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EOC REVIEW 2014. Lesson 1 MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 6, 29 Nuclear envelope (not simply nucleus) Ribosome Mitochondria Chloroplast Cell wall Prokaryote.

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Presentation on theme: "EOC REVIEW 2014. Lesson 1 MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 6, 29 Nuclear envelope (not simply nucleus) Ribosome Mitochondria Chloroplast Cell wall Prokaryote."— Presentation transcript:

1 EOC REVIEW 2014

2 Lesson 1

3 MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 6, 29 Nuclear envelope (not simply nucleus) Ribosome Mitochondria Chloroplast Cell wall Prokaryote Eukaryote MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 6, 29 Nuclear envelope (not simply nucleus) Ribosome Mitochondria Chloroplast Cell wall Prokaryote Eukaryote Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) If two different cells each contain DNA, how can one cell be classified as prokaryotic and the other as eukaryotic? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) If two different cells each contain DNA, how can one cell be classified as prokaryotic and the other as eukaryotic?

4 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C C R R

5 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Modify or change your original response) If two different cells each contain DNA, how can one cell be classified as prokaryotic and the other as eukaryotic? Essential Question (Modify or change your original response) If two different cells each contain DNA, how can one cell be classified as prokaryotic and the other as eukaryotic?

6 I need to remember… Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is surrounded by a membrane. Both types of cells have ribosome. Some eukaryotic cells and all prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell wall. Eukaryotic cells have organelles surrounded by membranes. Prokaryotic cells can reproduce only asexually, by fission or budding. Eukaryotic cells reproduce asexually and sexually Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is surrounded by a membrane. Both types of cells have ribosome. Some eukaryotic cells and all prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell wall. Eukaryotic cells have organelles surrounded by membranes. Prokaryotic cells can reproduce only asexually, by fission or budding. Eukaryotic cells reproduce asexually and sexually

7 Lesson 2

8 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 6 and 12 Photosynthesis Respiration ATP Mitochondria Chloroplast Reactants Products EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 6 and 12 Photosynthesis Respiration ATP Mitochondria Chloroplast Reactants Products Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration be used to explain energy conversion? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration be used to explain energy conversion?

9 Activities and Instructions 2.Answer question 2 (pg 42). RC - Record Answer- Teacher check off answer C R C 3.Using the example set up and information of pgs answer questions 3-6. R

10 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Modify or change your original response) How can the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration be used to explain energy conversion? Essential Question (Modify or change your original response) How can the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration be used to explain energy conversion?

11 I need to remember… Photosynthesis: 6H 2 O + 6CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6H 2 O + 6CO 2 Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis are opposite reactions. Cellular respiration occurs in plant and animal cells to burn glucose and create ATP for cell energy Plants use sunlight during photosynthesis to convert energy from the sun to manufacture glucose. Photosynthesis: 6H 2 O + 6CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6H 2 O + 6CO 2 Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis are opposite reactions. Cellular respiration occurs in plant and animal cells to burn glucose and create ATP for cell energy Plants use sunlight during photosynthesis to convert energy from the sun to manufacture glucose.

12 Lesson 3

13 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS Osmosis Diffusion Active Transport Passive Transport Homeostasis Hypertonic Hypotonic EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS Osmosis Diffusion Active Transport Passive Transport Homeostasis Hypertonic Hypotonic Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why should a freshwater fish not be placed in a saltwater aquarium? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why should a freshwater fish not be placed in a saltwater aquarium?

14 1) Using the marker, copy the Before submersion Length (mm) and Mass (g) onto the Data Table Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 2) Using forceps, remove potato core from Beaker A (blue liquid). Measure length of core (mm) and mass (g). Use marker to record data in “After submersion” section. Return potato to beaker. C 3) Repeat procedures for potato cores in Beaker B (red liquid) and the Distilled Water beaker (clear liquid). Use marker to record data. C 4) Sketch each beaker and potato on student worksheet. Label everything. Draw arrows on potato cores to show what happened. R 5) Determine which beaker contains hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. Label each beaker accordingly. R 6) If a fresh potato core is placed in a solution containing more sucrose than Beaker A, predict what’ll happen to potato core’s mass. R

15 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Modify or change your original response) Why should a freshwater fish not be placed in a saltwater aquarium? Essential Question (Modify or change your original response) Why should a freshwater fish not be placed in a saltwater aquarium?

