2March 19 and 24 Getting The Idea: ALLUSION An allusion is a reference to a specific place, a historical event, a famous literary figure, real or fictitious, or a work of art. Allusions can be drawn from history, geography, science, math, religion, or literature. Three different types of allusions are classical, historical, and literary.
3Getting The Idea: ALLUSION Classical allusions reference classical art, religion, mythological figures, poetry, and the like.EXAMPLE: Jennifer seemed to have a Midas touch because every project she worked on was successful.Historical allusions reference some important person or event from history.EXAMPLE: Coach wanted the team to remember their last defeat and get inspired to play even harder. At the end of her speech, she yelled, “Remember the Alamo!”Literary allusions reference famous literary works, their characters, or their authors.EXAMPLE: Jason still lives with his parents and doesn’t feel the need to grow up; he might as well live with Peter Pan in Neverland.
4Guided Practice: ALLUSION “Someday We’ll Know” by New Radicals90 miles outside ChicagoCan’t stop driving I don’t know whySo many questions I need to answerTwo years later, you’re still on my mindWhatever happened to Amelia Earhart?Who holds the stars up in the sky?Is true love just once in a lifetime?Did the captain of the Titanic cry?Someday we’ll know why I wasn’t meant for youDoes anybody know the way to Atlantis?Or what the wind says when she cries?I’m speeding by the place that I met youFor the 97th time tonightSomeday we’ll know why Samson loved DelilahOne day I’ll go dancing on the moonSomeday you’ll know that I was the one for youASK YOURSELF: Where are the allusions? What was the author trying to accomplish by using them???
5Independent Practice: ALLUSION For each of the following sentences, find the allusion and then explain what they mean.It was such an obvious lie, I was surprised his nose didn’t start growing.On his first trip to Hawaii he was so amazed by its beauty he thought it must be the garden of Eden.Their relationship didn’t work out in the end- it was a real Romeo and Juliet story.When the tide came in their sandcastle was swallowed up like Jonah.She was on a diet, but french fries were her Achilles’ heel.I’m just a regular guy. I wasn’t born on Krypton, and I can’t leap tall buildings in a single bound.
6Homework: ALLUSIONComplete the handout and bring it back to the next class period.5 points extra credit onthe homework if you cantell me where the creatorsof the Scream movies gotinspiration for the mask….The mask itself is an allusionto something…
7March 25 & 26 Getting the Idea: TONE & MOOD Tone – the author’s attitude toward his or her subject – established through language, setting, information revealed, order in which information is given, personalities of characters, etc.EXAMPLE:Mood – the feeling the reader gets from the text –EXAMPLE: are light, dark, mysterious, somber, sad, angry, confusing, nervous, etc.
8Guided Practice: TONE & MOOD “A Dream within a Dream” – Edgar Allan PoeIn visions of the dark nightI have dreamed of joy departed –But a waking dream of life and lightHath left me broken-hearted.Ah! What is not a dream by dayTo him whose eyes are castOn things around him with a rayTurned back upon the past?ASK YOURSELF: What is the tone? What is the mood?
9Independent Practice: TONE What tone is created by the words shadow, dismal, grey, and darksome?HappinessFearSadnessanger
10Independent Practice: MOOD 2. The wind howled like a banshee, the thunder rolled, and the lightning drew zigzag lines across the sky. With the sights and sounds of the thunderstorm cloaking his room, Charlie awoke from his night’s sleep. As he peeked out from under the covers, a dark, shifting shadow appeared on the wall of his room.For the reader, the selection creates a mood ofpeacefearsafetyhumor
11Homework: TONE & MOODComplete the handout and bring it back to the next class period.
12March 27 and 28: PARALLELISM Copy the following:Parallelism means that the parts of a sentence are expressed in the same way. In other words, verbs match with verbs, adjectives with adjectives, prepositional phrases with prepositional phrases, clauses with clauses, and so on.
13Guided Practice: PARALLELISM Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.NonparallelThe manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.
14Independent Practice: PARALLELISM For each of the following sentences, list if it is parallel or nonparallel. If it’s nonparallel, correct it so that it is.1. Janine likes to dance, sing, and even plays theflute.2. When I think the rain will never stop, the sun comesout, the birds begin to sing, and the flowers raisetheir little heads.3. The housekeeper looked inside the drawers, thebookcase, and under the recliner for the missingbelt.4. The little boy ran under the chair, sprinted aroundthe desk, and crept into the corner in order tocatch the big stray cat.
