Presentation on theme: "Entry Task Get YOUR test booklet back. Get a blank one if you didn’t take the practice EOC."— Presentation transcript:
Entry Task Get YOUR test booklet back. Get a blank one if you didn’t take the practice EOC.
Calendar Today: Review EOC Practice Book, finish Greensburg, KS Video. Tuesday 5/21: Review 10 th Grade material for EOC. Tuesday, 5/28: Review 9 th Grade material for EOC. Thurs 5/30, Mon 6/3 & Wed 6/5 – EOC for first half of each class. (CH 16 project stuff on 2 nd half).
Included here are a series of questions used on previous Biology EOCs. They have been “retired” for use as sample “practice” questions. It is important to keep in mind this is NOT about memorizing the answers to these questions (wouldn’t do you any good if you did since they’re retired) but rather… --get a “feel” for the format --consider the topics (what biological concepts are they addressing?) --for the extended-response questions, it often isn’t as much biological concept as it may be a scientific approach to problem solving Hope you find this useful…(feedback is welcome!!) Hint…use the up/down arrow keys to navigate this power pt.
Question #1 is about: feedback loops. Goal: Systems (cause & effect). There are two types of feedback: positive & negative. Let’s say Action A is something you do – play Xbox, do homework, talk to friends. If you get positive (reinforcing) feedback, are you more or less likely to keep doing it? What about negative feedback? If body temp goes up, your sweat levels go up. Does this make it more or less likely that your body temperature rises further? Let’s look at an example from a previous lab…
As you may (or may not) recall, you dropped alka seltzer tablets into a couple test tubes (CH 11, Carbon Lab #3) which generated CO 2 gas. That gas can easily turn right around and react with the water in the test tube forming carbonic acid. Your results showed the acid-tube generated more gas (finger height) than the water-tube (red arrow). That means the now-acidic-tube will generate an even GREATER amount of gas… which will, in turn, react with the solution making it even more acidic which will, of course, generate even greater quantities of CO 2. Like a vicious circle…a snowball rolling downhill, gathering ever-greater amounts of snow! A POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP An example of a negative? Consider your iTunes library and an iTunes gift card. As you increase the # of songs in your library, the amount on the card is reduced. As your $$ goes down and down, the size of your library grows….& grows. ANSWER Sweating is your body’s attempt to lower body temperature. As the amt of sweat INCREASES, body temp DECREASES This is your body’s attempt to re-achieve BALANCE A balancing loop…NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Here’s another example of a FEEDBACK LOOP-type question… NEGATIVE (“balancing loop”) = as A increases B decreases (or vice versa) Choice C…adding insulin increases the amt of glucose…would be a reinforcing loop or POSITIVE feedback…only choice… …D… “balances” high levels of one by decreasing the other
Question #2 addresses your knowledge of the major chemical cycles on earth. There’s the WATER cycle, the CARBON cycle, the OXYGEN cycle, and the NITROGEN cycle (to name a few). Considering the fact that nearly 80% of earth’s atmosphere is NITROGEN, yet exists in a form NOT USABLE by most life forms, and yet is a fundamental element in ALL life forms (it’s the reason amino acids are literally called AMINO!!), this is a question assessing whether or not you’ve learned of the existence of (and dependence of life on) what are called “nitrogen-fixing” bacteria (like those commonly found in root nodules of pea plants). BACTERIA
The next four Questions #3-6 are an example of scenario-based questions. While You can obviously approach these by whatever means suits you best, many folks that are uniquely-successful find the following technique most productive… --skip over the scenario --go straight to the questions --read each question so you get an idea of the specific kinds of things they are looking for (allows for a more “focused” read of the scenario) --go back and read the scenario, keeping the questions in mind …as you can see, questions 3 and 5 (the two multiple choice questions) really have NOTHING to do with the scenario!! They are there to assess your knowledge of experimental design …questions #4 & #6 are extended response items which will take a little explaining. Now, skip to the answers…
Let’s tackle 3 & 5 first… Even if you totally forgot that RE liability involves RE peated trials*, look closer at the options. Choices A, C, and D ALL involve CHANGES (“other acidities”, “increase the volume”, and “use a different”)…only B keeps all conditions… *the same.
