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Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Units ordered smallest to largest include: A millimeter, kilometer, centimeter B milligram, gram, kilogram C liter, milliliter,

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Units ordered smallest to largest include: A millimeter, kilometer, centimeter B milligram, gram, kilogram C liter, milliliter,"— Presentation transcript:


2 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Units ordered smallest to largest include: A millimeter, kilometer, centimeter B milligram, gram, kilogram C liter, milliliter, kiloliter D kilometer, meter, millimeter 2. The independent variable is the variable that A is controlled B is measured C matters D is changed

3 Turn in the Final Exam Review packet assigned over break. If not, TOMORROW is the last day to turn it in. It will be marked down for being late. This is a test grade. Take it seriously! If you borrowed a textbook, return it before Friday!!

4 Agenda Warm-Up Explain “Think Fast” Notes- Scientific Method and Safety Review worksheets Clean-Up Cool-Down




8 Objective 1.02-Scientific method Be able to read line and bar graphs Materials Graduated cylinder, eyedropper, bunsen burner, watch glass, petri dish, tongs, hot plate, triple beam balance, beaker

9 Objective 1.01-Lab Safety When heating a solution in a test tube, a student should point the test tube away from their face and wear goggles Measurement- micrometer  millimeter  centimeter  meter 10 cm =.1 m = 100 mm

10 Lab Safety Glassware Safety Sharp Instrument Safety Fire and Heat Safety Animal Safety Electrical Safety Chemical Safety Eye and Face Safety Proper Dress

11 1. How should you pick up a piece of hot glassware? A. bare hands B. with heat-resistant gloves C. with the sleeve of your shirt D. With a spatula

12 2. How should you hold a test tube containing a chemical? A. pointed away from your face B. pointed at your eye C. held right up to your nose D. very close to your partner’s face

13 3. You should report a cut in your skin, glass breakage, or a chemical spill A. after the problem is handled B. never C. immediately D. after you write down what happened

14 4. When you are done with an experiment, how should you dispense of any chimicals used? A. mix them all up in a waste container and dump them in the trash B. pour them all down the sink while running the water to dilute C. Follow the instructions given to properly dispose of the particular chemicals D. Mix the chemicals in a flask and heat the mixture until it evaporates into the air

15 5. What is the best way to read the volume of a liquid in a graduated cylinder? A. read the level of the liquid going up the side of the cylinder B. make sure five people in the lab read it before you write it down C. Glance at the cylinder and write down the first number you see D. read the level of liquid at the middle of the meniscus at eye level

16 Objective 1.01-Scientific Method 1. Make an observation 2. Identify the problem/question 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Design an experiment 5. Perform an experiment 6. Analyze Data 7. Make conclusions

17 Objective 1.01 Scientific Method 1. Observation: Observe birds in flight 2. Question: How do birds fly? 3. Hypothesis: The wing designs of birds catch air differently 4. Experiment: Make and fly different designs of paper airplanes to test the hypothesis 5. Analyze Data: take notes on flight patterns of paper airplanes. Create a data table on how each airplane flies. 6. Conclusion: The size and shape of the wing gives lift to the bird

18 Scientific Method Vocabulary 1. Independent variable-variable that is changed 2. Dependent variable-variable that is measured or counted-changes in response to the independent variable 3. Control-things the investigator keeps in control in order to keep them the same for all samples 4. hypothesis-statement that gives the best possible response to the question and should be based on already known facts (educated guess)

19 Scientific Method Quantitative Data: numbers Ex: 500, 6, ten Qualitative Data: no number Ex: brown, big, tall Prediction- forecast (educated guess) of the possible results of events

20 1. A judgment based on data gathered in an experiment is… A. a skill B. a conclusion C. a hypothesis D. an observation

21 2. A forecast of possible or future events is a/an A. Analysis B. Predication C. Hypothesis D. Observation

22 3. The end products of your investigation or experiment are… A. Results B. Guesses C. Predictions D. Questions

23 Objective 2.01-pH and water Water dissolves most molecules and ions pH scale = 1-14 1-6 = acids-the lower the pH, the stronger the acid 7 = neutral 8-14 = bases-the higher the pH, the stronger the base

24 Objective 2.01-microscopes Total magnification = eyepiece x objective Eyepiece = 10x Objectives = 10x and 40x Greatest possible magnification = 40ox (10 x 40) Under the microscope, letters get put upside down and backwards

25 Objective 2.01-microscopes



28 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Structures that give support and shape to plant cells are: A microbodiesB golgi bodies C nucleusD cell walls 2. Ribosomes A are the site of protein synthesis B are made by other ribosomes Chave their own DNA Dnone of the above

29 If you have yet to do so, turn in the Final Exam Review packet assigned over break. It is late. If you borrowed a textbook, return it before Friday!!