16 I need to remember… Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane. Sometimes the movement of molecules across a semipermeable membrane requires energy. When the number of molecules inside a cell is equal to the number of molecules on the outside of the cell, homeostasis has been reached – the cell is in equilibrium Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane. Sometimes the movement of molecules across a semipermeable membrane requires energy. When the number of molecules inside a cell is equal to the number of molecules on the outside of the cell, homeostasis has been reached – the cell is in equilibrium

17 Lesson 4

18 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 1, 45 Glycoprotein Capsid HIV Lytic Lysogenic EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 1, 45 Glycoprotein Capsid HIV Lytic Lysogenic Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for a virus to invade a living cell to make copies of itself? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for a virus to invade a living cell to make copies of itself?

19 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 1) Use the Structures of Viruses and Cells sheet to examine the structures of cells and viruses. Use the words below to fill out the Venn diagram with the marker: C Vesicles Nucleus Fibers Nucleic acids Vesicles Nucleus Fibers Nucleic acids Protein coat Mitochondria Chloroplasts Capsid Protein coat Mitochondria Chloroplasts Capsid Cytoplasm Cell membrane Tail Membrane envelope Cytoplasm Cell membrane Tail Membrane envelope 2) Based on Venn diagram, would you say viruses are living? Explain. R 3) Using the Lytic Infection Cycle sheet and the Lytic Infection Cards, put the cards in proper sequence to show how a virus infects a cell. C 4) Study the model of a virus at your station. If a scientist tried to use this model to understand the structure and function of a virus, what limitations would they have? R

20 Read the following passage, then answer the questions that follow: Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer Not all viruses replicate through lytic infection. Some viruses replicate by another method, called lysogenic infection. In this method, as in lytic infections, the virus injects DNA into the host cell. Then the virus DNA combines with the DNA of the host cell. This may not cause any damage to the cell for weeks, months, or years, but eventually the virus DNA begins a process of replication similar to the process of lytic infection. Question: HIV attacks our immune system (white blood cells) and replicates by the lysogenic infection method. Explain how the HIV virus replicates and why a person with HIV has difficulty fighting infections. R

21 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for a virus to invade a living cell to make copies of itself? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for a virus to invade a living cell to make copies of itself?

22 I need to remember… Viruses lack the cell structures necessary for reproduction. Viruses are considered to be nonliving. Viruses can replicate by two methods – lytic infection and lysogenic infection. Lysogenic infections occur when the nuclear material of the virus combines with the DNA of a cell before replication of the virus begins. Viruses and cells have one structure in common, nucleic acids. HIV is a virus that infects and destroys immune system cells. Viruses lack the cell structures necessary for reproduction. Viruses are considered to be nonliving. Viruses can replicate by two methods – lytic infection and lysogenic infection. Lysogenic infections occur when the nuclear material of the virus combines with the DNA of a cell before replication of the virus begins. Viruses and cells have one structure in common, nucleic acids. HIV is a virus that infects and destroys immune system cells.

23 Lesson 5

24 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 16, 23, 26, 33, 41 cell cycle (pmat) Interphase S-phase G1/g2 S-0 Mitosis Meiosis Crossing-over EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 16, 23, 26, 33, 41 cell cycle (pmat) Interphase S-phase G1/g2 S-0 Mitosis Meiosis Crossing-over Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What happens to a eukaryotic cell that does not complete all stages in the cell cycle? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What happens to a eukaryotic cell that does not complete all stages in the cell cycle?

