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EOC OVER VIEW FOR AREAS OF WEAK PERFORMANCE. MAJOR PARTS OF THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 1.Meninges- To protect the central nervous system. 2.Medulla Oblongata-

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Presentation on theme: "EOC OVER VIEW FOR AREAS OF WEAK PERFORMANCE. MAJOR PARTS OF THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 1.Meninges- To protect the central nervous system. 2.Medulla Oblongata-"— Presentation transcript:


2 MAJOR PARTS OF THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 1.Meninges- To protect the central nervous system. 2.Medulla Oblongata- controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion, heart and blood vessel function, swallowing and sneezing.digestionheart blood vessel 3.Pons- communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain.

3 MAJOR PARTS OF THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 4. Hypothalamus- Connections with structures of the endocrine and nervous systems enable the hypothalamus to play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis. homeostasis 5.Thalamus- It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions. 6.Cerebellum- controls motor movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone.

4 MAJOR PARTS OF THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 7. Midbrain- visual and auditory systems as well as eye movement. 8. Cerebrum- Determining Intelligence Determining Personality Thinking Perceiving Producing and Understanding Language Interpretation of Sensory Impulses Motor Function Planning and Organization Touch Sensation

5 Blood Flow SC.912.14.36 BLOOD FLOW- The normal flow (movement) of blood through the cardiovascular system – Atherosclerosis: Condition in which fatty material such as cholesterol accumulates on artery walls forming plaque that obstructs blood flow. – Sickle Cell Anemia Blood Pressure- The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is produced primarily by the contraction of the heart muscle.


7 Blood Pressure Causes for High Blood Pressure Smoking Being overweight or obese Lack of physical activity Too much salt in the diet Too much alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day) Stress Older age Genetics Family history of high blood pressure Chronic kidney disease Adrenal and thyroid disorders

8 Blood Pressure RESISTANCE - Vascular resistance is a term used by professionals to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. – CAUSES: a. increased blood vessel length b. decreased blood viscosity (For liquids, it corresponds to the informal notion of "thickness“). c. vasodilatation (Widening of blood vessels that results from relaxation of the muscular walls of the vessels.) d. increased blood pressure

9 Blood Pressure Disease – specific disorder that affects the cardiovascular system. – Heart Attack – Stroke – High Blood Pressure – Congestive Heart Failure – Arterial Fibrillation – Varicose Veins – Spider Veins

10 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.2 Heredity/Inheritance- the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring. – Dominant trait - the one of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or organism. (HH, Hh) – Recessive trait - a trait that is expressed only when the determining allele is present in the homozygous condition. (hh)

11 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.2 Codominant - with equal genetic effect: describes genes that each have equal effect in making the character they control appear in offspring.

12 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.2 Incomplete Dominance - is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely dominant over the other allele.

13 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.2 Sex Linked - Carried by a sex chromosome, especially an X-chromosome

14 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.2 Polygenic - pertaining to or determined by several different genes.

15 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.2 Multiple Alleles - Three or more alleles for a particular gene.

16 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.3 DNA - DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. – Replication – to make a copy of itself

17 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.5 DNA Transcription - is the process of copying a DNA template onto a messenger RNA.

18 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.5 DNA Translation - the process that "translates" information contained in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) to facilitate polypeptide or protein synthesis.

19 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.9 DNA – the universal genetic code, WHY? The sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines the specific amino acid sequence in the synthesis of proteins. It is the biochemical basis of heredity and nearly universal in all organisms.

20 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.9 DNA – adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine – Base Pairing Rule

21 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.10 Biotechnology - technology based on biology - biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.

22 Heredity and Reproduction SC.912.L.16.10 Biotechnology and the individual – – The impact (pro): genetic testing for heritable diseases, vitamin enriched foods, better insulin – The impact (con): embryo transplantation, embryo research(ethical issue). Biotechnology and society- – The impact (pro): smallpox virus, cholera, bacteria, famine, food sustainability, to detect, and in some cases treat, diseases such as sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. Genetic testing to track down criminals, genetic screening for factory workers in risk industries. – The impact (con) biological warfare, GMO’s using recombinant DNA and the risk to the environment (affect on all trophic levels), allergies to GMO’s, super bugs (MRSA), antibiotic resistance

23 Interdependence SC.912.L.17.8 Interdependence- dependence of every form of life on other living things and on the natural resources in its environment, such as air, soil, and water. Biodiversity- diversity among and within plant and animal species in an environment.

24 Interdependence SC.912.L.17.8 CATASTROPHIC EVENTS



27 Interdependence SC.912.L.17.8 Human Activity: Pollution, Urbanization, Acid Rain, Agriculture Runoff, Deforestation, etc. HOW DO THEY AFFECT BIODIVERSITY?




31 Acid Rain -the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids Surface waters (lakes and streams) and aquatic animalsSurface waters (lakes and streams) and aquatic animals Forests Automotive coatings Materials Visibility Human health

32 Global Warming-continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth's climate system

33 Greenhouse effect- A phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface.


35 MATTER AND ENERGY TRANSFER SC.912.L.18.11 Enzyme- Enzymes are biological catalysts or assistants. Enzymes consist of various types of proteins that work to drive the chemical reaction required for a specific action or nutrient. Enzymes can either launch a reaction or speed it up. Activation Energy- The least amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place.


37 Factors that affect enzyme activity: PH - Changes in pH may not only affect the shape of an enzyme but it may also change the shape or charge properties of the substrate so that either the substrate cannot bind to the active site or it cannot undergo catalysis.

38 MATTER AND ENERGY TRANSFER SC.912.L.18.11 Factors that affect enzyme activity: Temperature: At very high temperatures enzymes can "denature," which means the heat causes them to lose their original shape necessary for them to react. Therefore, if temperatures are too high, a decrease in reaction rate occurs as a result of the enzymes denaturing.

39 MATTER AND ENERGY TRANSFER SC.912.L.18.12 P ROPERTIES OF W ATER 1.Water’s unique properties allow life to exist on Earth. 2.Water is a POLAR molecule.POLAR  POLAR molecules have slightly CHARGED regions.  Nonpolar molecules do not have charged regions.

40 3.Hydrogen Bonds form betweenHydrogen Bonds slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms. 4.Hydrogen bonds are responsible for several important properties of water:  High Specific Heat – hydrogen bonds require a high degree of heat before they break, minimizing temperature changes.  Cohesion – hydrogen bonds hold molecules of water together.Cohesiontogether  Adhesion – hydrogen bonds allow water molecules to “stick” toAdhesion other molecules.  Ice Formation – water molecules in an ice crystal are spaced relatively far apart because of hydrogen bonding. This explains why water expands as it freezes and why ice is less dense than liquid water.

41 5.Many compounds dissolve in water. A solution is formed when one substance dissolves in another.  A solution is a homogeneous mixture (the same throughout).  Solvents (such as WATER) dissolve other substances.  Solutes (such as salt or sugar) dissolve in a solvent. 6.“Like dissolves like.”  Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes.  Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.  Polar substances and nonpolar substances generally remain separate. Example: water and oil solution

42 The pH scale 1.pH is a measure of the hydrogen ions (H + ) in water. 2.An acid releases a hydrogen ion when it dissolves in water. Acids have a high H + concentration and a pH less than 7. 3.A base removes hydrogen ions from a solution. Bases have a low H + concentration and a pH greater than 7. 4.A neutral solution has a pH of 7.

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