30 Agenda Warm-Up Notes- Cells and Biomolecules Review worksheets Clean-Up Cool-Down


32 Objective 2.02-Cell theory The cell theory was developed with the help of the light microscope The cell theory states that living organisms are composed of cells that arise from pre-existing cells and cells are the basic units of structure and function

33 Cell theory 1. All organisms composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. New cells are produced from existing cells.

34 Two major types of cells: Prokaryotic: no nucleus, no organelles, smaller, came first Ribosomes, cell membrane, cytoplasm Eukaryotic: Nucleus, organelles, bigger, came second

35 Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

36 Organelles Organelles = little organs that perform specific jobs in the cell Organelles are found in eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells Plant and Animal cells are both examples of eukaryotic cells with organelles Plant and Animal cells contain many of the same organelles, but there are several differences

37 Plant vs. Animal Cells Plant Cells 1. Chloroplasts 2. Cell wall 3. Large vacuole Animal Cells 1. No Chloroplasts 2. No Cell wall 3. Small Vacuole

38 1. Structures that give support and shape to plant cells are: A microbodies B golgi bodies C nucleus D cell walls

39 Organelles 1. Nucleus 2. Ribosomes 3. Mitochondria 4. Chloroplast 5. Vacuole 6. Endoplasmic reticulum 7. Golgi Apparatus 8. Plasma Membrane 9. Cell Wall

40 Nucleus Looks like: Central area where DNA is found Job: controls the cell In a factory: Boss

41 Ribosomes Looks like: Small particles of RNA in the cytoplasm and on the ER Job: make proteins (protein synthesis) In a factory: workers

42 Mitochondria Looks like: a bean Job: powerhouse of the cell-it produces the energy in the form of ATP In a factory: generator (energy source)

43 Mitochondria


45 Chloroplast Looks like: green stacks of membranes the contain chlorophyll Job: perform photosynthesis (convert sunlight into energy) In the factory: greenhouse

46 Vacuole Looks like: sac-like organ. HUGE in plant cells Job: stores water, food, and waste In a factory: storage room

47 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Looks like: internal membrane system next to the nucleus (rough ER has ribosomes, smooth ER does not) Job: transports materials In a factory: conveyor belt

48 Golgi Apparatus Looks like: stack of membranes Job: Packs, sorts, and ships In a factory: packaging center

49 Plasma Membrane Looks like: layered membrane (called a lipid bilayer) surrounding the cell but inside of the cell wall Job: “the regulator”-controls what comes in and out of the cell, protects, and supports the cell In a factory: security guards

50 Cell Wall Looks like: thick layer outside the plasma membrane Job: structure and support In a factory: Cement wall


52 1. Ribosomes A are the site of protein synthesis B are made by other ribosomes Chave their own DNA Dnone of the above

53 2. The mitochondrion of the cell  A has only one membrane  B has no membrane  C is circular  D is where cellular respiration occurs

54 3. The storage of hereditary information in a eukaryotic cell is in the A cytoplasm B nucleus C centrioles D lysosomes

55 Objective 2.01-Organic Molecules “Organic” = has carbon “Inorganic” = no carbon Monomer + Monomer + Monomer = Polymer Monomer of proteins = amino acids Monomer of lipids = fatty acids Monomer of nucleic acids = nucleotides Monomer of carbohydrates = sugar Example: starch is made up of glucose

56 Testing for organic molecules Benedicts-test for sugar Iodine-tests for starch-turns blue Brown paper test-tests for lipids-becomes translucent with lipids

57 1. Nucleotides are to nucleic acids as amino acids are to… ADNA Bpolypeptides Cproteins Dcarbohydrates