25 1) Locate the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle sheet and the Cell Cycle Characteristics Cards. Place each card on correct part of the cell cycle Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 2) What must happen to a eukaryotic cell before it can go from G 1 phase to the S phase? 3) What happens to a cell in the G 0 phase? 4) What happens at the G 1 /S and the G 2 /M checkpoints? R R R 5) Arrange the Phases of Eukaryotic Mitosis and Cytokinesis Cards in the order they follow during cell division. Then arrange the Plant and Animal Cell Mitosis and Cytokinesis Cards on the correct phase card. C 6) Which phase of the cell cycle is cancer cell most likely to develop? R 7) What happens to a cell that can cause cancer? 8) What’s the relationship between mitosis & growth in an organism? R R

26 9) Use the Mitosis in an Onion Root Tip sheet. Count the number of cells in each phase of mitosis. Create the table below on your answer sheet and record the numbers: Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer R 10) Which phase has the largest number of active cells? Explain why. 11) Were some of the cells difficult to classify in a stage? Explain why. R R

27 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What happens to a eukaryotic cell that does not complete all stages in the cell cycle? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What happens to a eukaryotic cell that does not complete all stages in the cell cycle?

28 I need to remember… The cell cycle is a continuous process of cell growth and reproduction. The cell cycle goes through interphase, the longest phase, before undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. A cancer cell is a cell that goes through the cell cycle continuously, never stopping in Interphase. Growth results from mitosis. There are checkpoints during the cell cycle to help cells divide correctly The cell cycle is a continuous process of cell growth and reproduction. The cell cycle goes through interphase, the longest phase, before undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. A cancer cell is a cell that goes through the cell cycle continuously, never stopping in Interphase. Growth results from mitosis. There are checkpoints during the cell cycle to help cells divide correctly

29 Lesson 6 VIDEO?

30 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 10, 20, 36 lipid protein amino acid carbohydrate nucleic acid monomer and polymer ALL THEIR SYNONYMS EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 10, 20, 36 lipid protein amino acid carbohydrate nucleic acid monomer and polymer ALL THEIR SYNONYMS Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Biomolecules are organic molecules produced by living organisms. Which biomolecule is produced during the process of photosynthesis and used as an energy source in cellular respiration? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Biomolecules are organic molecules produced by living organisms. Which biomolecule is produced during the process of photosynthesis and used as an energy source in cellular respiration?

31 1) Use the 3 Structural Formula Cards for glucose, lipid, and protein. Which elements do all biomolecules have in common? Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer R 2) Protein and glucose have 4 calories per gram, but lipids have 9 calories per gram. How do a biomolecule’s size and the number of bonds it contains affect the amount of energy that is available? 3) Copy this chart. Count and record the model of glucose into the table. How does the formula, C 6 H 12 O 6, compare to the table? R R

32 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 4) Copy and complete the table. R

33 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Biomolecules are organic molecules produced by living organism. Which biomolecule is produced during the process of photosynthesis and used as an energy source in cellular respiration? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Biomolecules are organic molecules produced by living organism. Which biomolecule is produced during the process of photosynthesis and used as an energy source in cellular respiration?

34 I need to remember… Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel. Lipids store large amounts of energy. A protein’s function depends on its unique sequence of amino acids. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information. Organic molecules contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and are produced by organisms. Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel. Lipids store large amounts of energy. A protein’s function depends on its unique sequence of amino acids. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information. Organic molecules contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and are produced by organisms.

35 Lesson 7

36 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 4, 18, 30, 47, 49, 53nucleic acid Phosphate Nitrogen base Hydrogen bond Nucleotide Nucleotide sequence EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 4, 18, 30, 47, 49, 53nucleic acid Phosphate Nitrogen base Hydrogen bond Nucleotide Nucleotide sequence Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How does the structure of DNA make it possible for traits to be passed on from one generation to another? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How does the structure of DNA make it possible for traits to be passed on from one generation to another?

37 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 2) What are the components of a DNA molecule? R CR 4) Use a vis-à-vis marker to fill in the DNA double Helix on the laminated page 156. C 5) Which structures make up the DNA backbone? R

38 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How does the structure of DNA make it possible for traits to be passed on from one generation to another? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How does the structure of DNA make it possible for traits to be passed on from one generation to another?

