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EOC Test Preparation: Expansion, Industrialization, and Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "EOC Test Preparation: Expansion, Industrialization, and Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 EOC Test Preparation: Expansion, Industrialization, and Reform

2 Westward Expansion Many people moved west in the hopes of gaining wealth (gold and silver), happiness, land, and prosperity Claiming land that belonged to Native Americans.

3 Westward Expansion Railroad – Allowed farmers and ranchers to ship products – Moved people to western cities – Transcontinental railroad Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined tracks in Utah (1869) Linked east to west

4 Westward Expansion Native Americans – Plains Indians and buffalo – Reservations

5 Battles Between US Troops and Natives Sand Creek Massacre – Native American resistance, 1861 – Cheyenne were supposed to give up claims to land that had been promised by US gov. – Cheyenne warriors launched raids on mining camps – US forces killed 270 Native Americans (most were women and children)

6 Battles Between US Troops and Natives Battle of Little Bighorn – Sioux Indians, Red Cloud, Crazy Horse – 1876 George Custer attempted to surprise and defeat Sioux, who were resisting US troops – Sioux warriors surrounded the outnumbered US troops, killed Custer and 200 men. – Last great victory for Native Americans 1877: Sioux and Cheyenne surrendered, forcibly moved to Dakotas and OK

7 Battles Between US Troops and Natives Wounded Knee – 1890 – Sioux holy man developed a religious ritual called the ghost Dance Sioux believed the dance would bring back the buffalo, land, and banish the whites from their land – US believed Sitting Bull was using the dance to start an uprising, US Army arrested and killed Sitting Bull and others. – Soldiers pursued Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek, 150 Native Americans were dead.

8 Battles Between US Troops and Natives Dawes Act – 1887 – Abolished tribal organizations and divided up reservations for individual Native American families – After 25 years, land would go to those who became US citizens – Failed Why?

9 The Rise of Big Business Inventions and Natural Resources – North began to heavily industrialize – Thomas Edison Light bulb – George Westinghouse 1886, Alternating Current (AC) – Typewriter, vacuum, refrigeration cars for trains – Elevators – Machines for farming

10 The Rise of Big Business Mass Production – Henry Ford and Model T. – Natural resources App. Mountains: coal, iron ore South: lumber PA and Southwest: oil

11 Giants of Early US Industrialization Railroad – Robber barons- corrupt ppl. In the industry, wealthy entrepreneurs – Cornelius Vanderbilt 1869 NY Central railroad to Chicago (express)

12 Giants of Early US Industrialization Oil – John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Trust-business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system – Monopolies Able to make his own prices and control the industry

13 Giants of Early US Industrialization Steel – 1850s – Sir Henry Bessemer Process where manufacturers could make steel much cheaper than before – Andrew Carnegie Vertical integration-one corporation owns the company that produced finial product AND the companies that provide raw materials/inputs Owned steel mills, iron ore, coal mines, RRs, ships (for transporting supplies)

14 Giants of Early US Industrialization Finance Capitalism – Bankers who exerted economic influence through companies’ stocks and bonds – J. P. Morgan Controlled banks, insurance companies, stock market operations Worth $22 billion by 1913

15 Interlocking Directorates and Tariffs Interlocking directorates-allowed directors of one company to serve as directors for other companies also – Control entire industries Protective tariffs-taxed foreign imports and made it easier for US goods to be sold at higher prices

16 Social Darwinism and Gilded Age Social Darwinism – Survival of the fittest applied to business strategies Gilded Age – Many remained in poverty while only a few got wealthy – 1877-1900s – Prosperity was a sham, in reality: poverty and corruption

17 Cultural, Economic, and Political Impact Capitalism – Market competition – International markets – Democracy Industrialization changed the US – Increased production – New inventions – Consumer goods were more affordable – Standard of living rose Middle Class emerges

18 Farmers and Populism 1870s and 1880s it was very costly – Borrowed from banks to buy new machinery – Overproduction-too many agricultural products Farm prices dropped drastically – Less money for goods, costs were increasing Farmers blamed politicians and big business – Wanted more regulation Interstate Commerce Act (1887) – President Cleveland – Regulated RR rates for public interest

19 Farmers and Populism Farmers wanted subsidies – Gov. pay them money to cover losses Farmers also wanted more money to be put into nation’s economy – Greenbacks-paper money – Wanted more money in hands of consumers Why is this an issue???

