The 14th Amendment o Despite reluctantly acceding to the core requirements for readmission to the Union, many of the former Confederate states began passing laws – the so-called "Black Codes" – that disenfranchised the former slaves economically and politically. This drove the Republicans who controlled Congress to undertake stronger measures to impose their will on the defeated Southern states. The first of these came in the form of the 14th Amendment, a more detailed set of restrictions on the states than either of the other Civil War amendments. o "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside."
o Section 1: No state may abridge the privileges and immunities of any of its citizens, or deny them due process of law or equal protection of the laws. o Section 2: When any state denies the right to vote at any election to any of its male citizens of voting age, its representation in elections for national offices will be reduced in the same proportion. (Basically, if a state excludes African Americans, then it will be given proportionally fewer seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and fewer votes in the presidential electoral college.) o Section 3: No person who has engaged in or supported insurrection or rebellion against the United States may hold public office. o Section 4: All debts incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States and all compensation claims made for emancipation of any slave will be held as illegal and void. o Congress proposed the 14th Amendment on June 13, 1866. More than two years later on July 28, 1868 the U.S. Secretary of State certified that it had been ratified by twenty-eight of the thirty-seven states. In the intervening time, the Congressional elections of 1866 added to the strength of the Republicans, giving them the two-thirds majority in both houses of Congress needed to override any presidential veto. The Republicans began the new session in March 1867 by passing additional reconstruction laws (over President Johnson's veto), inaugurating a new period of much firmer treatment of the South known as the Radical Reconstruction. Congress divided the South into military districts and required the states to adopt new constitutions, provide for black suffrage, and ratify the (still un-ratified) 14th Amendment.
For the Past 150 years since its ratification, this Amendment has frequently been used to stop states from treating some of its citizens differently, and thus worse, than the majority of its citizens. The 14th Amendment
The 15th Amendment o Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. o Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
This unsigned Harper’s Weekly cartoon shows an elated black man casting his vote under the authority of the Fifteenth Amendment, as he shoos away the irritating "flies" of states which voted against its ratification. In the early years of the American republic, free black men had been able to vote in some Northern states. In the first half of the 19th century, though, states removed property requirements for voting as they applied to white men, but kept or increased those or other restrictions on the voting rights of black men. With the abolition of slavery in 1865, voting rights for black men became an important and controversial political issue. In the spring of 1867, Congress required the former Confederate states to enact black manhood suffrage as a stipulation for readmission to the Union. With 10-15% of the white electorate disfranchised for past Confederate affiliation, black men made up the majority of voters in several Southern states, with 70- 90% casting ballots. They were the key Republican constituency in the South. In the North, black men could vote only in four Midwestern states and five of the six New England states (not Connecticut). The 15th Amendment
10 Years to Rebuild USA o Radical Republicans Rush to Rehabilitate Rebels for Readmission to Republic o States o Individuals o 14 th & 15 th Amendments o Conquered South Divided o 5 military districts o Carpetbaggers o Scalawags
Congress vs. The President o Congress = Radical Republicans o Rejected Lincoln’s 2 nd Inaugural o “With malice towards none...” o Passed Wade-Davis “50% Iron-Clad Oath” bill o Desire to punish South o Wanted to grant blacks the right to vote o Lincoln vetoed bill in favor of a 10% loyalty plan o Andrew Johnson was a loyal Southerner o Lincoln assassinated & replaced by Johnson in ’65 o Wanted to forgive most rebels and repudiate the South’s war debts o Impeached, but escaped conviction by 1 vote!
Congress vs. The President o Congress = Radical Republicans o Rejected Lincoln’s 2 nd Inaugural o “With malice towards none...” o Desire to punish South o Wanted to grant blacks the right to vote o Lincoln vetoed bill in favor of a 10% loyalty plan o AJ was a loyal Southerner o Lincoln assassinated & replaced by Johnson in ’65 o Wanted to forgive most rebels and repudiate the South’s war debts o Impeached, but escaped conviction by 1 vote!
Post-Slavery South o1o13 th, 14 th & 15 th Amendments oBoBlack Codes oSoShare Cropping oKoKKK oHoHayes/Tilden Election of 1876 oCoCompromise of 1877 oRoReconstruction Ends oWoWhites regain supremacy
Reconstruction Wrap Up o Successes o Former slaves get citizenship and equal protection under the laws by the 14th amendment. o 15 th Amendment grants black men the right to vote. o Union was restored and federal government is supreme. o Freedmen’s Bureau established to assist freed slaves. o African Americans can own property. o 40 Acres & a Mule? o Some Southerners try to modernize a New South by promoting industry. Failures o States pass laws forcing citizens to pass literacy tests, pay poll taxes, or prove a relative had voted in the past in order to vote. oJoJim Crow laws segregated blacks and whites. oKoKKK terrorized African Americans to reassert white social, economic and political supremacy. o Former slaves forced into permanent debt through the sharecropping system.