Question 5 involves good ol… There are several ways to increase the validity of an experimental design. In addition to a Peer Review, running an experimental control group, and having LOTS of controlled variables, only choice D is a step that will reduce the impact of human error/variance. Choices B & C both involve RELIABILITY (multiple trials) and choice A…really? Here’s another past-EOC question of similar style, but tied to a scenario about taking a survey of salmonberry plants in/around a forest. The field study involves sampling 3 types of habitat using three 5-by-5m plots. 4 instead of 3? More reliable Smaller!? plots…nope No impact whatsoever Like another Controlled Variable
An example of a 2-pt, extended response question is Question #4: Write a Conclusion Best advice here…DOUBLE CHECK to make CERTAIN you answered EVERY BULLET!!! Lucky for you, as a Tahoma sophomore, you are already quite familiar with the first 2 bullets… “According to the data the hypothesis is…” AND BACK IT UP WITH DATA!!!!
The prediction was supported by the data, as the pH INcreased, the amt of foam also INcreased…to a point. The AVERAGE amt of foam increased from 24ml to 35ml between pH 6 and 7 then another 7ml between pH 7 & 8 BUT THEN it dropped an AVERAGE of 12ml between pH 8 and 9. Enzyme function is impacted by pH. In the case of catalase, it appears to function best (judging by maximum foam production) in a mild base (pH 8). It’s effectiveness drops sharply in acidic solutions (below 7.0) and again in bases stronger than 8.0 Acids impair the function of catalase (destroy its chemical structure) as do strong bases. Potato cells must have a slightly basic pH. Let’s examine each bullet… IMPORTANT: Use AVERAGES if possible & include both MAX & MIN (range)
Question 6 is another 2-point extended response item: design a follow-up experiment Again…PAY ATTENTION TO THE BULLETS!!! In this example, rather than pH (MV) vs amt of foam (RV) you are tasked with a Manipulated Variable (MV) of… …and a responding variable (RV) of… Let’s take a look at several possible responses…
…I don’t know where to start …the bullets? 0 controlled variables, 1 MV but only two “levels” (hot? and unheated?), 1 RV (but how do you???), ignored the last bullet, and this is not “logical” because no one could repeat these steps with reliable results SCORE = ZERO
Better…but still… 2 controlled variables (steps 1 & 3) 1 MV and three “levels” (34, rm temp, and 89) 1 RV (but again how do you measure “bubble data”?) Again, the last bullet is ignored, no repeated trials and this is not “logical enough” SCORE = ONE PT
Getting better… Only 1 controlled variable (1 drop of peroxide) 1 MV and three (weak) “levels” (fridge, rm, m-wave?) 1 RV …FINALLY!, something measurable, the last bullet is included, AND repeated trials! But measurements not recorded . However, steps ARE logical enough… SCORE = ONE PT
2 controlled variables (steps 1, 2, & 3) 1 MV, 3 evenly-spaced “levels” (72, 82, and 92) 1 RV and last bullet (Step 4), enough detail to be logical, reliable, and even a “validity measure” (using SAME thermometer) SCORE = TWO PTs
Here’s a few more “stand-alone” type questions… Respiration and fossil fuels…can you say “CH 11!!!?”...hmmmm….respiration… …glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water…in order to generate energy (in the form of ATP) and burning fossil fuels…hmmmm…. …carbon compound (fossil fuels) + oxygen(burning) carbon dioxide + water Photosynthesis?? Respiration yes but…not burning gasoline Release? NO…consume? yep Again…this isn’t about memorizing answers…it’s about getting a feel for both the style as well as the “topics” (which you should feel good about)
As you can see, genetics figures prominently…these concepts were from “CH 7”… Above…while mutation can increase genetic variation, the EPIC generator of diversity has always been SEX (mixing of genes to get new/unique combinations) And below…this is remembering the difference between MEIosis and MITosis. MEIosis is all about GAMETES (pollen/ova) and would have HALF (the diploid #) or 7. Since it’s about a non-reproductive structure (a leaf) and it’s MITOSIS (like cloning) you’d say or ANY species
Unsure why they specified “nonnative” plants…read it this way… You should IMMEDIATELY recognize (throw out) choice D… evolution-by-intent* is one of those GROSS misunderstandings among people that “don’t get evolution.” *something mutates to get what it wants/needs That’d be a neat trick Huh? Glucose, not ash From CH 14…a “niche”…a collection of factors that define the living space of a species After a forest fire a lot of previously-claimed living space is suddenly “up for grabs” (whether you’re a native species or not!)
