2 What tool can most accurately determine the volume of a sample of water? Graduated CylinderBalanceSpring ScaleThermometer
3 2. Francis observes that corn seedlings will bend toward a light source. He grows 150 corn seedlings. He then removes the tips from 50 seedlings, covers the tips of another 50 seedlings with aluminum foil, and leaves the last 50 seedlings alone. He puts all the seedlings near a strong light source and observes them for three days. Which hypothesis is Francis testing?If a seedling is watered, it will always grow toward the light.If a seedling is exposed to a light source, the seedling will bend toward the light.If the tip is removed from a seedling, the seedling will die even if exposed to light.If light does not reach the tip of a seedling, the seedling will not bend toward the light.
4 3. Which of these is an example of a qualitative observation? The high temperature for each day in May.The names of chemicals found in one brand of diet soda.The win-loss record of a tennis team since 1990.The average growth in height of all sophomores over a year.
5 4. In 1927, the geneticist Hermann Muller exposed living fruit flies to X-rays. He found that the fruit flies’ offspring displayed dramatic mutations. Muller concluded that the X-rays damaged chromosomes, which resulted in the mutations. What was the independent variable in Muller’s experiment?The X-raysThe fruit fliesThe mutationsThe chromosomes
6 5. A student is curious about whether a relationship exists between the temperature of an aquarium’s water and the number of times a fish’s gills flap each minute. What is the first thing that the student should do?Lower the temperature in the tank by 1oC each day and see how it affects the number of times a fish’s gills flap each minute.Make a hypothesis about the relationship between water temperature and the number of times a fish’s gills flap each minute.At exactly the same time each day, count the number of times a fish’s gills flap each minute.Take readings of the water temperature in the aquarium in the morning, in the afternoon, and in the evening.
7 6. Which of the following fundamental 6. Which of the following fundamental units does the Systéme International not use?kgmLin.cm
8 7. April wants to test how temperature affects germination (plant growth from seeds). She is measuring temperature in degrees Celsius (0C). Which should April measure to get the most useful results?The growth of plants from 150 seeds at 150C and 150 seeds at 220C.The growth of plants from 300 seeds, all at slightly different temperatures.The growth of plants from 100 seeds at 150C, 100 seeds at 220C, and 100 seeds at 290C.The growth of plants from 150 seeds in the dark at 150C and 150 seeds in the light at 150C.
9 8. A scientist who monitors drinking water supplies found the disease-causing organism Cryptosporidium parvum to be resistant to the common disinfectants chlorine and monochloramine. The scientist investigated whether chlorine dioxide would be more effective against C.parvum. She designed an experiment in which she added chlorine, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide to separate water samples. She then tested the water for populations of C.parvum. Which hypothesis was the scientist most likely testing in this experiment?If chlorine and monochloramine are added to drinking water, they will be more effective than chlorine alone against C.parvum.If chlorine dioxide is added to drinking water, it will be more effective than either chlorine or monochloramine against C.parvum.If C.parvum becomes resistant to chlorine dioxide over time, it will not become resistant to chlorine or to monochloramine.If C.parvum is resistant to chlorine and monochloramine, it will become resistant to chlorine dioxide over time.
10 What is the mean of this data set? 9. The following data set shows the amount of rainfall for each day of one week.5 mL, 13 mL, 2 mL, 6 mL, 5 mL, 7 mL, 11 mLWhat is the mean of this data set?5 mL7 mL8 mL9 mL
11 10. Fred is preparing a class presentation about the change in the classroom’s temperature over one week. Which would be the best way for Fred to display his data?In a line graphIn a chartIn a bar graphIn a table
12 11. There are 16 students in the chess club 11. There are 16 students in the chess club. Of these students, 4 are new members. What percent of the chess club is new members?4%20%25%33%
14 What is the dependent variable in the biologist’s experiment? Use the graph on the previous slide to answer the following questions:Ladybugs eat insects called aphids to survive. A biologist puts a population of ladybugs and a population of aphids into an enclosed habitat called a terrarium. She wants to study how a change in one population affects the other population. She lets the community develop for a time, and then introduces a chemical that makes the aphids unable to produce offspring. The graph shows the changes to the ladybug and aphid populations over time.What is the dependent variable in the biologist’s experiment?The length of timeThe size of the aphid populationThe size of the ladybug populationThe amount of sterilizing chemical
15 Use the previous graph to answer the following question: Which conclusion best describes the relationship between the ladybug and the aphid populations?A decrease in the aphid population causes a decrease in the ladybug population.An increase in the aphid population causes a decrease in the ladybug population.An increase in the ladybug population causes an increase in the aphid population.A decrease in the ladybug population causes a decrease in the aphid population
16 Which of these proposed explanations is supported by the data table? 14. A team of biologists measured the levels of dissolved oxygen at different depths in three lakes. There results are shown below.Which of these proposed explanations is supported by the data table?The depth has no effect on the level of oxygen concentration.Forest Lake has a greater oxygen concentration than Cobble Lake.The oxygen concentration of the water is greater at deeper depths.The oxygen concentration of the water is greater at shallower depths.