39 I need to remember… DNA has 4 nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine Genes are pieces of DNA that pass traits to offspring Nucleotides are made of sugar, phosphate group, a base, and hydrogen bonds A DNA molecule is a double helix made of 2 strands held together by hydrogen bonds All living organisms have DNA DNA is the code for all the proteins that keep a cell alive DNA has 4 nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine Genes are pieces of DNA that pass traits to offspring Nucleotides are made of sugar, phosphate group, a base, and hydrogen bonds A DNA molecule is a double helix made of 2 strands held together by hydrogen bonds All living organisms have DNA DNA is the code for all the proteins that keep a cell alive

40 Lesson 8

41 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 13, 38 allele hybrid/heterozygous Homozygous Genotype phenotype mutation EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 13, 38 allele hybrid/heterozygous Homozygous Genotype phenotype mutation Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Humans have approximately 75,000 to 100,000 genes in a typical cell. A single gene contains about 10,000 nitrogen base pairs. How is it possible for a single mutation to one of these base pairs to cause a life- threatening condition. Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Humans have approximately 75,000 to 100,000 genes in a typical cell. A single gene contains about 10,000 nitrogen base pairs. How is it possible for a single mutation to one of these base pairs to cause a life- threatening condition.

42 1) Read instructions for Part 1. Record the amino acid for each codon on your notes in the correct order. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer R 2) Follow instructions for part 2. R 3) Follow instructions for part 3. R 4) Follow instructions for part 4. Write the new codon arrangement and ID the amino acids using the mRNA Genetic Code Chart. R 5) Answer question to part 5. R

43 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 6) What’s the new mRNA sequence on the mutated hemoglobin? R 7) Read the Genetic Mutations Cards. How does this mutation change the type of hemoglobin produced? R 8) Which of the Genetic Mutations Cards represents mutations that are considered beneficial to humans? Explain why. R

44 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Humans have approximately 75,000 to 100,000 genes in a typical cell. A single gene contains about 10,000 nitrogen base pairs. How is it possible for a single mutation to one of these base pairs to cause a life- threatening condition. Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Humans have approximately 75,000 to 100,000 genes in a typical cell. A single gene contains about 10,000 nitrogen base pairs. How is it possible for a single mutation to one of these base pairs to cause a life- threatening condition.

45 I need to remember… Mutations are changes in DNA that can be inherited. A codon is a 3 letter sequence of mRNA that codes for 1 amino acid Mutations occur when bases are added or deleted and when segments of DNA are missing. Not all mutations are harmful—some are very beneficial Mutations are changes in DNA that can be inherited. A codon is a 3 letter sequence of mRNA that codes for 1 amino acid Mutations occur when bases are added or deleted and when segments of DNA are missing. Not all mutations are harmful—some are very beneficial

46 Lesson 9

47 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 13, 38 allele hybrid/heterozygous homozygous genotype phenotype EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 13, 38 allele hybrid/heterozygous homozygous genotype phenotype Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait that is carried on the X chromosome. Why is there a higher probability that males will exhibit the characteristics of hemophilia than females? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait that is carried on the X chromosome. Why is there a higher probability that males will exhibit the characteristics of hemophilia than females?

48 Change the brown beads to GREEN beads Green Beads = Brown body Color There is a change to the key

49 For today’s activities, you will have a copy of all the student pages in page protectors. Follow those instructions. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 1) Copy charts as seen on student handout and fill in. R 2) Copy charts as seen on student handout and fill in. R 3) Choose (A or B) for female and (C or D) for male. R 4) Follow the instructions on filling in the Genetic Cross Flowchart. C 5) Record answer to step 5. R 6) Create Punnett Square in student handout and record what the parent’s genotypes. R

50 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 7) Record the missing genotypes for the Punnett Square by number: R Answer questions 8 and 9 in your journals. R

51 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait that is carried on the X chromosome. Why is there a higher probability that males will exhibit the characteristics of hemophilia than females? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait that is carried on the X chromosome. Why is there a higher probability that males will exhibit the characteristics of hemophilia than females?

