Presentation on theme: "AMMONIA Make it a less hazardous material POLL QUESTION: What percentage of facilities that suffer a catastrophic event either never reopen or close within."— Presentation transcript:
AMMONIA Make it a less hazardous material POLL QUESTION: What percentage of facilities that suffer a catastrophic event either never reopen or close within two years? a) 1% b) 2% c) 10% d) 40% e) 60%
WHY AMMONIA? Dr. Doug Reindl Director Industrial Refrigeration Consortium and Professor University of Wisconsin – Madison
Background Refrigeration is an integral part of food manufacturing and distribution Managing industrial refrigeration systems is essential for safe and profitable food manufacturing and distribution supply Regulatory requirements for managing refrigeration systems have increased
Background Refrigeration is essential in the production and storage of meat and many other foodstuffs The loss of refrigeration in your plant can have a significant financial impact – Could you run production without refrigeration? – Could you store raw and/or finished goods? Ammonia is – Widely used as a refrigerant because of its high performance – Toxic and requires careful management
Refrigerant – What is it? a working fluid used in a refrigeration system It’s what we need to “make cold!”
Refrigerant Types Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) – No longer in production (R-11, R-12) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s) – Phasing out (R-22, R-123) – No longer acceptable in new installations Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC’s) – Replacements for HCFC & CFC ( R-404A, R-507, R-410A, R-407C, R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-143a, R-152a) – Although new, many end-users are working to phase-out HFCs Hydrofluoroolefins (HFO’s) – Newest class of refrigerants with lower global warming potential
CFC, HCFC & HFC Commonly referred to as “Freons” or “halocarbons” Heavier than air (asphyxiation risk) Generally colorless & odorless CFC & HCFC refrigerants damage atmospheric ozone layer CFC, HCFC, and HFC refrigerants contribute to global warming The Antarctic ozone hole equaling the record single-day largest area of 11.4 million square miles – September 24, 2000 (NASA).
Anhydrous Ammonia Anhydrous – without water Pungent odor makes it self-alarming Alkaline – pH of 11.6 Highly soluble in water Very corrosive to tissue upon exposure!
Ammonia Health Effects Liquid ammonia – Exposure from spill is Very Dangerous – Tissue liquefaction – Freeze-drying / chemical burns – Seek water immediately upon exposure Vapor ammonia – Extreme skin, eye, & lung irritation – Inhalation of high concentrations can destroy lung & scar tissue – Seek fresh air and water immediately upon exposure necrotic wounds Source: Wikipedia Source: Dr. Arun Pal Singh Source: Wikipedia
Health Effects - Halocarbons R22 – Short-term Intrinsically non-toxic Simple asphyxiant, Remember: heavier than air & lack of odor ACGIH exposure limit = 1,000 ppm – Long-term Inadequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity (Source: CDC) Inhalation studies shown an increased incidence of tumors in some laboratory animals but not in others (Source: DuPont)
Health Effects – Cryo Fluids Carbon Dioxide & Nitrogen – Short-term High concentration, simple asphyxiant, No detectable odor Concentration limits (CO 2 ) – OSHA PEL = 5,000 ppm – STEL = 30,000 ppm – Rapid breathing & heart rate at extremely high concentrations (~50,000 ppm) Concentration limits (N 2 ) – not currently regulated
Anhydrous Ammonia Why is ammonia widely used in food processing and storage facilities? Because it is a good refrigerant! – High heat transfer coefficients in equipment – Efficient compressor operation – Low refrigerant cost – No ozone depletion & very low global warming – Sustainable – Self-alarming De La Vergne Refrigerating Machine catalog, 1887
Asset Management - 100% Proactive Maintenance – “Run to Failure” is NOT an acceptable approach as it inherently leads to unsafe refrigeration systems and risks Effective Process Safety Management (PSM) program Utilities personnel – Properly trained & drug free – Sufficient coverage Engineered safety systems – Proper design – Refrigerant detection systems – Emergency ventilation – Electrical shutdown – Eye wash & shower stations How do we Stay Safe?