58 Objective 2.04-Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up chemical reactions Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering activation energy Enzymes can be affected by the following factors: 1. Temperature 2. pH Extreme temperature or changes in pH cause enzymes to denature (become destroyed)

59 1. enzymes are A catalysts used by living things Bcatalysts used in all reactions C chemicals used to increase activation energy D fats used by living things to help speed up chemical reactions

60 2. Enzymes A function at any temperature and pH B function at an optimum temperature and pH C function at a temperature of 98.6F and a pH of 7 D function at a temperature of 96.8F and a pH of 1-14

61 Levels of organization: Cell  tissue  organ  organ system Muscle cell  heart muscle  heart  circulatory system

62 1. A ______________ is a group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function A organ system B organ C cell D tissue

63 2. Which of the following is part of the cell theory? A are eukaryotic B are prokaryotic C have nuclei D come from other cells

64 Objective 2.01-Biomolecules BiomoleculeBuilding BlockElementsFunctionExamples CarbohydrateMonosaccharide (simple sugar) Disaccharides Polysaccharides Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Primary (fast) source of energy Sugar, starch LipidFatty acids (insoluble in water –hydrophobic) Carbon, hydrogen Insulation, protection, long term energy source Oil, wax ProteinAmino Acids (held together by peptide bonds) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen Growth and repair of tissues Speed up reactions enzymes Nucleic AcidsNucleotidesCarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus Carries hereditary information DNA/RNA

65 Cool-Down Name one part of the cell theory. What is the subunit (building block)  of proteins?  Of carbohydrates?

66 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Nucleotides are to nucleic acids as amino acids are to… A DNAB polysaccharides CproteinsD carbohydrates 2. Which of the following is part of the cell theory? A are eukaryotic B are prokaryotic C have nuclei D come from other cells

67 Agenda Warm-Up Notes: Transport and Bioenergetic Reactions Review Worksheets Online Review Games Updating portfolios Flip Flop Clean-Up Cool-Down

68 Announcements Post-Assessment  Thursday- 3 rd period  Friday- 2 nd period Final (25% of total grade)  Wednesday- 2 nd period Exemption Notices will given out on Monday!


70 Cell membranes and Transport

71 Cell membrane The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support The cell membrane is made up of two layers of lipid, which is why it is called a lipid bilayer This lipid bilayer gives the membrane a flexible structure, but also makes it a strong barrier

72 Cell Membrane The lipid bilayer contains phospholipid molecules with phosphate, a polar head, and nonpolar tails The polar heads are hydrophilic or “water loving” and the nonpolar tails are hydrophobic or “water hating”

73 Cell membranes Proteins can also be found embedded in the membrane These proteins can act as receptor proteins that receive messages from signal molecules, however, they can also act as channels and pumps that help move material across the cell membrane

74 Cell membranes

75 Cell Membranes The channels can open and close to allow material to pass in and out of the cell The pumps can pump ions or small charged molecules across the membrane

76 Cell membranes If a substance can diffuse across the membrane, the membrane is permeable to it Most biological membranes are “selectively permeable” or some substances can pass across the membrane and some cannot

77 Cell Membrane

78 Transport There are two main types of transport: 1. Passive-Does NOT require energy 2. Active-Does require energy

79 Passive Transport There are three important examples of passive transport: 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated diffusion

80 Passive Transport Diffusion is the process by which a substance moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (Concentration = how much stuff is in a given amount of liquid)

81 Passive Transport Going from high concentration to low concentration can also be called going down their concentration gradient Diffusion does not require energy, because it is an example of passive transport

82 Diffusion



85 Equilibrium Equilibrium-the concentration of the dissolved substance is the same throughout the system

86 Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis

87 Osmosis The particles cannot get through the membrane To reach equilibrium, the water must move the right

88 Osmosis

89 Passive Transport Facilitated diffusion is the diffusion of substances across a membrane that requires the help of protein channels Facilitated diffusion, just like regular diffusion, does not need energy

90 Passive Transport

91 Active Transport Active transport moves materials against their concentration gradient, or from low concentration to high concentration Active transport often uses protein pumps

92 Transport


94 Types of solutions There are 3 types of solutions: 1. Hypotonic 2. Isotonic 3. Hypertonic

95 Hypotonic 1. Hypotonic = “below strength” A cell in a hypotonic solution will swell and burst High concentration of solute inside the cell causes the water to move inside the cell

