2Overview Saturday 01/26/2013 Sunday 01/27/2013 Lecture AM Divide into groups PMSunday 01/27/2013Divide into groups to go over tools and EquipmentChainsaws / Rotary SawsHand ToolsInventory and Tool familiarizationHydraulic Tools / Gas Powered Equipment
3You Are The Fire fighter You respond on a call. The engine or truck your riding on comes to a stop. You can see fire coming out of the second-story window of a single family residence.As you unbuckle your seatbelt, the captain tells you to get the Halligan Tool and a flat head axe and follow him. Meanwhile, another engine company pulls a hose line and advances it to the front door. You and the captain try to open the door, but its locked. Everyone dons their SCBA face piece, the hose line is charged with water, and you position the Halligan Tool and force open the door.Questions:1. Where on the apparatus are these tools stored?2. Do you know how to use these tools?3. If you did not have these tools, what wouldyou do?
4IntroductionFirefighters use tools and equipment to perform a wide range of activities. A fire fighter must know how to use tools effectively, efficiently, and safely, even when its dark or visibility is limited.Hand tools are used to extend or multiply the actions of your body and increase your effectiveness in performing specific functions. Most hand tools operate using simple machanical principles. a pike pole extends your reach, allows you to penetrate through a ceiling, and enables you to apply force to pull down ceiling material. An axe multiplies the cutting force you can exert on a given area. Power tools and equipment use an external source of power, such as an electric motor or an internal combustion engine, and are faster and more efficient than hand tools.This chapter provides an overview of the general functions of the most commonly used tools and equipment and discusses how they are used during fire suppression and rescue operations. The same tools may be used in different ways during each phase of fire suppreession or rescue operations.Tools and equipment are used in almost all fire suppression and rescue operations. As you progress through your training ,you will learn how to use and operate diferent types of tools and equipment used by fire departments.
5SafetyThough tools differ in their function, power source, and size, general safety rules apply to the use of all tools.General Hazards of Tool Use:There are a variety of hazards associated with improper tool use and faulty tools. Some of these hazards are unique to the tool while others are common for many types of tools.Examples of hazards and associated injuries include the following:Being struck by a tool, or moving part can cause bone fractures, concussions, and internal organ damage.Rotating blades, drills, and other cutting tools can cut and puncture tissue.Objects can fly off during many tool operations. Depending on an object's size, shape, speed, and material, it can cause a variety of injuries to various body parts. Small flying objects are a particular hazard to the eyes.The power source of a tool may present a hazard on its own. For example, electricity can cause burns and shocks. Electric shocks can paralyze the nerve centers, stop breathing, and stop the heart. Heat from the electric current can burn the skin and damage internal organs. Other power sources like gasoline can combust and start fires.Tools can create noise hazards and hearing damage.
6Safety Safety Practices : General safety rules apply to both stationary and portable power tools. The following safety rules apply to many of the tools you are going to use:Personal Protective Equipment : (minimum)CoatHelmetSafety glassesglovespossibly SCBAUse safety glasses . hearing protection. respiratory protection, or special protective clothing when needed.Noise produced by power tools can drown out other sounds... like a person shouting "STOP!" or "HELP!“Stay alert to your surroundings. Clothing:Never wear loose clothing or jewelry that can become entangled in power tools.
7Personal Protective Equipment Structure / AutoHelmetHoodEye ProtectionGlovesTurnout CoatTurnout PantsBootsSCBAPERSONAL ALERT SAFETY SYSTEM (PASS ALARM)WildlandShroudNomex PantsNomex JacketWildland BootsTwo Way RadioFire Shelter
8Safety Tips Always use the right tool for the job! Forcing a small tool to do a big job causes the tool to strain.A strained tool can kickback or break, causing injury.Never use a tool that you are unfamiliar with.Get proper training.Before each use, inspect your tools.Check the alignment of moving parts, breakage of parts, and cracks.When you're tired, you're attention span is reduced.Pay attention to your work is very important when working with tools.Make sure you're fit to do the job!Disconnect the power source when performing maintenance, cleaning, or changing blades and bits.Be wary of dropping tools.Don't rest a tool on the edge of the workstation.Secure tools when working at heights.The material being worked- on should be well secured.Make sure that you are well balanced when operating a tool.Sometimes, a "kickback" from a tool can throw the operator off balance, causing injury.Don't work in an awkward position. You may not have complete control of the tool or the material you are working on.Never lock a tool in the ON position if you are working under conditions that require you to stop the tool quickly.Guarding is one of the best ways to minimize a hazard. Make sure that machine guards are in place on large and small equipment.