17 15. Which of these is an example of how science can influence public policy? A local citizen’ action group raises money to plant trees in a public park.Because of limited local landfill space, the city council considers shipping trash elsewhere.Discoveries about the harmful side effects of secondhand cigarette smoke prompt the passing of laws that ban smoking in public places.Because too much chlorine is accidentally put into a public swimming pool, the pool is closed for the afternoon to protect the public.
18 16. Why is the process of peer review so important to the overall practice of science? Peer review helps to identify error and bias in experiments and research.Peer review leads to the recognition of a scientist’s accomplishments.Peer review helps one scientist prove that other scientists are wrong.Peer review helps to ensure that nobody else is credited with a scientist’s discovery.
19 17. Most professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, and scientists, follow codes of ethics that guide the actions of the people in that profession. Which is the best description of the phrase “a code of professional ethics”?It is a cultural characteristic of one specific group of people.It is a standard of conduct for a given occupation.It is based on a certain type of religion.It is what society accepts as right.
20 18. Which of these is the most accurate statement about the effects of technology? Products of new technology cost more than products of old technology.New technology is always welcome and accepted by the public.New technology can make it possible for scientists to extend research and make new discoveries.New technology always ends up replacing old technology because it is more efficient.
21 19. A bias can distort science at any stage of the process: hypothesis formation, experimentation, interpretation of results, or reporting. Which of these best describes how bias affects scientific research?Any investigation that has a bias in inevitably ruined.The best scientists can do their work without any bias at all.Acknowledging bias is not important because everyone has a bias.All scientists have biases, but most scientists attempt to reduce its effects on their work.
22 20. What role does bias play in the way that scientific stories are presented by the news media? Because the story appears in print or on television, it must be true.The news media should not report science stories because they are not experts.The news media doesn’t have any bias because all of their stories are researched thoroughly.Every news story includes bias, so you should compare information from a variety of sources.
23 21. Which of the following is true about eukaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane and more types of organelles than prokaryotic cellsEukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane and fewer types of organelles than prokaryotic cellsEukaryotic cells have no nuclear membrane and more types of organelles than prokaryotic cellsEukaryotic cells have no nuclear membrane and fewer types of organelles than prokaryotic cells
24 22. Stomach cells break down food particles into their component molecules to aid in digestion. Which of these organelles would be found in a higher frequency in stomach cells than in red blood cells?MitochondriaLysosomesChloroplastsRibosomes
25 23. Suppose that a freshwater plant is mistakenly put into a saltwater aquarium. Which process will occur?Water will move from the environment into the plant cells, swelling the plant cells.Water will move from the plant cells into the environment, shrinking the plant cellsSalt will move from the plant cells into the environment, shrinking the plant cells.Salt will move from the environment into the plant cells, swelling the plant cells.
26 24. Which correctly describes a major difference between a plant cell and an animal cell. An animal cell has organelles that store energy in ATP molecules, a plant cell does not.A plant cell has many small vacuoles that store water, an animal cell has a single large vacuole to store wastes.An animal cell has a cell wall to provide structure and support; a plant cell does not.A plant cell has organelles that transform light energy into chemical energy; an animal cell does not.
27 25. Examine the two solutions below 25. Examine the two solutions below. They are separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows salt to pass but does not allow starch to pass.Salt will move from B to A by diffusion.Salt will move from B to A by osmosis.Salt will move form A to B by diffusion.Salt will move from A to B by osmosis.
28 26. Membranes are essential to life processes 26. Membranes are essential to life processes. Which of the following best defines a membrane?Membranes are phospholipid bilayers.Membranes are selectively permeable barriers.Membranes are the sites of energy transformations.Membranes are barriers that protect organelles from outside substances.