96 Isotonic 2. Isotonic = “same strength” Solute concentration is equal inside and outside of the cell Movement of water inside = movement of water outside, so cell size stays the same

97 Hypertonic 3. Hypertonic= “above strength” A cell in a hypertonic solution will shrink High concentration of solute outside the cell causes the water to move outside the cell





102 1. The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration is called… A. Active transport B. Diffusion C. Osmosis D. hypotonic

103 2. The movement of substances into and out of a cell without the use of energy is called… A. active transport B. Passive transport C. Exocytosis D. endocytosis

104 3. A type of membrane which allows only certain molecules to pass through is called...  A. permeable  B. semi-permeable  C. Active  D. porous

105 ATP and Photosynthesis Notes (Bioenergetic Reactions)

106 ATP Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth When food is broken down, energy is released as heat and energy is stored as ATP

107 ATP ATP: the basic energy source Adenosine triphosphate = (ATP) Energy is stored in ATP. Cells start with ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a phosphate is added to produce ATP. ATP is like a fully charged battery. ADP + P = ATP

108 ATP How is energy stored in ATP released? It’s a must the bond between the 2 nd and 3 rd phosphates causes energy to be released. ATP – P = ADP

109 ATP  What does the energy released from the breaking of this bond do?  ATP has enough energy to power a variety of cellular activities such as: 1. transport across the cell membrane 2. Protein formation 3. Muscle contraction

110 ATP Energy flows throughout the living world and is temporarily stored in organisms as ATP ATP can even be called “energy currency” as energy from ATP powers metabolism

111 Photosynthesis  Many autotrophs (plants and some protists) get their energy for metabolism through photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy.

112 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts and the sunlight required for the reaction is absorbed by the chloroplast pigment chlorophyll.

113 Photosynthesis Eq: carbon dioxide + water carbohydrates (sugars) + oxygen Eq: CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) +O 2 Light energy

114 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis releases oxygen gas into the air for us to breath and takes out carbon dioxide

115 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis can be dependent on temperature. Low temperatures may cause photosynthesis to occur more slowly

116 Photosynthesis The majority of the weight in trees comes from carbon. Specifically this carbon comes from taking in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.

117 ATP ATP Cycle

118 Photosynthesis


120 1. What is released when ATP is broken down into ADP and one phosphate?  A. oxygen  B. water  C. energy  D. hydrogen

121 2. In photosynthesis, plants use carbon dioxide, water and light to produce  A. carbon monoxide  B. energy  C. glucose and oxygen  D. chlorophyll

122 What form of energy is used by cells?  A. enzymes  B. cofactors  C. ATP  D.DNA

123 Cellular Respiration

124 Cellular respiration-the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

125 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration has 3 stages: 1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm 2. Kreb’s Cycle Occurs in the mitochondria 3. Electron Transport Chain Occurs in the mitochondria

126 Cellular Respiration Eq: oxygen + glucose  carbon dioxide + water + energy O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6  CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP

127 Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis produces oxygen, while Cellular Respiration produces carbon dioxide Comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration:

128 Cellular Respiration PhotosynthesisCellular Respiration FunctionEnergy captureEnergy release LocationChloroplasts Cytoplasm, then mitochondria ReactantsCO 2 and H 2 OC 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ProductsC 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 and H 2 O Equation CO 2 and H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 and H 2 O ATP formedAerobic - 36 Anaerobic-2

129 Cellular Respiration The presence of oxygen determines what follows glycolysis. When oxygen is present, the Kreb’s Cycle and ETC occurs-this is called aerobic respiration. When oxygen is not present, fermentation occurs- this is called anaerobic respiration.

130 Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Oxygen (aerobic) Kreb’s Cycle Electron Transport Chain No Oxygen (anaerobic) Fermenation

131 Cellular Respiration Oxygen=aerobic respiration=Glycolysis + Kreb’s cycle + Electron Transport Chain= more ATP No Oxygen= anaerobic respiration = Glycolysis + Fermentation = less ATP

132 Cellular Respiration The word aerobic means “in air”, therefore anaerobic means “without air”

133 Cellular Respiration Fermentation-the process of breaking down organic compounds without oxygen. The two main types of fermentation are lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation.

