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Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation CS526 Semester Project Spring 2006 Sarah A. Summers.

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Presentation on theme: "Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation CS526 Semester Project Spring 2006 Sarah A. Summers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wireless Sensor Networks for Fire Fighting and Fire Investigation CS526 Semester Project Spring 2006 Sarah A. Summers

2 Firefighters Motivation FIRES KILL !

3 Firefighters Motivation What you have just seen is just the early stages of a fire (45 seconds). What you have just seen is just the early stages of a fire (45 seconds). On average the fire department arrives at 61% of structural fires within 6 minutes. On average the fire department arrives at 61% of structural fires within 6 minutes. By that stage the fire may have spread extensively. By that stage the fire may have spread extensively. The exact location of the fire will probably be unknown. The exact location of the fire will probably be unknown. The extent of the fire will probably be unknown. The extent of the fire will probably be unknown. Result –the fire fighters are entering the scene almost blind. Result –the fire fighters are entering the scene almost blind.

4 Fire Investigators Motivation Best Case Scenario

5 Fire Investigators Motivation Worst Case Scenario

6 Goals Determine how wireless sensor networks can help. Determine how wireless sensor networks can help. Assess the current position of wireless sensor networks for fire detection and firefighting applications in buildings. Assess the current position of wireless sensor networks for fire detection and firefighting applications in buildings. Assess the challenges faced by fire detecting/tracking WSN. Assess the challenges faced by fire detecting/tracking WSN. Assess the requirements for a pre-deployed fire detecting/tracking wireless sensor network. Assess the requirements for a pre-deployed fire detecting/tracking wireless sensor network. Consider the deployment scheme for sensors. Consider the deployment scheme for sensors.

7 How Can Wireless Sensor Networks Help? Provide information about the location of the fire. Provide information about the location of the fire. Provide information about the extent of spread of the fire – where it is spreading and how quickly. Provide information about the extent of spread of the fire – where it is spreading and how quickly. Temperature/Smoke at various locations with the structure. Temperature/Smoke at various locations with the structure.

8 Current WSN for Fire Detection/ Tracking in Buildings FIRE -Fire Information and Rescue Equipment FIRE -Fire Information and Rescue Equipment Siren -Context-aware Computing for Firefighting Siren -Context-aware Computing for Firefighting

9 FIRE - Fire Information and Rescue Equipment SmokeNet – pre-deployed WSN detects fire. SmokeNet – pre-deployed WSN detects fire. FireEye –firefighter head mounted display unit. FireEye –firefighter head mounted display unit. eICS – visual display showing resource allocation, personnel location and firefighter biometrics eICS – visual display showing resource allocation, personnel location and firefighter biometrics

10 SIREN - Context-aware Computing for Firefighting Tacit communication among firefighters using WiFi enabled PDA with a built in mote. Tacit communication among firefighters using WiFi enabled PDA with a built in mote. The mote in the PDA collects data from motes which are pre-deployed in the building to inform the firefighter of hazards and immediate danger. The mote in the PDA collects data from motes which are pre-deployed in the building to inform the firefighter of hazards and immediate danger. Pre-deployed motes also serve as location beacons – allows firefighter to navigate through the building. Pre-deployed motes also serve as location beacons – allows firefighter to navigate through the building. Each PDA connects to the PDA’s of other firefighters in a peering mode. Each PDA connects to the PDA’s of other firefighters in a peering mode.

11 Challenges Motes must detect an event without too many false alarms. Motes must detect an event without too many false alarms. Transmit information rapidly – location and event information – smoke, temperature rise or both. Transmit information rapidly – location and event information – smoke, temperature rise or both. Reorganize rapidly when one or more mote goes down. Reorganize rapidly when one or more mote goes down. Incident Commander must be able to link into the WSN. Incident Commander must be able to link into the WSN. Provide Incident Commander with a visual display of the scene. Provide Incident Commander with a visual display of the scene.

12 Types of Sensors Temperature Sensors – detection and tracking Temperature Sensors – detection and tracking Smoke Detectors- detection Smoke Detectors- detection Infrared Detectors – tracking Infrared Detectors – tracking Accelerometers – detection of structural collapse Accelerometers – detection of structural collapse

13 Fire Data Temperature changes in a simulated fire in a two storey family home. Temperature changes in a simulated fire in a two storey family home.

