Drawing Conclusions Making Generalizations Making Predictions Our focus of the year: Inferencing Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. TEKS Resource System
Inferencing: New Information from text Can be simple or complex Poor Inferencing causes poor comprehension, NOT VICE-VERSA! Effective Teaching of Inference Skills for ReadingEffective Teaching of Inference Skills for Reading Anne Kispal National Foundation for Educational Research Information from text
More than one type of inferencing?! Right There Inferences Bridging the Gap Inferences Feelings Inferences Big Picture Inferences
The rain kept Tom indoors all afternoon. The reader understands that Tom wanted to go out but that the unpleasant weather conditions prevented this. Peter begged his mother to let him go to the party. The reader would have to realize that the pronouns “his” and “him” refer to Peter to understand the sentence. Right There Inferences
Bridging the Gap Inferences Katy dropped the vase. She ran for the dustpan and brush to sweep up the pieces. The reader would have to realize that the vase broke to supply the connection between these sentences.
Big Picture Inferences It was 8:30 on Thursday night. Emily stared at the large, empty presentation board on her bed. Then she looked at the stack of books about Abraham Lincoln on her desk. She began to cry. The reader would have to put the pieces of information together along with prior knowledge to identify the main point of these sentences.
Feelings Inferences I reached in and let him lick my hand. 'Yeller,' I said, 'I'll be back. I'm promising that I'll be back.' The reader uses emotional understanding to infer that the speaker is hesitant to leave. The emphasis on coming back implies some kind of impending struggle.
When are students making these inferences? Right There Inferences Bridging the Gap Inferences Feelings Inferences On-line Inferences (during reading) Off-line Inferences (after reading) Big Picture Inferences
Inferencing: K-12 Inferencing is a foundational concept, important at every grade level.
Inferencing: K-12 1st - 6th (Fig 19 D): make inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding 7th - 10th (Fig 19 D, Fig 19 B): make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding 11th -12th (Fig 19 B): make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding K (Fig 19 D): make inferences based on the cover, title, illustrations, and plot
What Do Students With Successful Inferencing Skills Do? They: ❏ are active readers who want to make sense of text ❏ monitor comprehension and repair misunderstanding ❏ have rich vocabularies ❏ have competent working memories Points to Ponder Question: What do teachers do to ensure student success?
What Do Teachers Do to Ensure Student Success? 1. Model, model, model 2. Choose Right Texts 3. Build Vocab 4. Look at Title & Text Structure 5. Make Predictions Points to Ponder 6. Question Character Relationships, Goals, Motivations a. “How do you know?” b. “Why?” 7. Generate, Discuss, Clarify Prior Knowledge 8. Listen to Stories on Tape 9. Cross Curricular Work