Presentation on theme: "Pages 21, 22, 23. PropertiesAcidsBases TasteSourBitter FeelSlippery ConductivityYes Reacts with metals (yes or no?) what products? Yes- forms H 2 gasNo."— Presentation transcript:
Pages 21, 22, 23
PropertiesAcidsBases TasteSourBitter FeelSlippery ConductivityYes Reacts with metals (yes or no?) what products? Yes- forms H 2 gasNo pH range
Hydrogen + a polyatomic? - Polyatomic ends in –ate the acid ends in –ic - Polyatomic ends in –ic the acid ends in –ous Hydrogen + a single element? - Hydro______ ic acid
a) HCl – Hydrochloric acid b) HF – Hydrofluroic acid c) HNO 2 - Nitrous acid d) H 2 SO 4 – Sulfuric acid
If the acids ends in an “ic” then the polyatomic ends in the –ate form If the acids ends in “ous” then the polyatomic is in the – ite form If the acid starts in Hydro- then the formula is Hydrogen followed by the element ending in – ide Hydrochloric acid= HCl
a) nitric acid - HNO 3 b) acetic acid – HC 2 H 3 O 2 c) hydrobromic acid - HBr d) sulfurous acid – H 2 SO 3
Following ionic naming rules Name the cation regularly, the polyatomic uses its regular name.
a)KOH - Potassium hydroxide b) Ba(OH) 2 - Barium hydroxide c) LiOH- Lithium hydroxide d) NH3 – ammonia
Use ionic rules Write the symbols. Identify the charges- criss cross to make subscripts.
a) Sodium hydroxide NaOH b) Beryllium hydroxide Be(OH) 2 c) Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 d) Cesium hydroxide CsOH
Arrhenius acid- contains an H+ Bronsted- Lowry acid- Donates an H+
Arrhenius base- contains an OH- Bronsted- Lowry base- Accepts an H+
HNO 3 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 3 - ACID BASE ACIDBASE N 2 H 4 + H 2 O N 2 H H 3 O + ACID BASE BASEACID N 2 H 4 + HCl N 2 H Cl - BASE ACID ACID BASE
Neutralization reactions: ACID+ BASE SALT + WATER KOH + H 2 CO 3 KOH + H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + K 2 CO 3 Don’t forget to BALANCE! 2KOH + H 2 CO 3 2H 2 O + K 2 CO 3 HBr + Al(OH) 3 HBr + Al(OH) 3 H 2 O + AlBr 3 3HBr + Al(OH) 3 3H 2 O + AlBr 3
[H+]pH[OH-]pOHAcid, base, neutral? 1.2.3x10 -5 M x M9.36Acid 2.5.0x10 -8 M7.32.0x10 -7 M6.7Base 3.1.2x M x10 -5 M3.1Base
Titration- method for determining concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of solution with a solution of known concentration Equivalence point- equal amounts of OH - & H + ions
94. Chemical and Nuclear Reaction
Radiation Type AlphaBetaGamma Charge Description Symbol Mass Penetrating Power Shielding Needed 4 2 or 4 2 He 0 -1 or 0 -1 e low medium high Paper, cloth, skin, etc. Aluminum foil Lead Helium nucleus electron EMR 4 amu 1/1840 amu 0
Beta decay = electron 191 is gold’s Atomic mass, which goes on top. Look up Gold (Au) on your periodic table to find the atomic number which goes on the bottom. Gold’s atomic number is 79. Au 0 -1 e +_____ Au 0 -1 e Hg
alpha decay = helium particle 90 is Rubidium’s Atomic mass, which goes on top. Look up Rubidium (RB) on your periodic table to find the atomic number which goes on the bottom. Rubidium’s atomic number is 37. Rb 4 2 He +_____ Rb 4 2 He Br
A. 4 2 He N _____ H 4 2 He N 17 6 C H B Ru He 1 0 n +_____ Ru He 1 0 n Pd
Potential energy- stored energy due to position Kinetic energy- energy of motion *remember that Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy
Heat- (Q) = the process of flowing from warmer to colder temperature. Temperature- measure of the average kinetic energy (KE) in a sample
Specific heat (c) is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a 1 gram sample by 1 degree High specific heat means that the substance warms and cools slowly. It resists changes in temperature. Low specific heat means that the substance warms and cools quickly. SI Unit = J/(g·°C)
a. Conduction- heat is transferred by touch. Ex: heating a pan on the stove b. Convection- heat is transferred through liquids or gases. Ex: Cooking in an oven c. Radiation- heat from the sun
a kJ exothermic b. 32 kJ endothermic c kJ endothermic Exothermic reactions release energy so they lose energy (negative sign) Endothermic reactions absorb heat so they have energy added (positive sign)
FORMULA: Q=mc∆T Q= heat(J); m= mass(g); c=specific heat J/(g·°C); ∆T = change in temperature (Final– initial) Q= (1.05)(.450)(63.5) Q= 30.0 J The reaction is endothermic because it absorbs heat. ∆T = = 63.5
1. Pressure (P)- atm, torr, kpa, mmHg, psi 2. Volume- (V) Liters 3. Temperature (T)- Kelvin 4. Amount- (n) moles R = gas constant!
1. Gases consist of molecules whose separation is much larger than the size of the molecules themselves. 2. Particles in a gas move in straight line paths and random directions. 3. Particles in a gas collide frequently with the sides of the container and less frequently with each other. All collisions are elastic (no energy is gained or lost as a result of the collisions). 4. Particles in a gas do not attract or repel one another. They do not sense any intermolecular forces.
STP = 0 0 C and 1 atm Temperature in Kelvin = 273K STP can be found on the STAAR chemistry reference chart under the constants and conversions section.
LAW INDEP/DEP VARIABLES CONTROL VARIABLES MATH RELATIONSHIP FORMULA BOYLE’S V, PT, n ↑V, ↓ P inverse, indirectV 1 P 1 =V 2 P 2 CHARLES’S T, VP, n ↑T ↑V direct V 1 = V 2 T 1 T 2 GAY LUSSAC’S P, TV, n ↑T ↑P direct P 1 = P 2 T 1 T 2 AVOGADRO’S V, nP, T ↑n ↑V direct V 1 = V 2 n 1 n 2 COMBINED V, P, T,NA P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 IDEALP,V,n, R, TRPV=nRT
STP= Standard temperature and pressure P= 1 atm, T= 0 o C or 273K PV=nRT (1atm)(V)= (1.02moles)(.0821)(273) V= 22.8L
STP= Standard temperature and pressure P= 1 atm, T= 0 o C or 273K PV=nRT (1atm)(1.5L)=(n)(.0821)(273) 1.5= 22.4n n=.067 moles.067 moles4.003g=.27 grams 1 mole Molar mass of helium