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Intermolecular Forces (l) & (s) phases: 1.Molecule-molecule 2.Molecule-ion.

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Presentation on theme: "Intermolecular Forces (l) & (s) phases: 1.Molecule-molecule 2.Molecule-ion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intermolecular Forces (l) & (s) phases: 1.Molecule-molecule 2.Molecule-ion

2 Suggested Reading: 1) Page 380, I suggest you read the first paragraph in section 8.8 if not the entire section. 2) Review Example 8.12 on pg 384 to make sense of why NH 3 is more polar than NF 3, which at first seems odd. 3) Read the bottom of pg 558 beginning with, “When a polar…” to “…dipole-dipole attraction.” 4) Read three paragraphs on pg 562, starting with “There is an unusually strong…” to “…(Figure 12.7).” 5) On pg 565-567, read the two sections: “Dipole/Induced Dipole Forces” and “London Dispersion Forces: Induced Dipole/Induced Dipole”.

3 12.1 Know the level of intermolecular forces for each state of matter, s, l, g. Which has the most and which has none?


5 Q: What makes molecules “stick” together in the liquid (and solid) state? A: The opposite ends of their dipoles: opposites attract…..and like polarities “stick” to like polarities.

6 Recall molecular polarity…?


8 Opposites attract…..and like polarities “stick” to like polarities.



11 Pg 563, Exc. 5.2-5.4 EOC 1, 3, 5, 7, 17

12 FORCES INVOLVING INDUCED DIPOLES Formation of a dipole in two nonpolar I 2 molecules. Induced dipole-induced dipole



15 FORCES INVOLVING INDUCED DIPOLES How can non-polar molecules such as O 2 and I 2 dissolve in water? The water dipole INDUCES a dipole in the O 2 electric cloud. Dipole-induced dipole


17 Different Levels of Molecular Polarity A D E B C H


19 Dipole-Dipole

20 H-Bonding


22 H-Bonding Between Two Methanol Molecules H-bondH-bond ---- ++++ ----

23 H-Bonding Between Methanol and Water H-bondH-bond ---- ++++ ----

24 H-Bonding Between Ammonia and Water H-bondH-bond ---- ++++ ----

25 Base-Pairing through H- Bonds

26 Hydrogen Bonding in Biology Hydrogen bonding and base pairing in DNA. See ChemistryNow, Chapter 12 PLAY MOVIE

27 Ion-Dipole


29 CH 4 C2H6C2H6C2H6C2H6 C3H8C3H8C3H8C3H8 C 4 H 10


31 Pg 563, Exc. 5.2-5.4 EOC 1, 3, 5, 7, 17

32 Boiling Liquids Liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. PLAY MOVIE

33 4. If external P = 760 mm Hg, T of boiling is the NORMAL BOILING POINT 5. VP of a given molecule at a given T depends on IM forces. Here the VP’s are in the order C 2 H 5 H 5 C 2 H H 5 C 2 H H wateralcoholether increasing strength of IM interactions extensive H-bonds dipole- dipole O O O Liquids See Figure 12.17: VP versus T

34 From Chapter 13.6 Know how to interpret phase diagrams

35 Phase Diagrams

36 TRANSITIONS BETWEEN PHASES See Section 13.6 Lines connect all conditions of T and P where EQUILIBRIUM exists between the phases on either side of the line. (At equilibrium particles move from liquid to gas as fast as they move from gas to liquid, for example.)


38 Phase Equilibria — Water Solid-liquid Gas-Liquid Gas-Solid PLAY MOVIE Freezing/Melting Deposition/Sublimation Condensation/Evaporation

39 Phase Diagram for Water Solid phase Liquid phase Gas phase PLAY MOVIE

40 Triple Point — Water At the TRIPLE POINT all three phases are in equilibrium. PLAY MOVIE

41 CO 2 Phase Diagram

42 CO 2 Phases Separate phases Increasing pressure More pressure Supercritical CO 2 See Figure 13.20



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