9Use and Operation of Tools The best way to learn how to use tools and equipment properly is under optimal conditions of visibility and safety.In the beginning, you should be able to see what you are doing and practice without endangering yourself and others.As proficiency increases, practice using tools and equipment under more realistic working conditions.Eventually, you will be able to use tools and equipment safely and effectively even when darkness or smoke decreases visibility.You need to be able to work safely in hazardous areas,where you are surrounded by noise and other activities,while wearing all of your protective clothing and using your SCBA.Many departments require fire fighters to practice certain skills and evolutions in total darkness or with their face masks covered to simulate the darkness of actual fires.
10Use and Operation of Tools Effective use of toolsEffective and efficient use of tools and equipment means using the least amount of energy to accomplish the task.Being effective means you achieve the desired goal and that you produce the desired effect without wasting time or energy.When assigned a task on the fireground, your objective is to complete that task safely and quickly.If you waste energy by working inefficiently, you will not be able to perform additional tasks.However, if you know which tools and equipment are needed for each phase of firefighting, you will be able to achieve the desired objective quickly and have the energy needed to complete the remaining tasks.New fire fighters are often surprised by the strength and energy required to perform many tasks.An aggressive, continuous program of physical fitness will enable you to maintain your body in the optimal state of readiness.As your training continues, you will learn which tools and equipment are used during different phases of fireground operations.For example, the tools needed for forcible entry are different from the tools usually needed for overhaul.Knowing which tools are needed for the work that must be done will help you prepare for the different tasks that unfold on the scene of a fire.Most fire departments have standard operating procedures or guidelines that specify the tools and equipment needed in various situations.As a fire fighter, you must know where every tool and piece of equipment is carried on your apparatus.Knowing how to use a piece of equipment does you no good if you cannot find it quickly.Your company officer is responsible for telling you which tools to bring along for different situations.Some fire fighters carry a selection of small tools and equipment in the pockets of their turnout coats or bunker pants.Check to see if your department requires you to carry certain tools and equipment at all times.Ask senior fire fighters for recommendations about what tools and equipment you should carry.
12Tool FunctionAn engine or truck company carries a number of tools and different types of equipment.Often, the easiest way to learn and remember these tools is to group them by the function each performs.Most of the tools used by fire departments fit into one of the following functional categories.Rotating (assembly or disassembly)Pushing or PullingPrying or SpreadingStrikingCuttingMultiple Use
14Tools For Pushing Or Pulling Pike poleK - ToolPry BarsRubbish Hook
15Tools Used For Prying Or Spreading CrowbarFlat BarHalligan ToolPry BarHydraulic Spreaders
16Tools Used For Striking Battering RamChiselFlat Head AxeHammerMalletPick Head AxeSledge HammerSingle JackSpring - Loaded Center Punch
17Tools Used For Cutting Axe Bolt Cutters Wire Cutters Knife Chain Saw Hack SawHydraulic ShearsReciprocating SawRotary SawSeatbelt Cutter
18Special Use Tools BRUSH TOOLS PULASKI The Pulaski Axe is a special forest fighting tool. Along with the standard single bit edge, there also is a special Mattock blade for dirt grubbing and trenching.MCCLOUDThe Forestry "McLeod" Fire Tool is a combination hoe/rake with bolted blade, 3 ½" teeth and 4' wood handle.Forestry shovel:This is a short handled shovel about 1.2 m (4 feet) long. The shovel is the workhorse of the wildfire inventory, it is used to scrape light fuels from the dirt when building fire line, may be used to throw dirt cooling or smothering flames and the edges are sharpened allowing it to chop down saplings and cut branches from brush or trees.BRUSH HOOKBush hooks are ideal for cutting medium-sized, non-woody brush. The hooks can be used like an axe. The blades cut easily on the "pull" stroke. Bush hooks can be safer to use than axes, yet as effective as axes.
