2Our accountability system has two overarching objectives andGrowth for all students, every yearFaster growth for those students who are furthest behind
3Beliefs All students can learn and demonstrate growth (ALL means ALL) Specialized instruction (IDEA, ELL and Title) is a continuum of services (not a place)Relationships and collaboration (tearing down silos of education) so stakeholders will focus on decisions that are best for ALL studentsResponsibility and accountability in teaching and supporting ALL studentsStrong leadership at all levels to ensure that students are supported in the least restrictive environmentHigh quality professional learning empowers all stakeholders and builds capacity for the success of ALL students
4Key Goals of Special Populations Improving Student OutcomesPreventionInterventionAchievementOutcomesManaging PerformanceEffective employees at every level of the organization with a focus on improving student outcomes.
5How do we measure student readiness in TN? TCAP and EOC assessments TCAP % proficient/advancedGrades 3-8Grades 9-1271%62%62%48%TN has experienced consistent growth since the transition to TN Diploma Project standards in We continue to have steady outcomes even with the transition to the Common Core State Standards, officially adopted as the TN standards in this year it was particularly evident in our high schools with students with185,635 students successfully completed Algebra 1 since 2010 and 96,967 students successfully completing Algebra II since 2011.
7TN Graduation Rates86.3%10%Graduation rate has also steadily climbed in TN over the last 10 years, even with a move to more rigorous standards. However, too many of our graduating seniors fall short on preparation for life beyond high school, including postsecondary. It is a disservice to our TN seniors to send them to postsecondary where 85% are faced with remedial classes upon entry.
10Students with Disabilities by Environment In General Ed 80% or more of the dayIn General Ed 40%-70% of the dayIn General Ed <40% of the day
11Number of Students Within Each Eligibility Category OHISLDSLI
12Policy Changes & Practices that will Impact the IEP Identifying students with a Specific Learning DisabilityAs of July 1, 2014, RTI² is the framework used by teams to identify a student with a Specific Learning Disability.Evaluation timeline changesAs of January 29, 2014, TN changed to a 60 calendar day evaluation timeline which aligns with federal guidelines. A program will be implemented within 30 calendar days from eligibility determination.
13Policy Changes & Practices that will Impact the IEP Elimination of short term objectivesAs of March 31, 2014, TN no longer has the requirement of benchmarks or short term objectives in IEPs, except for the students who participate in the alternate assessmentProgress monitoring tools will chart progress towards goalsStudents receiving intervention through special education will be progress monitored in their specific area of deficit.Communication regarding progress through regular progress reportsAcademic Progress monitoring data will be shared with parents as frequently as non-disabled peers.
14Special Education Framework: Moving from Standards Based IEPs to Instructionally Appropriate IEPs Tennessee Department of Education developed an IEP task forceA Multidisciplinary team (43) from across the stateDeveloped Special Education Framework Manual1st draft completed Feb 28, 2014Second draft completed March 28, 2014Will work from a draft for summer of 2014Developed Implementation guideDraft completed March 28, 2014Will work from draft for Summer of 2014
15Special Education Framework: Manual Overview Component 1: General Special Education InformationComponent 2: Evaluations and EligibilityComponent 3: NarrativesComponent 4: Present Levels of Educational Performance (PLEP)Component 5: Measurable Annual Goals (MAGs)Component 6: Special Education Interventions
16Special Education Framework: Manual Overview Component 7: Progress MonitoringComponent 8: Core Instruction for Students with a DisabilityComponent 9: Post-Secondary Transition ServicesComponent 10: AccommodationsComponent 11: Delivery of Special Education Intervention and ServicesComponent 12: Behavior, Assessment and Policy
17On a Continuum, Specialized Education is the Most Intensive Intervention Core Instruction Plus Tier II (30 minutes daily)Core Instruction Plus Tier III (45-60 minutes daily)Core Instruction Plus Sp.Ed Intervention (More Intensive than general education interventions)
18Interventions and Supports There must be a link between a Student’s Needs and the Interventions and Supports they ReceiveDisabilityAssociated DeficitsInterventions and Supports
21IDEA vs. DSM-V IDEA DSM-V Evaluations are conducted to determine eligibility for special education and related servicesDevelop educational plan to meet individual student’s needsChild must demonstrate one of disabilities defined in regulationsDisability must adversely impact educationEvaluations conducted for the purpose of differential diagnosisMedical modelThird party reimbursementTreatment planning
23Specific Learning Disabilities “Specific Learning Disability” The term Specific Learning Disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, and that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Such term includes conditions such as perceptual disabilities (e.g., visual processing), brain injury that is not caused by an external physical force, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
24Specific Learning Disabilities DiscrepancyResponse to Instruction and Intervention (RTI²)IQ= abilityAchievementIs there a significant discrepancy between actual and predicted achievement?UnderachievementLack of ResponseStudent Rate of Improvement (ROI)Gap AnalysisExclusionary Factors
25Rate of Improvement & Progress Monitoring Progress Monitoring- Progress monitoring is used to assess students’ academic performance, to quantify a student rate of improvement or responsiveness to instruction, and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class.Rate of Improvement (ROI)- The expected rate of improvement on progress monitoring assessments is the number of units of measure (e.g., words read correctly [wrc], correct responses, correct digits) a child has made per week since the beginning of the intervention. To discover this rate, teachers should divide the total number of units gained by the number of weeks that have elapsed. The ROI is compared to the improvement of a typical peer to determine adequate progress.