52 I need to be able to… Analyze and make inferences about dominant and recessive traits. Interpret and make predictions about genotypes and phenotypes. Determine and interpret phenotypic rations. Understand the difference between Mendelian and non-Mendalian traits. Use Punnett squares to predict results of X-linked traits Understand monohybrid and dihybrid crosses Analyze and make inferences about dominant and recessive traits. Interpret and make predictions about genotypes and phenotypes. Determine and interpret phenotypic rations. Understand the difference between Mendelian and non-Mendalian traits. Use Punnett squares to predict results of X-linked traits Understand monohybrid and dihybrid crosses

53 Lesson 10

54 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 8, 15, 34, 39, 46, 52Natural selection Genetic drift Adaptation Homologous structure Vestigial organ Embryonic similarities Genetic variation EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 8, 15, 34, 39, 46, 52Natural selection Genetic drift Adaptation Homologous structure Vestigial organ Embryonic similarities Genetic variation Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What information can be gained by examining the fossil remains of ancestors of modern organisms? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What information can be gained by examining the fossil remains of ancestors of modern organisms?

55 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 2) What do the fossil remains of earlier whales indicate about changes in the whales’ habitats over time? R 3) If 2 different species have homologous structures, what does this tell you about their evolutionary history? R C 5) Based on the animals in the DNA Sequence Cladogram find an example of homologous and analogous structures. R

56 6) Use the Horse Evolution Cards. Arrange cards on the Horse Evolution Sheet to show changes that have occurred in the anatomy of a horse over time. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 7) Describe the major changes in the anatomy of the horse. R

57 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What information can be gained by examining the fossil remains of ancestors of modern organisms? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What information can be gained by examining the fossil remains of ancestors of modern organisms?

58 I need to remember… DNA sequences are used to determine how closely related organisms are to one another. Examining fossil remains enables scientists to understand how modern organisms developed over time. DNA sequences are used to determine how closely related organisms are to one another. Examining fossil remains enables scientists to understand how modern organisms developed over time.

59 Lesson 11

60 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 8, 15, 34, 39, 46, 52Natural selection Genetic drift Adaptation Homologous structure Vestigial organ Embryonic similarities Genetic variation EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 8, 15, 34, 39, 46, 52Natural selection Genetic drift Adaptation Homologous structure Vestigial organ Embryonic similarities Genetic variation Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can natural selection affect the frequency of the occurrence of certain traits in a population over many generations? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can natural selection affect the frequency of the occurrence of certain traits in a population over many generations?

61 Fitness refers to an organism’s reproductive capability Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer Follow instructions for part 1-6 1)2)3)4)5)6) RCRRRR Glossary on the next slide

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63 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can natural selection affect the frequency of the occurrence of certain traits in a population over many generations? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can natural selection affect the frequency of the occurrence of certain traits in a population over many generations?

64 I need to remember… Adaptations are due to genes that are inheritable Natural selection occurs as a result of: 1) variations in characteristics in a population, 2) heritable traits, 3) differences in fitness among organisms Survival of the fittest refers to an organism’s ability to reproduce and pass on its traits to next generation Natural selection does not act on an individual There are biological and physical influences that determine the survival and success of organisms. 3 types of evolution as a result of natural selections: 1) divergent, 2) convergent, 3) coevolution Adaptations are due to genes that are inheritable Natural selection occurs as a result of: 1) variations in characteristics in a population, 2) heritable traits, 3) differences in fitness among organisms Survival of the fittest refers to an organism’s ability to reproduce and pass on its traits to next generation Natural selection does not act on an individual There are biological and physical influences that determine the survival and success of organisms. 3 types of evolution as a result of natural selections: 1) divergent, 2) convergent, 3) coevolution

65 Lesson 12

66 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 3, 19, 28, 54 cladogram Hierarchy Dichotomous key Distinguishing feature Dumb kids playing on freeway get smashed EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 3, 19, 28, 54 cladogram Hierarchy Dichotomous key Distinguishing feature Dumb kids playing on freeway get smashed Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can a biologist tell if two organisms belong to the same kingdom? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can a biologist tell if two organisms belong to the same kingdom?