20 Farmers and Populsim The Grange – Cooperative where farmers came together Stood up against RRs and other industries Worked together to get new machinery and supplies Sell produce without paying distributors Education

21 Farmers and Populism Populism – The people’s party – Embraced what farmers wanted Greenbacks Gov. regulation of business – Omaha Platform Political party that catered to the common man Broke down racial divisions between white and black farmers

22 Election of 1896 Economic depression existed Cleveland blamed for economic situation – To fix this: switched country from silver standard to gold standard (dollar could only be backed by gold) Bimetalism-Those that felt the dollar should be backed by silver too – Populist party joined this side

23 Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan elected by Democrats – Backed bimetallism, won support of Populists – “Cross of Gold” speech Republican William McKinley won

24 Urbanization Migration to the Cities – More people moving to northern and western cities Immigration – Mostly from Europe on the East Coast – Mostly from China (want to join the RR industry) on West Coast – Ellis Island – Angel Island


26 Urbanization Issues Caused by Immigration – Took away jobs from natives – Foreign culture – Ethnic ghettos – Nativists – Racism

27 Urbanization Laws Against Immigration – Chinese Exclusion Act – Gentlemen’s Agreement Living and Working Conditions – Low wages – Everyone worked – Child labor common – Labor unions and racism

28 Urbanization Living and Working Conditions (Cont.) – Long work hours – Dangerous conditions – Weatshops Poor lit, ventilated – Urban slums – Tenements

29 Urbanization New Lifestyle and Entertainment – Trolleys Housing? – Saloons – Dance halls, cabarets – Amusement parks – Vaudeville shows – Sports – Parks

30 Urbanization Political Machines – Unofficial entity meant to keep a certain party/group in power Party/political boss Favors or aid in exchange for votes – New York City’s Boss William Tweed and Tammany Hall

31 Rise of Labor Unions Knights of Labor – 1869: men and women – Equal pay for equal work, end child labor – Didn’t last long: 1890s American Federation of Labor – Samuel Gompers – Wages, working hours, conditions – Strikes and boycotts – Band together to meet demands, more power – Closed shop-workplaces could hire only union members

32 Rise of Labor Unions Eugene V. Debs – Organized the American Railway Union – Pullman Strike leader – American Socialist Party – Ran for president multiple times

33 The Rise of Labor Unions Employer Response – Blacklists – Forbade workers from joining – Lockouts – Scabs-replacement workers during strikes – Gov. supported business owners when it came to strikes Injunctions-court orders that forbade strikes

34 The Rise of Labor Unions Strikes and Confrontations – Great Strike 1877: upset by wage cuts, RR workers acted violently in Midwest and eastern US President Hayes sent in federal troops to put down protest Showed gov. would help employers

35 The Rise of Labor Unions Strikes and Confrontations – Haymarket Riot (May 1886) Workers protested for 8 hr. workday Radicals exploded a bomb that killed/wounded police officers Riot broke out with gunfire on both sides Turned many people against unions

36 The Rise of Labor Unions Strikes and Confrontations – Homestead Strike Steel workers 1892 Carnegie Steel plant in PA Pinkertons were a private police force that put down the strike – Shootout left several people dead/wounded – Union called off strike due to public perception

37 The Rise of Labor Unions Strikes and Confrontations – Pullman Strike 1894 RR industry Protest laying off workers, Pullman responded by firing 3 of the labor representatives, so union went on strike National boycott of Pullman cars Federal government responded with a court injunction against union – Troops were sent in to enforce injunction

38 Social Reform Progressive Movement – Political, social, economic changes in US Muckrackers – Ida Tarbell Standard Oil trust – Upton Sinclair

39 Social Reform Jane Addams – Hull House Settlement houses Help for immigrants and underprivileged Temperance – Movement wanted to limit and end sale/consumption of alcohol Prohibition

40 Social Reform Women’s Suffrage – Seneca Falls Convention (1848) – 1870s: Susan B. Anthony was the major leader of the movement Elizabeth Cady Stanton National American Woman Suffrage Association – Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul 19 th Amendment

41 Social Reform Theodore Roosevelt – Not opposed to big business but believed some regulation necessary – Northern Securities v. US Trust needed to be broken up – Created health and medicine reforms due to The Jungle. – Environmentalist

42 Social Reform Woodrow Wilson – Federal Reserve Act Oversees banking in the US Opposed both big business and big government Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)-strikes, picketing, boycotts legal 16 th Amendment-Congress has power to collect taxes on income 17 th Amendment-Senators elected directly by people

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