FOCUS ON PREVENTION! Ammonia incidents can create significant business interruptions Don’t roll the dice – you will lose! Forty percent of companies that suffer a major business disruption go out of business within two years, Felipe Alonso KPMG
TAKING A HOLISTIC VIEW Michael J. Fagel PhD.,CEM Certified Emergency Manager
Ice Cream Production Process Raw materials are blended together. This mix is then homogenized (12) at high pressure to improve the dispersion of the ingredients and improve the consistency of the final product. The mix is then pasteurized 72 – 75 degrees Celsius (162-167°F )for 15 to 20 seconds and then quickly cooled (11) to ensure that no harmful bacteria are in the ice cream.
OSHA Ammonia Related Standards The list goes on and on… Go to: http://www.osha.gov/index.htmlhttp://www.osha.gov/index.html – Type ‘ammonia safety’ in the search box
OSHA Ammonia Related Standards 1910.111 - Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia. 1910.111 - Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia. 1910.6 - Incorporation by reference. 1910.120 App A - Personal protective equipment test methods. 1910.120 App A - Personal protective equipment test methods. 1926.65 App A - Personal Protective Equipment Test Methods 1926.65 App A - Personal Protective Equipment Test Methods
OSHA Ammonia Related Standards 1910.146 App D - Confined Space Pre-Entry Check List 1910.146 App D - Confined Space Pre-Entry Check List 1910.1450 App A - National Research Council Recommendations Concerning Chemical Hygiene in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory) 1910.1450 App A - National Research Council Recommendations Concerning Chemical Hygiene in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory) 1910.1045 App A - Substance safety data sheet for acrylonitrile 1910.1045 App A - Substance safety data sheet for acrylonitrile 1928.21 - Applicability of Standards in 29 CFR Part 1910 1928.21 - Applicability of Standards in 29 CFR Part 1910
OSHA Ammonia Related Standards 1910.119 App A - List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxics and Reactives (Mandatory). 1910.119 App A - List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxics and Reactives (Mandatory). 1926.64 App A - List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxics and Reactives (Mandatory) 1926.64 App A - List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxics and Reactives (Mandatory)
Forming a Planning Team Emergency planning and response is a team effort Pre-planning allows everyone to be prepared for their role during an event Should include facility and government representatives (fire, police, haz mat, etc)
Forming a Planning Team Helps to ensure that responders in the community KNOW and UNDERSTAND your facility Requires OPEN and HONEST communication Requires involving the community with your facility’s plan in order to INTEGRATE for maximum response
Forming a Planning Team KEY: Develop a plan that is COMPLIANT and PRACTICAL KEY: PPP (Plan, Prepare, Practice…repeat)
Joint Training and Education Helps everyone understand the risks Allows for more appropriate response during an event Is a key part of the planning process Training and education are NOT the same thing, you must do both
Conclusion Emergency planning for ammonia safety is not just a facility responsibility, it is a joint effort – Reach out and network Your emergency plan must comply with Federal requirements PPP (Plan, Prepare, Practice…repeat)
Key References Occupational Safety and Health Admin – http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/ammonia_refrigeration/ ammonia/index.html http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/ammonia_refrigeration/ ammonia/index.html US Chemical Safety Board – http://www.csb.gov/default.aspx http://www.csb.gov/default.aspx Principles of Emergency Management and Emergency Operations Centers (EOC) by Michael J. Fagel – http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/books/details/97814398 38525/ http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/books/details/97814398 38525/
FOR MORE INFORMATION Dr. Doug Reindl: email@example.com@wisc.edu Michael J. Fagel Ph.D., CEM: firstname.lastname@example.org@aol.com http://aurorasafety.com/#home Lisa Keefe: email@example.com@meatingplace.com Webinar recording and PowerPoint presentation will be emailed to you within 48 hours. For more information: www.meatingplace.com/webinars www.meatingplace.com/webinars