Manifest Destiny Defined: The belief that Americans were destined by God to expand from coast to coast. This concept was used as a justification for westward expansion.
Factors in Settling the West Role of the Physical Environment Role of the Federal Government Role of “Big Business” like Railroads Role of Native Americans Role of the Individual Settler (Miners, Ranchers, Farmers, etc)
The Physical Environment The “West” is difficult to define, but most use the Mississippi River as a dividing line between East and West The West has a diverse physical environment: vast plains, arid deserts, rugged mountains, lush valleys, and thick forests Land and natural resources were abundant in the West Lack of water and difficulty in accessing the natural resources are problems faced by those that settled there The lure of the physical environment drove people west, and also made life difficult for many who settled in the west
The Federal Government After the Civil War, the Federal Government promoted settlement of the West The Federal Government was, and still is, the largest landowner in the West: several important laws were passed like the Homestead Act of 1862 that sold cheap land to settlers if they lived and improved on it for five years The Federal Government passed laws like the National Reclamation Act of 1902 to aid in irrigation of arid farmland The Federal Government aided in Railroad construction and removed Native Americans
Big Business: The Railroads The Railroads were essential in the settlement of the West The Transcontinental Railroad, begun during the Civil War, became an artery for travel out west and for products coming back east The Federal Government gave land grants to railroads, which they could then sell, in order to help finance their construction Native Americans were highly opposed to the building of these permanent “iron roads.”
Role of Native Americans Native Americans were largely considered “savages” who did not use land efficiently Major conflicts erupted as settlers broke previous treaties and moved into the hunting grounds of plains Indians like the Sioux Key Events:The Battle of Little Bighorn, Massacre at Wounded Knee, Trail of Tears Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 created the modern reservation system and tried to assimilate Native Americans into “modern” society.
Role of Miners, Ranchers, and Farmers Miners were one of the first groups to travel west in search of gold and silver: major strikes such as in California led to a “gold rush” in 1849
Role of Miners, Ranchers, and Farmers Ranchers capitalized on access to railroads and high demand for beef; cattle drives from Texas north to places like Abilene, KS popularized cowboys and “buffalo soldiers.” The invention of barbed wire and increasing numbers of homesteads ended this era by 1880’s.
Role of Miners, Ranchers, and Farmers Homesteading farmers traveling west in covered wagon trains struggled at times to break the prairie sod, gain access to capital, deal with a lack of water and improve the land. A “populist movement” of small farmers developed in the 1890‘s. Massive “bonanza farms” were a stark contrast to these small 160 acre plots.
The Closing of the Frontier o Historian Frederick Jackson Turner claimed the frontier closed in 1890 (2 people per square mile) and wrote about its significance. o The Turner Thesis: o “The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development.” o The Turner Thesis claimed that the development of the frontier as settlers moved west created and spread democratic values: in other words, there is a material condition for democracy to exist. o Critics of Turner claim his history does not include women, African Americans, or Spanish-Americans, focuses too heavy on individualism and ignores aspects of communalism, and glosses over the destruction of Native American life. o These historians focus on the “Three C’s” of the West: o Continuity, Convergence, and Conquest.
The Gilded Age America’s Industrial Growth After the Civil War
Big Business o North won Civil War - won govt. support for business o Examples: 1.low taxes 2.few laws – environment, labor, etc. 3.cheap loans o Increased gap between rich and poor o Companies became very powerful, influential
Two business models Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration Andrew Carnegie and U.S. Steel - bought companies that all contributed to a final product John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil bought all competing companies that made the same thing
Andrew Carnegie’s Vertical Integration of the U.S. Steel Industry
Economic growth o During the Gilded Age, the economy grew quickly o However, it benefited a small minority; not everyone was happy - therefore, the o Immigration - constant labor supply of workers o Urbanization - people continued to move to cities Progressive Era
Social Darwinism Darwin: natural selection Social Darwinism: applied Darwin’s scientific ideas to society Suggested human society evolved via competition no government involvement conquer former colonies / evidence of advancement survival of the fittest? fit - live in an environment
The Labor Movement o Workers were not happy (conditions, pay, etc.), so they wanted to join together to form o Owners did not like workers to join together in unions because it would take away from their profits o Conflict in American society: UNIONS CAPITALISM vs. LABOR Owners vs. Workers