15April 7 & 8 Getting The Idea: RELIABLE SOURCES What are some sources we use when we are trying to learn more about a certain topic?The InternetBooksReference books (Encyclopedias, almanacs, etc.)Articles
16April 7 & 8 Getting The Idea: RELIABLE SOURCES When evaluating electronic sources, a good place to start is at the domain name:--.gov - U.S. government site ---.edu – accredited or reputable college or university--.com – a commercial site that is created for a profit or to make money ---.org – typically a non-profit organization-- .net – a network infrastructure (often used for a server that hosts Web sites for others) –
17April 7 & 8 Getting The Idea: RELIABLE SOURCES The following are indicators of website credibility:Author or organizationPurpose (Content)DomainDate of publicationWhich of the 4 options above could also be used to evaluate the credibility of other sources?
18Guided Practice: REALIABLE SOURCES 1. Which web site would be the best choice for information about the life of actress Salma Hayek?a movie website that reviews the actress’s filmsA personal blog created by a Salma Hayek fanThe official web site of the Academy AwardsThe official Salma Hayek web siteWhich web site would be the best choice for information about constructing a bird house?
19Guided Practice: REALIABLE SOURCES Which web site would be the best choice for information about adopting a pet?Which would provide a student with the most reliable information about teens and texting-related highway fatalities?A newspaper article about the latest texting features of smart phonesA telephone conversation with a local state representativeAn official report on the issue put out by the Office of Highway SafetyA personal interview with a member of a highway-construction crew
20Independent Practice: RELIABLE SOURCES All of the following items are important in evaluating an article as a reliable source EXCEPT:The title of the articleThe date of publicationThe name of the journalThe dates of sources the author usedIf a reader wanted to find the most current additional research about global warming and the greenhouse effect, which research source would be MOST appropriate?An atlas of the United StatesOnline material from the U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyArticles from Readers’ Guide to Periodical LiteratureAn article from Collier’s Encyclopedia
21Homework: RELIABLE SOURCES Complete your homework titled “Evaluating Electronic Sources” and turn it in next class period.
22Bellwork April 9-10: Copy the following Nonessential Elements and InterruptersNONESSENTIAL (needs commas)The man, crying on the steps, forgot where he had placed his keys.Our neighbor, who is the foreman at the plant, is on vacation.ESSENTIAL (doesn’t need commas)Each student who is going on the field trip must turn in a permission slip.The woman who is running the cash register just went on break.Introductory Words and PhrasesAs a matter of fact, he did graduate high school.To pass the Economics test, you must study very hard.There are exceptions:To pass the Economics test without studying is unheard of.
23Guided Practice: Nonessentials and Interrupters The average world temperature however has continued to rise significantly.Company managers seeking higher profits hired temporary workers to replace full-time staff.The person checking tickets at the counter asked for a form of identification.The sixth-century philosopher Boethius was arrested tortured and bludgeoned to death.Guided Practice: Introductory Words and PhrasesWhile Jessie was getting ready to go I practiced my lines.Typically Riverdale’s Spring Break is in March.Contrary to popular belief Justin Bieber is not cool. At all.Whatever is going on in the Annex has caused administration to hold the bells.
24Nonessentials and Interrupters The game as you remember was a tie. Mark each sentence as Correct or Incorrect. Correct Incorrect sentences.Nonessentials and InterruptersThe game as you remember was a tie.The French artist Jaques Laurent appeared at a speaking engagement in New York.Jim Pope, sheriff of Weed County, wanted to question the witness.The boy, who broke my car window, brought flowers to my house.Sally, whom you met at last night's dance, wants to know if you found her purse.Introductory Words and PhrasesTo stay in shape for competition athletes must exercise every day.Meanwhile the athletes trained on the Nautilus equipment.Preparing and submitting his report was one of the most difficult tasks Bill had ever attempted.To start a new business without doing market research would be foolish.Barking insistently Smokey got us to throw his ball for him.
25April 11-14: Subject-Verb Agreement Copy the followingSingular and plural subjects cannot use the same verb.** Ex: Sarah likes apples. ** Ex: The athletes like apples.4 Basic Rules:1. Always mark out phrases that come between the subject and the verb ** Ex: The woman with all the answers (sit, sits) in the front.2. Nouns joined by or = agree verb with the closest noun**Ex: The president or his assistants (run, runs) the office.3. Either/Neither are singular unless followed by the OR rule**Ex: Either of the cars (is, are) fine with me.**Ex: Neither my aunt nor her kids (is, are) ever home.4. Collective nouns are singular (litter, flock, team, etc.)** Ex: The team is on the field.
