEORY

85 IMPLEMENTATION THOROUGH SURVEY THOROUGH SURVEY EXHAUST OPENING BETWEEN ¾ TO 1 AND ¾ THE SIZE OF THE OPENING EXHAUST OPENING BETWEEN ¾ TO 1 AND ¾ THE SIZE OF THE OPENING EXHAUST OPENING AWAY FROM POTENTIAL VICTIMS EXHAUST OPENING AWAY FROM POTENTIAL VICTIMS PLACE FAN ON UNINVOLVED SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE PLACE FAN ON UNINVOLVED SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE - 9,000 TO 15,000 CFM MINIMUM - 9,000 TO 15,000 CFM MINIMUM

86 IMPLEMENTATION IF POSSIBLE, USE PPV ON THE WINDWARD SIDE OF STRUCTURE IF POSSIBLE, USE PPV ON THE WINDWARD SIDE OF STRUCTURE ENTER STRUCTURE 15 SECONDS AFTER IMPLEMENTATION ENTER STRUCTURE 15 SECONDS AFTER IMPLEMENTATION

87 IMPLEMENTATION PULL CEILING IMMEDIATELY AFTER ENTERING STRUCTURE PULL CEILING IMMEDIATELY AFTER ENTERING STRUCTURE OPEN LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS OPEN LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS PROBLEMS WITH PPV ARE USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH LACK OF TRAINING OR DISREGUARD OF THE CONCEPT PROBLEMS WITH PPV ARE USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH LACK OF TRAINING OR DISREGUARD OF THE CONCEPT

88 IMPLEMENTATION NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CURTAIN WALL OR BALLOON TYPE CONSTRUCTION NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CURTAIN WALL OR BALLOON TYPE CONSTRUCTION GIVES AN INITIAL INCREASE OF OXYGEN TO FIRE GIVES AN INITIAL INCREASE OF OXYGEN TO FIRE CREWS MUST BE ABLE TO READ SMOKE CONDITIONS CREWS MUST BE ABLE TO READ SMOKE CONDITIONS KNOW YOUR EQUIPMENT KNOW YOUR EQUIPMENT

89 BEDROOM 2 BEDROOM 1 GARAGE BEDROOM 3 BATHROOM DINING ROOM KITCHEN FAMILY ROOM

90 BEDROOM 2 BEDROOM 3 BEDROOM 1 BATH GARAGE DINING ROOM KITCHEN FAMILY ROOM

91 BEDROOM 2 BEDROOM 3 BEDROOM 1 BATH GARAGE DINING ROOM KITCHEN FAMILY ROOM

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93 OTHER APPLICATIONS DUMPSTER OR CAR FIRES DUMPSTER OR CAR FIRES OVERHAUL OVERHAUL

94 Ventilation nightmare

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96 SUMMARY ESTABLISHED A NEED TO VENTILATE ESTABLISHED A NEED TO VENTILATE PPV REDUCES CO AND OTHER TOXIC GAS LEVELS PPV REDUCES CO AND OTHER TOXIC GAS LEVELS IMPROVES FIREFIGHTER SAFETY BY INCREASING VISIBILITY IMPROVES FIREFIGHTER SAFETY BY INCREASING VISIBILITY SAFER AND FASTER THAN VERTICAL VENTILATION SAFER AND FASTER THAN VERTICAL VENTILATION

97 SUMMARY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN NEGATIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION MORE EFFECTIVE THAN NEGATIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION REDUCES FIREFIGHTER BODY TEMPERATURES REDUCES FIREFIGHTER BODY TEMPERATURES LESS TIME ON TASK LESS TIME ON TASK EFFECTIVE WHEN CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF CONCEPT AND MECHANICS EFFECTIVE WHEN CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF CONCEPT AND MECHANICS

98 SOP Review

99 Vertical Ventilation Residential Roofs Residential Roofs These types of roofs can be either flat or pitched These types of roofs can be either flat or pitched The procedure is fairly simple The procedure is fairly simple Whether the roof is pitched or not, the procedure is the same Whether the roof is pitched or not, the procedure is the same


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