67 1) Follow steps 1. – 3. to complete the Domain and Kingdom Chart Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 2) Write the kingdom that best fits each example below R ABCDEF

68 3) Use the Organism Cards. Place each card under the correct kingdom they belong. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 4) Create chart below in handout. Place the name of each kingdom in the top row. Write the name of each organism in the bottom row. R

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70 5) Use the Taxonomy Cards and arrange them on the Hierarchical Classification Sheet in the correct order. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 6) Record the correct order on your handout. R

71 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can a biologist tell if two organisms belong to the same kingdom? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How can a biologist tell if two organisms belong to the same kingdom?

72 I need to remember… Scientists use internal and external characteristics to classify organisms into similar groups. Largest to smallest: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (COF) Taxonomy is a branching classificaiton system that provides a standardized method for grouping organisms. Scientists use internal and external characteristics to classify organisms into similar groups. Largest to smallest: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (COF) Taxonomy is a branching classificaiton system that provides a standardized method for grouping organisms.

73 Lesson 13

74 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 5, 17, 22, 48homeostasis Feedback Peristalsis Immune pathogens EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 5, 17, 22, 48homeostasis Feedback Peristalsis Immune pathogens Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it important that an organ system interact with other organ systems? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it important that an organ system interact with other organ systems?

75 1) Find the Systems and Events Cards as well as the System Functions and Parts Cards to place on the System Interactions Mat. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 2) Separate the Systems and Events Cards into 2 stacks: system cards and events cards. Follow instructions for steps on the handout: 1)2)3)4) R C RRC

76 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it important that an organ system interact with other organ systems? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it important that an organ system interact with other organ systems?

77 I need to remember… Systems do not stand alone; they must work with other systems to enable the organism to function properly. Each system has specific functions that it must perform, but each system is closely connected to other systems in the body and works with them to perform its functions. Systems do not stand alone; they must work with other systems to enable the organism to function properly. Each system has specific functions that it must perform, but each system is closely connected to other systems in the body and works with them to perform its functions.

78 Lesson 14

79 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 7, 32, 44, 51 stomata Xylem Phloem Tropisms (hydro, thigmo, photo, and gravi) Roots/stems (shoots), leaves vascular EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 7, 32, 44, 51 stomata Xylem Phloem Tropisms (hydro, thigmo, photo, and gravi) Roots/stems (shoots), leaves vascular Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) In order for a plant to survive, why must its different systems interact? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) In order for a plant to survive, why must its different systems interact?

80 Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer C 2) How’s it useful for a plant to respond to stimuli in its environment? R C 4) How does the Transport System interact in the leaves, stems, and roots of a plant so that the plant benefits? 5) Explain the effects of: A) Thigmotropism on a plant’s tendrils, B) Phototropism on the stems and leaves of a plant, C) Geotropism on the roots and leaves of a plant R R 6) Take the System Parts Interactions Cards off the flow chart. Explain the interactions that occur among these 3 systems that enable a plant to grow, thrive, and reproduce. R

81 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) In order for a plant to survive, why must its different systems interact? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) In order for a plant to survive, why must its different systems interact?

82 I need to remember… Plants, like animals, are composed of different systems that interact to benefit the plant. Some systems respond to stimuli such as touch, light, and gravity Each system depends on the other systems for survival Each system is composed of smaller systems; for example, the transport system is composed of xylem and phloem found in leaves, stems, & roots Plant can reproduce sexually or asexually Plants, like animals, are composed of different systems that interact to benefit the plant. Some systems respond to stimuli such as touch, light, and gravity Each system depends on the other systems for survival Each system is composed of smaller systems; for example, the transport system is composed of xylem and phloem found in leaves, stems, & roots Plant can reproduce sexually or asexually

83 Lesson 15

84 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 2, 9, 14, 24, 27, 31,pioneer species 35, 37, 40, 42, 50 climax community primary succession secondary succession lichens EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 2, 9, 14, 24, 27, 31,pioneer species 35, 37, 40, 42, 50 climax community primary succession secondary succession lichens Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How do the processes and events that occur within an ecosystem affect the species and populations of organisms that live in that ecosystem? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How do the processes and events that occur within an ecosystem affect the species and populations of organisms that live in that ecosystem?