19Special Use Equipment Extrication Tools Hydraulic Spreaders Air Bags Air ChiselCome A LongHigh Lift JackCribbingHack SawSocket Set
272 Stroke Engine Two-stroke Basics This is what a two-stroke engine looks like: You find two-stroke engines in such devices as chain saws and jet skis because two-stroke engines have three important advantages over four-stroke engines:(1.)Two-stroke engines do not have valves, which simplifies their construction and lowers their weight.(2.)Two-stroke engines fire once every revolution, while four-stroke engines fire once every other revolution. This gives two-stroke engines a significant power boost.(3.)Two-stroke engines can work in any orientation, which can be important in something like a chainsaw. A standard four-stroke engine may have problems with oil flow unless it is upright, and solving this problem can add complexity to the engine.These advantages make two-stroke engines lighter, simpler and less expensive to manufacture. Two-stroke engines also have the potential to pack about twice the power into the same space because there are twice as many power strokes per revolution. The combination of light weight and twice the power gives two-stroke engines a great power-to-weight ratio compared to many four-stroke engine designs.You don't normally see two-stroke engines in cars, however. That's because two-stroke engines have a couple of significant disadvantages that will make more sense once we look at how it operates.
284 Stroke EngineAlmost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle engine to convert gasoline into motion. The four-stroke approach is also known as the Otto cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented the 4 cycle engine in 1867.To understand the mechanical differences between a two stroke and four stroke engine, we need to first consider how the four stroke engine works.The four strokes are:IntakeCompressionCombustionExhaustEach time the piston rises and falls it turns the crankshaft which is responsible for turning the wheels.,which is converted into forward motion.Note that the spark plug only fires once every other revolution in a 4 cycle engine.
29Advantages of a Two Stroke Engine A 2 stroke has more get-up-and-go because it fires once every revolution, giving it twice the power of a four stroke, which only fires once every other revolution.A 2 stroke packs a higher weight-to-power ratio because it is much lighter.A 2 stroke is less expensive because of its simpler design.A 2 stroke can be operated in any orientation because it lacks the oil sump of a four stroke engine, which has limited orientation if oil is to be retained in the sump.
30Disadvantages of a 2 Stroke Engine 2 stroke engines wear faster and have shorter engine life than a four stroke due to the lack of a dedicated lubricating system.2 stroke engines require special two stroke oil also known as ("premix") with every tank of gas, adding expense and at least a minimal amount of hassle.2 stroke engines are heavy polluters because of the simpler design and the gas/oil mixture that is released prior to, and in the exhaust (also creates an unpleasant smell).2 stroke engines are less fuel-inefficient than a four stroke engine.2 stroke engines have a high-decibel whine that may exceed legal noise limits in some areas, depending on the product and local applicable laws.
31Phases Of Fire Ground Operations The process of extinguishing a fire usually involves a sequence of steps or stages.1. Each phase of a fire ground operation may require the use of certain types of tools and equipment.The basic steps of fire suppression include:1. Response/size-up:This phase begins when the emergency call is received and continues as the units travel to the incident scene. The last part of this phase involves the initial observation and evaluation of factors used to determine the strategy and tactics that will be employed.2. Forcible entry:This phase applies when entry to buildings, vehicles, aircraft, or other confined areas that are locked or blocked, requiring fire fighters to use special techniques to gain access.3. Interior attack:During this phase, a team of fire fighters is assigned to enter a structure and attempt fire suppression.4. Search and rescue:As its name suggests, this phase involves a search for any victims trapped by the fire and their rescue from the building.5. Rapid intervention:A rapid intervention company/crew (RIC) is a team of fully equipped personnel that is designated to provide immediate assistance to injured or trapped fire fighters.6. Ventilation:This step involves changing air within a compartment by natural or mechanical means.7. Overhaul:The final phase is to ensure that all hidden fires are extinguished after the main fire has been suppressed.