Speaking of habitats… As you’ve been learning in CH 16, “There are no such things as PERFECT solutions…there are ALWAYS unintended consequences.” In this question, “adding butterfly habitat” (structures providing biotic/abiotic needs for butterflies) can mean many things, none of which (that I can see) would impact either B or D of an entire ecosystem! Along those same lines would lie choice A…how would adding say, a netting?, remove nutrients? (caterpillars need trees but adding trees won’t REMOVE nutrients) But Choice C… Whatever structure is added, no matter how small or seemingly insignificant, WILL introduce something “new.”
None of these multiple choice questions require knowledge of the scenario. They are simply items designed to measure your grasp of biology concepts. Take a look at #7… …if you recall your concepts from CH 8 (transcription & translation), this should an easy one. DNA RNA amino acids PROTEIN!! “How do plants…?” Actually, how does ANY living thing…? B is bogus as the primary thing plants get from soil is WATER (not proteins!) C sounds like something from a Harry Potter novel, “MAGIC THAT IS!!” D …there ARE proteins in seeds but not enough to grow an entire plant! It would be a violation of the conservation of matter, for Pete’s sake!
EDITORIAL COMMENT: I can see why this one was retired…it’s vague, at best. But you can still learn something from it… PURPOSE: To increase the garden’s food mass Applying logic to the biology… Choice A : Even if you discovered the answer, how would you be able to use the knowledge to increase food mass? Force-feed the plants more carbon??? Choice C : The purpose wasn’t to grow high-protein plants but simply more mass Choice D : Large seeds do NOT mean more plant mass Choice B : This knowledge could be applied to the entire garden and in most cases result in better crop yields (it’s WHY we “fertilize” our gardens)
After everything you learned in CH 11, this one’s a breeze… Choices A, B, and D are all part of the PHOTOSYNTHETIC process…NOT respiration If you weren’t aware, “ATP” or *AdenosineTriPhosphate, is the primary “ENERGY molecule” employed by living things…produced in the MITOCHONDRIA of cells, the same way CHLOROPLASTS of plant cells are in charge of photosynthesis. And you learned about ATP in 9 th grade.
Another (2-pt) extended response item…which seems to focus on RELIABILITY RELIABLE means REPEATED TRIALS…a REPEATED trial only counts as truly REPEATED if… …EVERYTHING REMAINS THE SAME as it is run again. What aspects of a greenhouse make it UNRELIABLE?
Let’s try the skip-ahead-and-read-the-questions technique …here, read these, THEN look at the scenario on the next slide (which, in the test format, came BEFORE the questions)
At first this seems like a question you’d see on a READING HSPE…yet it involves concepts you learned in CH 6 (natural selection/evolution). After reading the scenario you learned 84% of the finches died because their beaks were unable to access the remaining food following the 1977 drought. Only finches with bigger beaks (16%) survived…eventually dominating the finch population (“medium ground finch”, that is). It had nothing to do with lack of water (A) or emigration (C) and Choice B… …as we’ve learned, evolution isn’t a choice for a species …survival-of-the-fittest means POPULATIONS EVOLVE!!!
Frankly, this question can be answered WITHOUT READING THE SCENARIO. It is simply a species-interaction question (CH 14). There are errors here… “a new bird species” ? We know nothing about it. If anything the word “would” should be changed to COULD… D : predation by the new bird is a possibility but it would DECREASE the finch pop A : if finches reproduce they wouldn’t DEcline, if a new bird occupies finch breeding grounds, finches WOULD decline (vague choice) B : also vague…with a new bird on the island the finch might have an adaptation that allows it to survive better than the new bird but why wait for a new bird?