85 1) Arrange the all the Processes and Events Cards on the Ecological Succession Model in the correct places. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 2) Why are there no heterotrophs in the primary succession stage? C R 3) How do the events in primary succession lead to appearance of more diverse populations of autotrophs in secondary succession? R 4) What effect does more diverse autotrophs have on heterotrophs? R 5) What conditions exist in a climax community that support, “a climax community is in a steady stat of ecological equilibrium”? R

86 6) Select 1 Natural Disturbance Card at random and place it on the Ecological Succession Cycle sheet between the primary succession and the secondary succession. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 7) What effects would the natural disturbance you chose have on the diversity of organisms in the ecosystem if the ecosystem were in a young stage of secondary succession? C R 8) List the types of disasters that can be caused by humans R 9) Select one human caused disaster and discuss the effects it could have on the diversity of species in the ecosystem it disturbs. R

87 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How do the processes and events that occur within an ecosystem affect the species and populations of organisms that live in that ecosystem? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How do the processes and events that occur within an ecosystem affect the species and populations of organisms that live in that ecosystem?

88 I need to remember… Ecosystems gradually change over time: physical and chemical environments as well as species Succession follows predictable stages: primary, secondary, and climax communities Autotrophs are the first pioneer species to inhabit an ecosystem Heterotrophs follow autotrophs in stages of succession: first herbivores heterotrophs, then carnivores and omnivores A climax community is stable, mature, self-sustaining, and has reached ecological equilibrium Ecosystems gradually change over time: physical and chemical environments as well as species Succession follows predictable stages: primary, secondary, and climax communities Autotrophs are the first pioneer species to inhabit an ecosystem Heterotrophs follow autotrophs in stages of succession: first herbivores heterotrophs, then carnivores and omnivores A climax community is stable, mature, self-sustaining, and has reached ecological equilibrium

89 Lesson 16

90 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 2, 9, 14, 24, 27, 31 symbiosis 35, 37, 40, 42, 50mutualism parasitism commensalism EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 2, 9, 14, 24, 27, 31 symbiosis 35, 37, 40, 42, 50mutualism parasitism commensalism Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What types of relationships may exist among the different organisms living together in an ecosystem? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What types of relationships may exist among the different organisms living together in an ecosystem?

91 1) Use the Organism Relationship Cards for the first activity. For each card, complete the following: A) Write the card #, B) Write the organisms involved in the relationship, C) Write the type of relationship between the 2 organisms Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer Parasitism // Commensalism // Mutualism, Predator-Prey // Competition R 2) Who has to compete more for its food, the roadrunner or the owl? 3) Which organism in the food web exist only as a predator? R R 4) For each organism tell whether it is predator, prey, or both: Bobcat, Butterfly, Lantana, Earthworm, Grasshopper, Grass Prairie, Hawk, Lizard, Owl, Robin, Roadrunner R

92 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What types of relationships may exist among the different organisms living together in an ecosystem? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) What types of relationships may exist among the different organisms living together in an ecosystem?

93 I need to remember… Organisms in an ecosystem exhibit different types of relationships as they interact. Some ways organisms interact is by competing for food and other resources. Relationships that may be found in an ecosystem include parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, competition, and predator/prey. Organisms in an ecosystem exhibit different types of relationships as they interact. Some ways organisms interact is by competing for food and other resources. Relationships that may be found in an ecosystem include parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, competition, and predator/prey.