26Subject-Verb Agreement Guided Practice John or Kate (watch, watches) my dog when I’m out of town.The cars in the center showroom (has, have) caught my attention.Policemen and FBI agents chasing a stolen car (has, have) just driven by my house.Either Mr. Nolan or Mr. Nance (read, reads) the announcements each day.Obama and his advisors (fly, flies) to Syria on Tuesday.
27Subject-Verb Agreement Independent Practice Write the subject and the correct verb.An atlas or some encyclopedias (is, are) sure to have the answer to your question about the topography of Mexico.Mr. and Mrs. Johnson (travels, travel) to North Carolina each year.The assistant principals or Mr. Nolan (monitors, monitor) lunch at Riverdale.A central part of my life goals (has, have) been to play sports in college.The computer menu that has ten items on it (is, are) very confusing.The dog with its many toys (is, are) getting in the way.Each of the teachers (follow, follows) the rules of the school.The family of ducks (swim, swims) in the pond.Either the test or the quizzes (counts, count) 100 pts.Neither of the two traffic lights (is, are) working.
28April 15 & 16: Run-ons Copy the following A run-on sentence has two or more independent clauses that are combined without correct punctuation.Ex: The school musical is Friday it will be held in the theater.CORRECT a run-on sentence by changing it into two separate sentences, adding a comma and a conjunction, or adding a semicolon.
29Practice: RUN-ONSClassify each of the following as a complete sentence or a run-on. Then correct the run-ons.1. If you have a St. Bernard, you have one of thelargest dogs.2. Yorkshire terriers are very tiny and cute manypeople keep them as pets.3. Since they are all born blind and unable to takecare of themselves, puppies need their mothers.4. It may surprise you, most dogs are fully grown bythe time they are one year old.5. If you like dogs, consider having one for a pet,many live to be nearly twenty.
30April 21 and 22 Getting the Idea: PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Remember!!A pronoun is used in place of a noun.An antecedent is the noun that is being replaced.A pronoun MUST agree with its antecedent inGENDERPERSONNUMBERSpecial Cases1. When two or more SINGULAR noun antecedents are joined by AND, they make a PLURAL antecedent. (1+1=2)The bride and the groom say their vows.2. When two or more singular noun antecedents are joined by OR or NOR, choose a pronoun to agree with the antecedent CLOSEST to the verb.Either Mary or Lois will bring her husband.Neither Sara nor the men brought their money.
31Getting the Idea: PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Special Cases3.The pronouns either, neither, other, each, or any that end in –body or –one take a SINGULAR pronoun.WRONG: Somebody left their umbrella.RIGHT: Somebody left his or her umbrella.4. The pronouns both, few, many, several, and others take a PLURAL pronoun.WRONG: Few students turned in his or her assignment.RIGHT: Few students turned in their assignments.5. The pronouns all, most, some, any, and none be EITHER singular or plural depending on HOW THEY ARE USED in the sentence.Use your best judgment. If it can be counted, it is plural. If it cannot be counted it is singular.
32Guided Practice: PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Underline the pronoun and circle the antecedent. Then decide if they agree. If they disagree, write the correction.1. Either Larry or Ted night lend me their bike.2. Some of the girls bought her shoes at the mall.3. Neither Susan nor her friends drove her car to the party.4. Anyone who turned in a late paper had their grade reduced.5. Every police officer anticipated the danger they would encounter.6. Each of the employees got a raise on his or her anniversary with the company.
33Independent Practice: PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT 1. Read this sentence.Trisha’s parents want her to go to college, and her first choice in Amherst, but Trisha wants to go to Vanderbilt.What is the best replacement for the underlined word?A. hers B. our C. them D. their2. Read this sentence.We wanted to get his bicycle from the repair shop, but they wasn’t ready.What is the correct way to write this sentence?A. We wanted to get his bicycle from the repair shop, but their wasn’t ready.B. We wanted to get his bicycle from the repair shop, but it wasn’t ready.C. We wanted to get his bicycle from the repair shop, but he wasn’t ready.D. We wanted to get his bicycle from the repair shop, but him wasn’t ready.
34Homework : PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Complete the worksheet over pronoun antecedent agreement and bring it back with you to the next class.