29 27. Muscle groups often require quick bursts of energy 27. Muscle groups often require quick bursts of energy. Which organelle would be found in a higher frequency in muscle cells than in nerve cells?RibosomesGolgi apparatusMitochondriaPeroxisomes
30 28. Glucose belongs to which category of organic compound? Nucleic acidsCarbohydratesLipidsProteins
31 29. Which of these is not a difference between mitosis and meiosis? Mitosis results in two cells; meiosis results in four.Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction; meiosis is a form of sexual reproduction.Mitosis produces cells with a full set of chromosomes; meiosis produces cells with a half set of chromosomes.Mitosis occurs only in unicellular organisms such as paramecia; meiosis occurs only in multicellular organisms such as humans.
32 30. The American buffalo has cells containing 60 chromosomes 30. The American buffalo has cells containing 60 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in each sperm cell of an American buffalo?120603015
33 31. Which sex will a person be if the father has contributed on X chromosome? Male, no matter whatFemale, no matter whatMale, if the mother contributes an XFemale, if the mother contributes a Y
34 32. Which of these is an advantage of sexual reproduction? It creates variation within a population.It creates offspring that are well-adapted to the environment.It creates offspring that are identical to its parents.It ensures no variation within a population.
35 33. Which of these correctly represents the process of meiosis?
36 34. DNA molecules must unwind and then separate for replication and expression. Which of these happens when a DNA molecule comes apart?The weak bonds within the sugar-phosphate backbone are broken.The strong bonds within the sugar-phosphate backbone are broken.The weak bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs are broken.The strong bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs are broken.
37 35. When the genes encoded in deoxyribonucleic acid are expressed, what type of molecule is produced?DNACarbohydratePhospholipidProtein
38 36. Which of the following gives the most accurate description of the gene expression process?
39 37. A double-stranded segment of DNA is 50 nucleotides long along each strand. Thirty of the bases are adenine. How many of the bases are cytosine?20305080
40 38. Suppose that a point mutation inserts a thymine base into a DNA strand as shown below. TAA GGT ACG CATTWhich represents the DNA strand that is complementary to the first 12 bases of the mutated strand?ATT CCA TAG CGTAUU CCA UAG CGUATT CCA TGC GTAAUU CCA UGC GUA
41 39. What is the correct relationship between an allele and a gene? Alleles dictate which genes go into offspringAlleles are the alternative forms a gene can takeGenes are the physical form of allele combinationsCombinations of dominant genes result in an allele
42 40. A brown-eyed man and a blue eyed woman have four children 40. A brown-eyed man and a blue eyed woman have four children. The man is heterozygous dominant for brown eyes (Bb), and the woman is homozygous recessive for blue eyes (bb).As a percentage, how many of the children are expected to have blue eyes?0%25%50%75%
43 41. Which genotype is homozygous for one trait and heterozygous for another trait? eemmEEMMEeMmEemm
44 42. For mice, the gene for coat color has two forms: a pigmented coat (C) and an albino coat (c). Pete, a male mouse with a pigmented coat, was mated with Theresa, an albino female. All six baby mice in the first litter had pigmented coats. For the next litter, Theresa was mated with Moe, who had pigmented coat. Some of Theresa and Moe’s litter were albinos. What are the most probable genotypes of Pete, Theresa, and Moe?Pete= Cc; Theresa= cc; Moe= ccPete= CC; Theresa= cc; Moe= CcPete= Cc; Theresa= cc; Moe= CcPete= CC; Theresa= Cc; Moe= Cc
45 43. The phenotype pedigree shows the inheritance pattern of a recessive genetic condition in three generations of a family.What is the chance that individual III-1 (?) will inherit this condition?
46 44. What would most likely happen to one population of a species of plant if its climate gradually became hotter and drier?The plants that absorb and store water most efficiently would survive to pass on those traits.Individual plants would work hard to grow longer roots and thicker leaves.The plants would increase the number of seeds they make to improve their chances of reproducing.All of the plants would die off before producing offspring.
47 45. Biologists are unsure how the North American red wolf is related to the gray wolf and the coyote. Some biologists claim that the red wolf existed as a species before both the gray wolf and coyote. Other biologists make the competing claim that the red wolf is a descendant of both the gray wolf and the coyote. Which evidence would best support the claim that the red wolf existed before the gray wolf and the coyote?Fossils of all three species found in the same layer of rock.Different mating behaviors among all three species.Similar body plans among red wolves and gray wolves but not among red wolves and coyotes.The DNA sequences of the gray wolf and the coyote are more similar to each other than to the red wolf.