32Response And Size-up What does this have to do with tools and Equipment 1.The response and size-up phase enables you to anticipate emergency situations.2.At this time, you should consider the information from the dispatcher along with pre-incident plan information about the location.3.This information can provide you with an idea of the nature and possible gravity of the situation as well as the types of problems that might arise.For example, an automobile fire on the highway may present different problems and require different tools than a call for smoke coming from a single-family house.A different thinking process occurs when you are dispatched at midnight to a house fire that may have trapped a family inside than when you respond to a report of a kitchen stove fire at suppertime.4.Even though information is limited, this is the time to start thinking about the types of tools and equipment that you might need.5.Most fire departments have standard operating procedures or guidelines that specify the tools and equipment required for different types of fires.6.Upon arrival at the scene, the company officers will size-up the situation and develop the action plans for each company, following standard operating procedures and guidelines.
33Forcible Entry1. Gaining entrance to a locked building or structure can present a challenge to even the most seasoned fire fighter.2. Buildings are often equipped with security devices designed to keep unwanted people out.a . These same devices can make it very difficult for fire fighters to gain access to the building.3. Forcible entry is the process of entering a building by overcoming these barriers.4. Several types of tools can be used in forced entry, including an axe, a prying tool, or a K tool.5. A flat-head axe and a Halligan tool are often used in combination to quickly pry open a door, although they may permanently damage both the door and the frame.6. Prying tools used for gaining access include pry bars, crowbars, Halligan tools.7. A K tool can be used to pull out a cylinder lock mounted in a wood or heavy metal door, so that the lock can be released.a. This is a comparatively nondestructive process that leaves the door and most of the locking mechanism undamaged.b. The building owner can have the lock cylinder replaced at a relatively low cost.
34Forcible Entry8. Various striking tools can be used for forcible entry when brute force is needed to break into a building.a. These include flat-head axes, hammers, sledgehammers, and battering rams.9. Sometimes the easiest or only way to gain access is to use cutting tools.a. An axe can be used to cut out a door panel.b. A rotary saw or chain saw can be used to cut through a roll up door, or a wood wall.c. Bolt cutters can be used to remove a padlock.d. Power saws can be used to cut through metal security bars.10. Many techniques can be used to gain entry into secured structures.a. The exact tool needed will depend upon the method of entry and the type of obstacle.11. Because experience usually determines the best way to gain entry in each situation, rely on the orders and advice of your captain and coworkers.
35Tools And Equipment for Interior Firefighting 1. The process of fighting a fire inside a building involves several tasks that are usually performed simultaneously or in rapid succession by fire fighters.2. Some basic tools and equipment should be carried by every crew working inside a burning building.3. Crews may also carry specialized tools and equipment needed for their particular assignment.4. The basic tools enable firefighters to solve problems they may encounter while performing interior operations.a. For example, the crew may encounter obstacles such as locked doors, or they may need to open an emergency escape route.b. They may need to establish horizontal ventilation by forcing, opening, or breaking a window.c. They may have to gain access to the space above the ceiling by using a pike pole or to make a hole in a wall or floor with an axe.
36Tools And Equipment for Interior Firefighting 5. A powerful light is important, because smoke can quickly reduce interior visibility to just a few inches.6. The basic set of tools for interior firefighting includes:a. A prying tool, such as a Halligan toolb. A striking tool, such as a flat-head axe or sledgehammerc. A cutting tool, such as an axed. A pushing tool, such as a pike polee. A strong hand light or portable light7. The specific tools that must be carried by each crew are usually defined in a fire department’s training manuals and standard operating procedures.8. The interior attack team is responsible for advancing a hose line, finding the fire, and applying water to extinguish the flames.9. They need the basic tools that will allow them to reach the seat of the fire.
37Tools And Equipment used for Search And Rescue 1. Search and rescue needs to be carried out quickly shortly after arrival on the fire ground.2. A search team should carry the same basic hand tools as the interior attack team:a. Pushing tool (short pike pole)b. Prying tool (Halligan tool)c. Striking tool (sledgehammer or flat-head axe)d. Cutting tool (axee. Hand light3. In addition to being equipped for forcible entry and emergency exit, a search-and-rescue team might also use tools to probe under beds for unconscious victims.a. A short pike pole is relatively light and reduces the time needed to search an area by extending the fire fighter’s reach.b. An axe handle can also be used for this purpose.4. Other types of tools used for search and rescue include thermal imaging cameras, portable lights, and lifelines.