27SLD: Associated Deficits AcademicsSpecific area of deficit:Basic Reading SkillsReading FluencyReading ComprehensionWritten ExpressionMathematics CalculationMathematics Problem Solving
28Areas of Deficit: Reading Basic ReadingPhonological AwarenessPhonicsReading FluencyFluencyReading ComprehensionText ComprehensionVocabulary
29Decimals, fractions, etc. Areas of Deficit: MathMath CalculationBasic FactsComplex ComputationDecimals, fractions, etc.Math Problem SolvingNumbers and operationsBase tenPlace ValueGeometry, algebra, etc.Footer
33Core Instruction and Transition ALL students are provided instruction based on Tennessee Standards.The most intensive interventions (special education), are in addition to core instruction-not a replacementInterventionBased on individual area of needContent/Skill specificDoes not necessarily include all content areas or skillsTransitionBegins in kindergartenFocuses on career and college readinessUses current and previous data to inform and guide Transition planning
34Common Core State Standards: Application to Students with Disabilities Students with disabilities are a heterogeneous group with one common characteristic:the presence of disabling conditions that significantly hinder their abilities to benefit from general educationParticipate with success:Instructional SupportsInstructional AccommodationsAssistive technology devices and supportsLori
35“Least Dangerous Assumption” States that in the absence of absolute evidence, it is essential to make the assumption that, if proven to be false, would be least dangerous to the individual.Therefore, the IEP teams should operate from the criterion of least dangerous assumption by considering the least restrictive setting, general education, first, for all students, regardless of disability, before considering more restrictive settings.Evidence and data collected should be discussed before making the determination that a student requires a more restrictive setting at each IEP meeting (Rossetti & Tashie, 2013).
37Present Levels of Educational Performance (PLEP) Describes the unique needs of the student that the IEP will addressIdentifies the student’s level of performance using current dataIdentifies the students area(s) of strengthIdentifies area of exceptionality (deficit)Written in positive termsDescribes current academic and functional performanceWithout proper PLEPs, the IEP team cannot develop appropriate goals, accommodations, or select an appropriate program for the student.The foundation of the IEP
38Aligning exceptional PLEP (deficit area) with core instruction (standards) Alignment of core instruction with area of deficit-Susan significantly struggles in the area of pre-reading and reading skills. Susan’s reading deficits will impact her mastery of standards, specifically standards that include reading and reading comprehension.Other Examples:Reading fluency deficit will impact student throughout core instruction in all content areas.Ex. Math Calculation deficit will impact student in content area(s) related to math.
40MAG Summary Individual needs are the basis for a student’s goal Directly linked to the exceptional area(s) of the PLEPMeasurable and very specificNumbers must be included in the goalRate of improvement may be used to set academic goalsMust meet the student’s needs that result from the disability to enable the student to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum
41Goals Are: Goals Are Not: Specific, measurable skillsGeneral concepts and ideasIndividualized to the student’s needsGrade levelRelated to an individual student’s deficitsStandardsDirectly related to that individual student’s PLEPRelated to core instruction tutoring
42Measurable Annual Goal vs. Short Term Objectives Very specific, no longer broadIncludes criteria for mastery within the goalMay have more measurable annual goals if distinctly different skillsInstead progress monitor to show progress toward the MAG.If need short term objective you can still use them.Required for students on alternate assessment
43Short Term Objective Requirements Required for students with significant cognitive disabilities assessed on an alternate assessment for accountabilityShort-term Objectives Are:Short-term Objectives Are Not:Skills that need to be directly taughtAccommodations that are provided within the classroomStudent behaviors that demonstrate understanding and application of skillsInterventions or programs of curriculumSeparate skills required to meet the goalStair step approximations towards the goalSkills and behaviors that a student must master to achieve independenceIsolated skills to access small group instruction
45So in what area do we intervene? PLEP:Current dataExceptional PLEP requires aMAGMAG drives specific interventionPresent Level of Performance (PLEP)Measurable Annual Goal (MAG)
46Re-teaching/Remediation vs. Intervention Tier I-Common Core StandardsGoal is to reteach the standards students are struggling with rather than specific skill deficits. These are your students who are very close to reaching the next achievement level based on the curriculum standard measure.Special Education InterventionGoal is to provide research-based interventions aligned to specific skill deficit(s) as identified by multiple sources of data including universal screening and progress monitoring information.