14 Summary of Temperature Data Time (seconds) Ceiling Temperature Rise Floor Temperature Rise 5 121°C (218°F) 1°C (2°F) °C (337°F) 3°C (5°F) °C (1212°F) 318°C (547°F)

15 Deployment of Temperature Sensors Flaming fire results in rapid changes in temperature close to the ceiling. Flaming fire results in rapid changes in temperature close to the ceiling. Temperature changes closer to the floor are less rapid. Temperature changes closer to the floor are less rapid. Deploy an array of sensors extending from ceiling level downwards. Deploy an array of sensors extending from ceiling level downwards. Ceiling level sensors will be destroyed early but lower sensors should be able to continue passing data. Ceiling level sensors will be destroyed early but lower sensors should be able to continue passing data.

16 Smoke Detectors Ionization smoke detectors – best suited for detecting flaming fires. Ionization smoke detectors – best suited for detecting flaming fires. Photoelectric smoke detectors – best suited for detecting smoldering fires. Photoelectric smoke detectors – best suited for detecting smoldering fires. Since temperature sensors will detect flaming fires with rapid temperature changes, it would be best to use photoelectric smoke detectors to ensure rapid detection of smoldering fires. Since temperature sensors will detect flaming fires with rapid temperature changes, it would be best to use photoelectric smoke detectors to ensure rapid detection of smoldering fires.

17 Firefighters And Wireless Sensor Networks (FAWSNet) WSN comprised of pre-deployed temperature and smoke sensors. WSN comprised of pre-deployed temperature and smoke sensors. Internet connection to the Fire Department. Internet connection to the Fire Department. Graphical User Interface for use by the Incident Commander which connects directly to the wireless sensor network. Graphical User Interface for use by the Incident Commander which connects directly to the wireless sensor network.

18 Example FAWSNet Deployment

19 Example Deployment Cross Section of Room

20 Required Algorithms Sentry algorithm to conserve mote power. Sentry algorithm to conserve mote power. Temperature event algorithm. Temperature event algorithm. Smoke event algorithm. Smoke event algorithm.

21 FAWSNet Operation

22

23 Future Work Viability of sensing motes – mote protection Viability of sensing motes – mote protection TinyViz Simulation TinyViz Simulation Graphical User Interface Graphical User Interface WSN Security WSN Security Additional Sensors Additional Sensors Physical Testing of Implementation Physical Testing of Implementation

24 Conclusions Wireless sensor networks have the potential to provide valuable information to firefighters and fire investigators. Wireless sensor networks have the potential to provide valuable information to firefighters and fire investigators. There is still a lot of research to be done and a lot of issues remain to be resolved, but the fact remains that the provision of any additional information to firefighters that enhances safety must be beneficial. There is still a lot of research to be done and a lot of issues remain to be resolved, but the fact remains that the provision of any additional information to firefighters that enhances safety must be beneficial.

25 References Overview of Sensor Networks, D. Culler, D. Estrin and M. Srivastava, Computer, Vol. 37, Issue No. 8, August 2004, pp. 41 – 49, Overview of Sensor Networks, D. Culler, D. Estrin and M. Srivastava, Computer, Vol. 37, Issue No. 8, August 2004, pp. 41 – 49, Sensor Network Operation, Sensor Network Operation, Intel Motes and Wireless Sensor Networks, Intel Motes and Wireless Sensor Networks, Sensor Nets/ RFID, Sensor Nets/ RFID, Crossbow Technology Inc. Data Sheet, Crossbow Technology Inc. Data Sheet, Sensor Based Efficient Multi-Floor Location Tracking, D. Sinha, Masters Thesis, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Sensor Based Efficient Multi-Floor Location Tracking, D. Sinha, Masters Thesis, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Wireless Sensor Networks, pt 1: Introduction, Eliana Stavrou pt-1-Introduction / Wireless Sensor Networks, pt 1: Introduction, Eliana Stavrou pt-1-Introduction / pt-1-Introduction / pt-1-Introduction /