134 Cellular Respiration Cells produce ATP most effectively and efficiently with oxygen, therefore more ATP is produced in aerobic respiration than in anaerobic respiration.

135 Ojbective-2.02 bioenergetic reactions Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis-Takes in carbon dioxide (removes carbon dioxide from the air and uses it to make organic compounds) and releases oxygen for us to breath Sun +Carbon dioxide + water  oxygen + glucose Cellular Respiration-Takes in oxygen (removes oxygen from the air) and releases carbon dioxide Oxygen + glucose  Carbon dioxide + water + energy

136 1. Cellular respiration takes place inside  A. an animal cell only  B. a plant cell only  C. both plant and animal cells  D. neither plant or animal cells

137 2. _____________ are the main product of the cell.  A. lipids  B. amino acids  C. proteins  D. carbohydrates

138 3. Cellular energy is stored in the form of  A. chemical bonds  B. enzymes  C. membrane potential  D. protein shapes

139 4. Complex carbohydrates break down into  A. enzymes  B. amino acids  C. simple sugars  D. ATP

140 Cool-Down 1. What happens to a cell in an isotonic solution (the concentrations inside and out of the cell are equal.) 2. What are the reactants and products for both photosynthesis and cellular respiration?


142 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. The mitochondrion of the cell A has only one membrane B has no membrane C is when photosynthesis occurs D is where cellular respiration occurs 2. The storage of hereditary information in a eukaryotic cell is in the A cytoplasmB nucleus C centriolesD lysosomes

143 Agenda Warm-Up Notes Review Worksheets Practice Multiple Choice Questions Clean-Up Cool-Down

144 If you borrowed a textbook, return it before Friday!! Post-Assessment

145 DAY 4: GENETICS EOC Review

146 The cell cycle is the sequence of stages through which a cell passes between one cell division to the next.

147 Cell cycle: 1. G1-first growth 2. S-DNA replication 3. G2-second growth, prepares for mitsois 4. M-mitosis 5. C-cytokinesis

148 1. Chromosomes line up on spindles in the center of a cell during  A. anaphase  B. telophase  C. prophase  D. metaphase

149 2. When preparing for cell division, the chromatin condenses and becomes a  A. gene  B. chromosome  C. protein  D. codon

150 3. Mitosis generates  A. daughter cells identical to the mother cell  B. many reproductive cells  C. diseased cells  D. gametes

151 Most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase = G1, S, G2 S phase  DNA replication occurs

152 Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction. Mitosis includes one division that produces two cells that identical to one another and to the parent. There is no crossing over and no variation created because the cells are identical. Mitosis includes four phases:

153 Prophase-chromosomes become visible and the spindle forms Metaphase-chromosomes move to the center of the cell and line up along the equator Anaphase-centromeres divide and the two chromatids move to opposite poles attached to spindle fibers Telophase-nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes at each pole, the chromosomes uncoil, and the spindle dissolves

154 Meiosis is a form of sexual reproduction. Meiosis includes two divisions that produce four cells that are different from one another and to the parent. There is crossing over and variation created because the cells are different. Meiosis includes eight phases:

155 1. What process of reproduction brings with it the greatest potential for genetic variability?  A. mitosis  B. meiosis  C. cell differentiation  D. interkinesis

156 Prophase I-crossing over occurs-chromosomes become visible and the spindle forms Metaphase I-chromosomes move to the center of the cell and line up along the equator Anaphase I-centromeres divide and the two chromatids move to opposite poles attached to spindle fibers Telophase I-nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes at each pole, the chromosomes uncoil, and the spindle dissolves Prophase II 6. Metaphse II 7. Anaphse II8. Telophase II

157 Meiosis produces the gametes  sperm and egg. The sperm and egg are haploid, which means they contain half the number of chromosomes. When sperm are formed all 4 cells form sperm. When eggs are formed 1 cell becomes an egg and 3 become polar bodies. Mitosis produces the body cells, which are diploid, which means they have a full set of chromosomes. All body cells besides the egg and sperm are called somatic cells.