47Questions to Consider for Intervention Are the interventions related to the student’s areas of deficit?For example: reading fluency, math calculation, written expressionDo the interventions relate to the measurable annual goal?What must the student know and be able to do?What accommodations/supports are needed to achieve the goal?What interventions are needed?How will we determine mastery?How will progress toward goal be monitored?What data must be collected and how often?
48Tier III Sped Intervention Tier II Core Instruction Tier II, Tier III or Sped Intervention: Core Instruction Plus A Skill Specific InterventionCore InstructionTier IITier IIISped Intervention
50Accommodations and Modifications Accommodations change how the student is taught or expected to learn.provide equitable access during instruction and assessments and neither change the construct being assessed, nor compromise the integrity or validity of the assessment or content.intended to reduce or even eliminate the effects of a student’s disability;do not reduce learning expectations, if based on needModifications change what the student is taught or expected to learn.a change in what is being taught to or expected from the studentThe least dangerous assumption would be that students are able to participate within the core curriculum without modifications unless student performance data indicates otherwise.
51Accommodations and Modifications Graphic organizerText to speech with the bookTemplate for long divisionRaised line paperCalculatorClass lecture notes ahead of timeCompleted agenda with homework expectationsSensory break “pass”Picture scheduleWord processor for writing assignmentsShortened assignmentsAssignment broken into smaller tasksOral assessment for understandingsPartially completed graphic organizer with fewer links and less complexityLow level high interest reading with text to speechSimple division facts with pictures, graphics, manipulatives, or number lineDotted words and letters to traceModified rubric for presentation to include fewer elements and more explicit understandingsEssential elements from instruction taught with hands-on materialsAssessed on only a portion of the test or concept
52Participation in State Assessments The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) each require all students with disabilities to be included in State assessment systems. The prohibition against exclusion from participation or denial of benefits to, or discrimination against, individuals with disabilities contained in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act applies to state assessment and accountability systems.In addition to state assessments, the IDEA (section 612(a)(16)) requires that all students with disabilities participate in district-wide assessment programs and that alternate assessments be provided for students with disabilities who cannot participate in grade-level assessments, even with accommodations.
53State Assessment Participation Options 2014-15 General grade-level assessment, with or without accommodationsTCAP Achievement Grades 3-8TCAP End of Course (for Secondary)Alternate assessment based on alternate academic achievement standardsTCAP-Alt PA in English/Language Arts, Math, and Science
55Progress Monitoring and Data Based Decisions When progress monitoring is implemented correctly, some of the benefits include:accelerated rate of learning because students are receiving more appropriate instruction;more informed instructional/reevaluation decisions;documentation of student progress for accountability purposes;more efficient communication with families and other professionals about students’ progress; andhigher expectations for students by teachers.
56Progress Monitoring and Data Based Decisions Progress monitoring should occur for students with disabilities as frequently as for their nondisabled peers.Ongoing assessment of student learning provides continuous feedback on the effectiveness of instruction and intervention.Data indicates areas where a change in instruction and intervention may be required.Data points can be used to make decisions regarding instruction and intervention. Once several data points are collected, a pattern of response can be investigated.
57Instructionally Relevant Data/Progress Monitoring May Include Structured observations of targeted behavior in classStudent self-monitoring checklistWritten testsBehavior chartingWork samplesSummative AssessmentsFormative AssessmentsCurricular Based Measures (CBMs)Academic achievementFunctional performanceSocial developmentPhysical development and management needs.
58Joey Hassell Joey. Hassell@tn Joey Hassell Assistant Commissioner, Special Populations Nathan Travis Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Special Populations Suzanne Keefe Director of Special Projects, Special Populations Tie Hodack Executive Director, Instructional Programs Theresa Nicholls Director, Special Education Eligibility Lori Nixon Director, Assessment Design