38Examples of Rescue Tools AXESSAWSChain SawRotary SawEXTRICATION TOOLSHydraulic spreadersAir BagsPry BarsCOME A LONGAIR CHISELSOCKET WRENCHESPLIERS
39Tools And Equipment used for Rapid Intervention 1. A rapid intervention company or crew (RIC) is designated to stand by to provide immediate assistance to any fire fighters who become lost, trapped, or injured during an incident or training exercise.2. The RIC team should have the standard set of tools for interior firefighting as well as extra tools and equipment particularly important for search and rescue tasks.3. The extra tools and equipment should help them find and gain access to a fire fighter who is in trouble, extricate a fire fighter who is trapped under debris, provide breathing air for a fire fighter who has experienced an SCBA failure or run out of air, and remove an injured or unconscious fire fighter from the building.4. All of this equipment should be gathered and staged with the rapid intervention crew where it will be immediately available if it is needed.5. The special equipment that a rapid intervention team should carry includes:a. Thermal image camerab. Additional portable lightingc. Lifelinesd. Prying toolse. Striking toolsf. Cutting tools, including a power sawSCBA and spare air cylindersHose Line
40Tools And Equipment used for Ventilation 1. Many of the same tools used for forcible entry are also used to provide ventilation.2. Power saws and axes are commonly used to cut through roofs and vent combustion by-products.3. Fans are often used either to remove smoke from a building or to introduce fresh air into a structure.4. With positive-pressure ventilation, fresh air is blown into a building through selected openings to force contaminated air out through other openings.5. Negative-pressure ventilation uses fans placed at selected openings to draw contaminated air out of a building.6. Ventilation fans can be powered either by electric or gasoline motors or by water pressure.7. Horizontal ventilation usually involves opening outer doors and windows to allow fresh air to enter and to remove contaminated air.8. Unlocked or easily released windows and doors should be opened normally.Locked or jammed windows and doors may have to be broken or forced open using basic interior firefighting tools.
41Tools And Equipment used for Ventilation 10. It may also be necessary to make interior openings within the building so that contaminated air can reach the exterior openings. 11. Vertical ventilation requires openings in the roof or the highest part of a building to allow smoke and hot gases to escape. 12. Whenever possible, existing openings such as doors, windows, roof hatches, and skylights should be used for vertical ventilation. 13. It may be necessary to force them open or to break them using forcible entry tools. 14. In some circumstances it may be necessary to cut through a roof to make an effective vertical ventilation opening. 15. Cutting tools such as axes and power saws are used to make these openings. 16. Pike poles will also be needed to pull down ceilings after the roof covering is opened. 17. The special equipment needed for ventilation includes: a. Positive-pressure fans b. Negative-pressure (exhaust) fans c. Cutting tools (power saws and axes) c. Pulling and pushing tools (long pike poles) d. Hose Lines
42Salvage And Overhaul Equipment 1. The purpose of overhaul is to examine the fire scene carefully and ensure that all hidden fires are extinguished.2. Burned debris must be removed and potential hot spots in enclosed spaces behind walls, above ceilings, and under floors must be exposed.3. Both tasks can be accomplished using simple hand tools.4. Pike poles are commonly used for pulling down ceilings and opening holes in walls.5. Axes, and sometimes power saws, are used to open walls and floors.6. Prying and striking tools are also used to open closed spaces.7. Shovels, brooms, and rakes are used to clear away debris.