48 46. A biologist studied a species of katydid, an insect that makes a “singing” noise. The biologist hypothesized that katydids with loud songs have greater reproductive success than katydids with quiet songs. The biologist put 25 katydids with loud songs and 25 katydids with quiet songs into a terrarium. The biologist then studied the generations of katydids that followed. If the biologist’s hypothesis is correct, which result was most likely observed?Katydids with quiet songs became more competitive by developing louder songs.The percentage of katydid population with loud songs decreased.The percentage of the katydid population with quiet songs decreased.Katydids that had loud songs preferred to mate with katydids that had quiet songs.
49 47. Which of these would serve as the best index fossil? A species of marine animal that lived almost everywhere, but only during a relatively short period of time.A species of coral that lived only at the equator during a relatively brief period of time.A species of dinosaur that lived only in North America just before a mass extinction.A species of marine plant that lived during a relatively long period of time.
50 48. Which statement is true about the carbon and nitrogen cycles? Carbon and nitrogen are often converted into each other as they cycle through the ecosystems.The total mass of carbon and the total mass of nitrogen on Earth are always about constant.No products created with carbon or nitrogen can be converted into energy while cycling through ecosystems.Carbon and nitrogen atoms in biotic factors tend to stay in biotic factors, and carbon and nitrogen atoms in abiotic factors tend to stay in abiotic factors.
51 Which trophic level contains the most energy that is available 49. Study the food chain.Which trophic level containsthe most energy that is availableto the level above it?FishSquidKiller whalesphytoplankton
52 50. What is the primary purpose of cellular respiration? To use sunlight to produce food moleculesTo remove carbon dioxide from an organismTo release energy from food moleculesTo bring oxygen into an organism
53 51. Suppose a lawn in Missouri absorbs 50,000 KJ of solar energy 51. Suppose a lawn in Missouri absorbs 50,000 KJ of solar energy. About how much of this energy is available to rabbits that nibble on the lawn?50,000 KJ5,000 KJ500 KJ50 KJ
54 52. Which type of organisms make up the producer level of the trophic pyramid? AutotrophsHerbivoresCarnivoresOmnivores
55 53. Which of the following is produced by photosynthesis? Carbon dioxideNitratesOxygenWater
56 54. Study the simplified nitrogen cycle below. What process or organism is represented by each X?DecompositionConsumer reuseEukaryotesBacteria
57 55. The United States government has regulations that control how trees must be harvested. Why is the government involved in making such rules for logging?Voters believe the government should protect forest ecosystems from industrial damage.The government wants to help industries harvest trees in the most efficient was possible.Many trees are in inaccessible mountainous areas, and voters want to reduce fatalities form loggers harvesting those trees.The government owns forests and distributes trees to companies for logging.
58 56. Many human activities affect ecosystems 56. Many human activities affect ecosystems. Of all the human actions that affect the world’s ecosystems, which has had the greatest negative effect in the last century?Harvesting of cropsRapid human population growthDevelopment of renewable fuelsMoving to the top of the trophic pyramid
59 57. Which of these is not an example of a symbiotic relationship? Bacteria living on the roots of a legumeA bird perching on the back of an antelopeA tick living on and feeding from a muleA wolf killing a mouse
60 58. Which of these would increase a population of deer in a habitat? A decline in the number of deer predatorsAn increase in the rate of deer emigrationA decline in the rate of deer immigrationAn increase in the mortality rate of deer
61 59. If bacteria are grown in a test tube, the number of bacteria will reach a certain level and then increase no further. What does this demonstrate?Biotic potentialCarrying capacitySymbiosisEmigration
62 60. The emerald ash borer is native to Asia 60. The emerald ash borer is native to Asia. It was found in North America in 2002, probably having traveled here in the packing material used to protect goods shipped overseas. Since arriving, the emerald ash borer population has exploded. The insects have killed more than 20 million ash trees in the Midwest. Which of these is the most likely explanation for the success of the emerald ash borer in North America?The ash trees in North America are more nutritious than those in Asia.People are encouraging the growth of the new species in North America.Asian ash trees have less resistance to insects than do North American ash trees.The emerald ash borer has fewer predators in North American than in Asia.