…ummmmm….a math question? OK….whatever…. 720 finches / 80 acres = NINE
Skip-ahead-and-read-the-questions technique again… …here, read these, THEN look at the scenario on the next slide (which, in the test format, came BEFORE the questions)
Again, scenario-not-required…this one’s from the concepts in CH 7 (genetics) Choosing between A and B, B might be correct IF you were talking about GAMETES …but you’re not.
So glad I read the scenario because THIS question…oh, wait…never mind. Contains DNA Builds proteins/hormones/enzymes out of amino acids Cell’s liquid environment This question covers CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION…an area THS Inquiry is weak on. Technically, it is part of the 9 th grade Inquiry program but memories get fuzzy… Mitochondria are the energy-producers of cells, “burning” glucose (by respiration) to build ATP molecules…producing carbon dioxide in the process. Plants complete the Carbon Cycle with the chloroplast, using the CO 2 + water to produce oxygen + glucose which is what the mitochondria use, the oxygen to burn the glucose…and so on…
FINALLY…a scenario-based quest---NOT….oh well… Carbon Labs, CH 11, Station 6: Plants “What are plants made of?” “THIN AIR!!!!”
Let’s look at a few more scenario- independent questions…
Remember this one? A scenario-independent question… (as in, “who cares about the scenario?”) Bear “output”?? Oh. On a molecular level. Being heterotrophic, bears only undergo cellular respiration (unlike plants which, being autotrophic, BOTH respire AND photosynthesize)…so… (BEAR) RESPIRATION: INPUTS OUTPUTS glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water (SALMONBERRY) PHOTOSYNTHESIS: INPUTS (used) OUTPUTS carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen Glucose & oxygen are bear INPUTS water’s an OUTPUT but not needed-for-respiration After all, what do think plants make all that glucose out of in the first place!?
Above, another scenario-independent item, this one is straight out of CH 14…COMPETITION LIMITS the size of populations!! (going after the same resources)…besides, A, B, and C are, well, LOL choices! Below, choices B, C, and D are all EPIC shifts in the ecosystem. Only A represents an event of “balance”…the coming-and-going of life (aka equilibrium).
Excellent example of a question of Cellular Processes content D is the answer….IF IT WERE WATER, and it were moving in the opposite direction. And since OSMOSIS is a form of B that’s out too. Diffusion does not involve crossing a membrane (it’s just stuff spreading out) so that leaves C… to move (non-water) molecules ACROSS membranes, often AGAINST a gradient (low to high) is ACTIVE transport I don’t know about you, but I kinda like A the best…ask me why…
Well, that’s it for practice questions. Obviously, the actual EOC will contain assessment items on additional topics as well as additional topics on the same concepts. Looking back, you saw questions from CH 6, 7, 8, 11, and 14. Undoubtedly, there will be more questions centered around Biology’s Grand Unifying Theory (evolution), more genetics questions, and more cell structure & function. There will be more question about species interactions (symbiosis, etc) as well as food webs, bioamplification, and energy pyramids. There should be questions from CH 15 (resources) and CH 16 (engineering design process) and of course, complex systems. Bottom line, pay attention to BULLETS in extended response questions, use the process-of-elimination in multiple choice, use your knowledge gained combined with logic and in almost every case, go with your first inclination…it is usually right! GOOD LUCK TAHOMIE!!
Entry Task 5/21 (On a piece of scratch paper) Here are the Big Ideas from this year. Which ONE would you want to spend more time on? What specific part? CH 1 - Experimental Design CH 6 – Evolution, Radiometric Dating CH 7 – Genetics & Inheritance, Punnett Squares CH 8 – DNA & RNA, Proteins CH 11 – Carbon Cycle, Photosynthesis & Respiration CH 14 – Population Interactions, Carrying Capacity CH 15 – Human Population Interactions
Entry Task 5/21 What is the weakest topic of yours from this year of Science? Create a SMART goal on how you will address that topic. – Specific – Measurable – Attainable / Achievable – Realistic – Timely