43Salvage And Overhaul Equipment 8. The increasing use of infrared thermal imaging cameras has made it possible to “see” hot spots behind walls without physically cutting into them.9. Tools used during overhaul operations include:a. Pushing/Pulling tools (pike poles of varying lengths, rubbish hooks)b. Prying tools (Halligan tool)c. Striking tools (sledgehammer, flat-head axe, hammer, mallet)d. Cutting tools (axes, power saws)e. Debris-removal tools (shovels, brooms, rakes, carryalls)f. Water-removal equipment (water vacuums)g. Ventilation equipment (electric, gas, or water-powered fans)h. Portable lightingi. Thermal imaging camera
44Tool MaintenanceAn important reason to perform regular maintenance on all tools is to keep yourself safe. A rusty blade or broken gear can cause you to suffer a serious injury. Never turn on a power tool if you think it has been damaged. To help prevent problems from occurring, it's important to keep your tools in a clean, dry area, away from dust and moisture. Dirt can get trapped in mechanisms either slowing them down or stopping them altogether. Too much moisture can cause rust, which can easily destroy a power tool. This is especially true if they are battery powered. Batteries should be checked often for leaks and changed according to factory specifications. Electrical cords and plugs should also be examined for damage before using. Keeping your power tools oiled is also an important part of regular maintenance. This helps maintain clean movement and also can preventing rusting. Oiling keeps your equipment running smoothly and should be performed often. Large tools require a more thorough maintenance. Filters should be checked and changed often as well as oiling, dusting, and testing between uses. Bolts, hoses, and other small parts should be kept tight. Tools like chain saws will need alignment and balancing occasionally to ensure that they work properly. Blades Circular Saws will need to be replaced periodically. If you're unsure of how to perform any necessary maintenance, consult with a professional.Never attempt to clean or fix a tool without experience and knowledge. Not only could you potentially damage the tool, but you could seriously hurt yourself in the process.If an object becomes trapped in the power tool or the mechanisms fail, make sure the machine is completely shut off before disassembling. Always follow all given instructions on taking apart any piece of equipment and then reassembling. Don't add or alter any parts.The most important part of power tool maintenance is safety. You don't want to be responsible for the ramifications of using a faulty tool. Performing a little bit of maintenance will keep your power tools running smoothly for years to come.Maintaining and Repairing Tools· Install or repair equipment only if you are qualified. A faulty job could cause serious injuries from mechanical failure, fire, or shock.Maintain tools in proper working condition. Regularly inspect tools, cords and accessories. Repair or replace problem equipment immediately. Keep tools sharp, well oiled and stored in a dry place.Never alter a tool in a manner that reduces its effectiveness or safety.
45Tool MaintenanceA. Tools and equipment must be properly maintained so that they will be ready for use when they are needed.1. Keep equipment clean and free from rust.2. Keep cutting blades sharpened and fuel tanks filled.3. Every tool and piece of equipment must be ready for use before you respond to an emergency incident.B. Use power equipment only after you have been instructed on its use.C. Use equipment only for its intended purposes.1. For example, a pike pole is made for pushing and pulling; it is not a lever and will break if used inappropriately.2. Use the right tool for the job.D. Cleaning and Inspecting Salvage, Overhaul, and Ventilation Equipment and Tools is a must.1. After returning from a fire, clean and inspect all of the tools usrd to ensure that they are in a “ready state.”E. Cleaning and Inspect Hand Tools1. All hand tools should be completely cleaned and inspected after use.2. Remove all dirt and debris.3. If appropriate, use water streams to remove the debris and soap to clean the equipment thoroughly.4. To prevent rust, metal tools must be dried completely, either by hand or by air, before being returned to the apparatus.5. Cutting tools should be sharpened after each use.6. Before any tool is placed back into service, it should be inspected for damage.7. Avoid painting tools, because this will hide any possible defects or visible damage.8. Keep the number of markings on a tool to a minimum.
46Special Training Tools GARDEN HOSEPIECE OF WOODHOUSEHOLD LADDER
47Review No where tools are kept Safety Types of tools Power Supply EngineTruckUSARSafetyKnow the hazards of the toolWear PPEUse the right toolTypes of toolsRotatingPushing or PullingPrying or spreadingStrikingCuttingMultiple UsePower SupplyBatteryFuel (Type of fuel)Electric
48Review Response & size up Forcible Entry Interior Attack That’s when you begin planningBe flexible things changeForcible EntryInterior AttackThe time from Point of entry till Mop Up is completeType of tools used to enter (other than hose)Is it forFire attackRescueVentilationSearch & RescuePike PolesAxesWebbing
49Review Rescue Tools Rapid Intervention Ventilation Salvage & Overhaul Self supported from other operationsIn stand by modeFlexibleVentilationVerticalHorizontalSalvage & OverhaulPreventing further damage to propertyCleaning up the messMaintenanceWashingSharpeningRefueling
50Verdugo Fire AcademyThe EndTools and EquipmentChapter 8