94 Lesson 17

95 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 2, 9, 14, 24, 27, 31 producer 35, 37, 40, 42, 50 consumer decomposer autotroph heterotroph competition EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS 2, 9, 14, 24, 27, 31 producer 35, 37, 40, 42, 50 consumer decomposer autotroph heterotroph competition Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for the number of prey to be greater than the number of predators in order for an ecosystem to be balanced? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for the number of prey to be greater than the number of predators in order for an ecosystem to be balanced?

96 1) Remove the cards from Food Chain Cards Set 1 baggie and use the 4 Matter and Energy Flow Arrows to make a food chain. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 2) Explain the flow of matter in the food chain. Explain the flow of energy in the food chain. How is the flow of matter different than the flow of energy? C R 3) Create a food chain with Set 2 and Set 3. There should be 3 complete food chains. 4) Which food chain is most sustainable? Explain why? C R 5) Choose at least 10 food chain cards and create a food web. Draw in your handout. R 6) Place each Food Chain Card at the appropriate trophic level on the Ecological Pyramid Sheet. C

97 7) Copy the table below then use your filled-in pyramid to write the organisms on each trophic level into the appropriate column: Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 8) Explain the 10% rule of an ecosystem using the info from the ecological pyramid. R R

98 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for the number of prey to be greater than the number of predators in order for an ecosystem to be balanced? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) Why is it necessary for the number of prey to be greater than the number of predators in order for an ecosystem to be balanced?

99 I need to remember… Organisms in an ecosystem interact in ways that can be shown in food chains and food webs. Ecological pyramids are used to illustrate how organisms in an ecosystem transfer matter and energy from one trophic level to another. Energy enters the food chains through sunlight that is captured by plants through photosynthesis. 10% of energy is passed to the next trophic level. The other 90% is used for metabolic functions or escapes as heat. Organisms in an ecosystem interact in ways that can be shown in food chains and food webs. Ecological pyramids are used to illustrate how organisms in an ecosystem transfer matter and energy from one trophic level to another. Energy enters the food chains through sunlight that is captured by plants through photosynthesis. 10% of energy is passed to the next trophic level. The other 90% is used for metabolic functions or escapes as heat.

100 Lesson 18

101 EOC MOCK QUESTIONSKEY TERMS Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How is the stability of an ecosystem affected by a hurricane? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How is the stability of an ecosystem affected by a hurricane?

102 1) Using the Ecosystem Cards that match the food web you have been assigned and the Energy Flow Arrows… Construct a food web similar to the one represented on your food web that was assigned. Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer 2) Locate either or card: C 2) (cont) How can this organism occupy 2 different consumer levels? R 3) Select 1 of the Environmental Impact Cards. How would the stability of the ecosystem be affected if the producers in your food web were destroyed by the disaster? Redraw ecosystem to illustrate the effects of the disaster on the producers. R

103 4) How would the ecosystem be affected if the primary and secondary consumers were destroyed by the disaster? Activities and Instructions R C -Record Answer - Teacher check off answer R 5) If the quaternary consumer is eliminated from the food web, how would that affect the ecosystem? R

104 After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces After You Are Finished Check the Station Information Sheet to make sure that all items are present and organized. NOTIFY your teacher immediately if you notice a problem. Example: Missing pieces Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How is the stability of an ecosystem affected by a hurricane? Essential Question (Discuss with teammate and record answer) How is the stability of an ecosystem affected by a hurricane?

105 I need to remember… Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, and predator/prey relationships are all types of interactions that occur among organisms in an ecosystem. The stability of an ecosystem can be affected by a natural disaster Natural disasters include hurricanes, droughts, floods, tsunamis, fires, etc… Disasters can cause some organisms to diminish or go extinct so that their niche in an ecosystem is altered. In can take years for an ecosystem to recover from a natural disaster and regain stability Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, and predator/prey relationships are all types of interactions that occur among organisms in an ecosystem. The stability of an ecosystem can be affected by a natural disaster Natural disasters include hurricanes, droughts, floods, tsunamis, fires, etc… Disasters can cause some organisms to diminish or go extinct so that their niche in an ecosystem is altered. In can take years for an ecosystem to recover from a natural disaster and regain stability


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