Remember: REPublics use representatives, (Direct) democracies use direct votes
Limited vs. Unlimited Limited government limit the power of those in charge, unlimited means the people in power can do what ever they like.
Dictatorship vs. Communism Dictatorship uses force and usually military threat to keep control Communism is when the government owns all resources and every one works for the community
Magna Carta The first document to limit the power of a monarchy (a government with a king or queen)
English Bill of Rights First bill that guarantees the rights of citizens.
Baron Montesquieu Believes in the separation of power. Checks and balances is based of his ideas
John Locke Believes in natural born rights. The declaration of independence uses his ideas “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Unicameral and bicameral One house legislative branch Two houses in the legislative branch
Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson. Created after a series of taxes and aggressive acts by the British aimed at the American Colonists. Written as an open letter to the King (George III) and the world as to the reasons Americans seek to no longer be part of England.
Confederacy Confederacy – a loose grouping of states. Americans try this system (Articles of Confederation) after the revolutionary war because it had no single person in power and made state rights more important than the nations.
Obligations are around to keep our country moving and upholding principles. (registering for the selective services, paying taxes, being on a jury, obey laws)
Citizenship Natural born citizens are born citizens, either by place or parents. Naturalized citizens are people who choose to become a citizen of a different country than they were born in.
The three main plans brought up in the Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1774- 1776. NJ Plan – created for smaller states, fixed the problem of the national government not being able to tax, but kept an equal amount of votes per state and the congress was to be unicameral. The Va. Plan was created for more populated states. It wanted to have the congress be bicameral, and with representation based off the population (more populated states get more votes). Conn. Comp (Great Comp.) – Takes ideas from both NJ & Va plans. Congress would be bicameral, one house would be equal rep. (Senate), one would be population based (House of Rep).
Deals with how slaves would be counted for population under new constitution. They would be worth 3/5 of a person, this helps the South gain more representation because that is where slavery is used the most.
Created after the Constitution is written. Anti Federalists demanded it be put in (they were afraid their rights would be taken away with out a Bill of Rights).
11 th - citizen of one state can't sue another state in federal court 12 th - separate ballot for VP and P, can't be from the same state. 13 th - abolition of slavery in constitution. 14 th – defines citizenship and guarantees rights to all citizens 15 th - Right to vote regardless of gender, race, and background; grandfather clause 16 th -Income tax; those making a certain amount can be taxed 17 th - Direct election of senator 18 th – Prohibition of alcohol. 19 th – right for women to vote. 20 th – lame duck, moves the date when a Pres. Takes office up to 1/21. 21 st – Allows alcohol, removes 18 th. 22 nd – Limits Pres. To 2 terms. 23 rd – 3 electoral votes for D.C. 24 th – Poll tax banned 25 th – Presidential succession order 26 th – Right to vote at age 18 27 th – Congressional wages.
Preamble of Constitution – States the purpose of the constitution. Establish Justice Insure domestic tranquility Provide for the common defense Promote the general welfare And secure the blessings of liberty.
The Constitution can be amended in one of four ways. – Proposals take a 2/3 vote by congress or state leg. – Ratifying takes a ¾ vote by all state leg. or conventions in all states.
I II III Make laws Enforces LawsInterprets Laws
Expressed and Implied powers Enumerated - These are powers allowed to congress listed out in the constitution. Implied powers are created by the necessary and proper clause (elastic clause) in the constitution. It allows congress to make laws dealing with things they feel are needed, but are not one of the enumerated powers.
Senate and Filibusters Filibusters are only conducted on the Senate floor (all of the Senate is present) on debate about a bill. There are no time limits, and this is used to stall a vote on a bill. Filibusters are ended by cloture. This requires a 3/5ths vote of the senators and puts a limit on how much longer the bill can be discussed.