26 References (continued) TOSSIM: A Simulator for TinyOS Networks, P. Levis and N. Lee, September 17, 2003, TOSSIM: A Simulator for TinyOS Networks, P. Levis and N. Lee, September 17, 2003, Design of Monocular Head-Mounted Displays for Increased Indoor Firefighting Safety and Efficiency, J. Wilson, D. Steingart, R. Romero, J. Reynolds, E. Mellers, A. Redfern, L. Lim, W. Watts, C. Patton, J. Baker and P. Wright, Proceedings of SPIE -- Volume 5800, Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays X: Technologies and Applications, May 2005, pp , Design of Monocular Head-Mounted Displays for Increased Indoor Firefighting Safety and Efficiency, J. Wilson, D. Steingart, R. Romero, J. Reynolds, E. Mellers, A. Redfern, L. Lim, W. Watts, C. Patton, J. Baker and P. Wright, Proceedings of SPIE -- Volume 5800, Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays X: Technologies and Applications, May 2005, pp , Augmented Cognition for Fire Emergency Response: An Iterative User Study, D. Steingart, J. Wilson, A. Redfern, P. Wright, R. Romero and L. Lim, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Augmented Cognition, Las Vegas, NV, July 2005, Augmented Cognition for Fire Emergency Response: An Iterative User Study, D. Steingart, J. Wilson, A. Redfern, P. Wright, R. Romero and L. Lim, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Augmented Cognition, Las Vegas, NV, July 2005, Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting, X. Jiang, N. Y. Chen, J. I. Hong, K. Wang, L. Takayama and J. A. Landay, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2004)., Vienna, Austria, April 18 - April 23, 2004, final.pdf Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting, X. Jiang, N. Y. Chen, J. I. Hong, K. Wang, L. Takayama and J. A. Landay, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2004)., Vienna, Austria, April 18 - April 23, 2004, final.pdfhttp://dub.washington.edu/projects/siren/pubs/pervasive2004-siren- final.pdfhttp://dub.washington.edu/projects/siren/pubs/pervasive2004-siren- final.pdf Ubiquitous Computing for Firefighters: Field Studies and Prototypes of Large Displays for Incident Command, X. Jiang, J. I. Hong, L. A. Takayama and J. A. Landay, CHI Letters (Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI 2004)., Vienna, Austria, April , 2004, final.pdf Ubiquitous Computing for Firefighters: Field Studies and Prototypes of Large Displays for Incident Command, X. Jiang, J. I. Hong, L. A. Takayama and J. A. Landay, CHI Letters (Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI 2004)., Vienna, Austria, April , 2004, final.pdfhttp://dub.washington.edu/projects/siren/pubs/CHI2004-firefighters- final.pdfhttp://dub.washington.edu/projects/siren/pubs/CHI2004-firefighters- final.pdf

27 References (continued) Full-Scale House Fire Experiment for InterFIRE VR, Report of Test, A.D. Putorti Jr and J. McElroy, November 2, 1999, Revised April 10, 2000, Full-Scale House Fire Experiment for InterFIRE VR, Report of Test, A.D. Putorti Jr and J. McElroy, November 2, 1999, Revised April 10, 2000, System Smoke Detectors, System Smoke Detectors, Application of Wireless Sensor Mote for Building Risk Monitoring, N. Kurata, B. F. Spencer, Jr, and M. Ruiz-Sandoval, pdf, (2003) Application of Wireless Sensor Mote for Building Risk Monitoring, N. Kurata, B. F. Spencer, Jr, and M. Ruiz-Sandoval, pdf, (2003) pdf pdf On Random Event Detection with Wireless Sensor Networks, P. K. Dutta, Masters Thesis, Ohio State University, 2004, On Random Event Detection with Wireless Sensor Networks, P. K. Dutta, Masters Thesis, Ohio State University, 2004, Energy-Efficient Surveillance System Using Wireless Sensor Networks, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, J. A Stankovic, T. Abdelzaher, L. Luo, R. Stoleru, T. Yan, L. Gu, J. Hui and B. Krogh, MobiSYS ’04, June 6 -9, 2004, Boston, MA, Energy-Efficient Surveillance System Using Wireless Sensor Networks, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, J. A Stankovic, T. Abdelzaher, L. Luo, R. Stoleru, T. Yan, L. Gu, J. Hui and B. Krogh, MobiSYS ’04, June 6 -9, 2004, Boston, MA,

28 Temperature Event Triggering Algorithm 1.If temperature sensing mote detects temperature increase > 10°C in 5 seconds then fire ignited, trigger alarm. 2.If alarm triggered, determine closest neighboring sensors (temperature and smoke) and send them a wake up call. 3.Send location of detecting mote and detected condition to controller. 4.Draw mote detecting fire on GUI as red circle.

29 Temperature Event Triggering Algorithm (continued) 5.If a neighboring mote detects temperature rise > 10°C but less than 50°C and alarm has already triggered, draw motes as an amber square to indicate heat associated with fire. 6.Send location of mote and event to controller. 7.If a neighboring mote detects temperature rise > 70°C and alarm has already triggered, draw motes as an amber circle to indicate fire spreading. 8.Send location of mote and event to controller.

30 Smoke Event Triggering Algorithm 1.If smoke detected for time > 30 seconds then fire ignited, trigger alarm. 2.If alarm triggered, determine closest neighboring sensors (smoke and temperature) and send them a wake up call. 3.Send location of detecting mote and detected condition to controller. 4.Draw mote detecting fire on GUI as red square.

31 Smoke Event Triggering Algorithm (continued) 5.If a neighboring mote detects smoke and alarm has already triggered, and nearest temperature sensors have not been triggered draw smoke detector as an amber square to indicate smoke in that area. 6.Send location of mote and event to controller.


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