158 Haploid-half the number of chromosomes Diploid-full set of chromosomes Before chromosomes form, the DNA is in long strands known as chromatin

159 The spindle fibers are the hairs that pull the chromosomes apart. These spindle fibers are made by organelles called centrioles. Chromosomes (DNA wrapped in proteins) are made up of two identical sister chromatids. These chromatids are held together at the center by the centromere.

160 Cytokinesis, or the division of cytoplasm, follows mitosis to split the cells in half. Cytokinesis in animals occurs by pinching the cytoplasm, while cytokinesis in plants occurs by forming a cell plate between the two nuclei. This cells plate will later become the cell wall.

161 MitosisMeiosis Asexual or Sexual?AsexualSexual Number of divisions12 Number of cells formed24 Identical or different from parent Identicaldifferent Crossing over?NoYes Genetic variation?NoYes

162 1. all body cells, except the sperm and ova are _______________ cells.  A. germ  B. reproductive  C. somatic  D. spindle

163 2. The type of nuclear division that produces gametes is  A. meiosis  B. cytokinesis  C. interphase  D. mitosis

164 3. When DNA is in long strands prior to calling, it is in the form of  A. chromosomes  B. centromeres  C. chromatin  D. chromatids

165 4. A type of nuclear division that takes place in somatic cells is  A. meiosis  B. cytokinesis  C. interphase  D. mitosis

166 5. During interphase, the cell  A. splits its homologous pairs  B. grows, replicates DNA, and prepares for cell division  C. divides the number of chromosomes in half  D. becomes separated by a cellular membrane

167 6. In fertilization, gametes fuse to form a  A. embryo  B. soatic cell  C. zygote  D. reproductive cell

168 Gregor Mendel-father of geneticsMendel used pea plants because peas are… 1. Are easy to grow 2. Produce a lot of offspring 3. Mature quickly

169 TRAIT-a characteristic GENETICS-the study of (heredity) how traits are passed from one generation to the next HEREDITY-the passage of traits from one generation to the next

170 GENE-the factors that control traits (found in the DNA) Ex: gene for hair color ALLELES-different forms of a gene Ex: allele for brown hair, allele for black hair

171 DOMINANT-allele that is expressed when in the presence of a recessive allele (TT or Tt = tall) RECESSIVE-allele that is expressed only when homozygous (tt = short) Blue (B) is dominant to gold (b). BB =blue Bb=blue bb=gold bB= blue

172 HOMOZYOUS-organism with two identical alleles for the same traitEx: TT or tt HETEROZYGOUS-organism with two different alleles for the same trait Ex: Tt PHENOTYPE-physical characteristics Ex: Tall, Brown GENOTYPE-the genetic makeup Ex: TT, Tt, Hh (the letters!)

173 PUNNETT SQUARES-chart showing the possible combination of alleles in a cross Independent assortment-each trait is inherited independent of other traits (chance) Ex: hair color is inherited independent of height Segregation-in meiosis two alleles separate so that each gamete receives only one form of the gene from each parent Ex: Mom is heterozygous for brown hair B = brown, b = blonde. Each of her eggs either has a B or a b not both!

174 Test Cross-A cross between an unknown and a homozygous recessive Incomplete Dominance-When a combination of the dominant and recessive creates a new phenotype. Codominance-when two alleles are expressed together Polygenic traits-traits that are the result of the interaction of multiple genes Blood types-there are four blood types  A, B, O, and AB  use I alleles

175 1. The combination of alleles inherited is called the  A. heterozygote  B. phenotype  C. genotype  D. punnett square

176 2. The expression of traits is called the  A. phenotype  B. genotype  C. mutation  D. allele

177 3. If an individual inherits one dominant allele and one recessive allele, the genotype is  A. homozygous  B. recessive  C. heterozygous  D. phenotype

178 4. If an individual inherits two of the same allele, either both dominant or both recessive for a particular characteristic, the individual’s genotype is  A. heterozygous  B. phenotypic  C. homozygous  D. mutated


180 Humans have 46 chromosomes. Sperm and egg cells have 23 chromosomes. Sperm + egg = fertilization- which forms a zygote. A karyotype is a picture of your chromosomes and they can sometimes show chromosome abnormalities and the sex of the individual. XY = male and XX = female

181 A pedigree is a diagram the shows the inheritance of traits in a family. If a pedigree shows mostly males with a certain trait, that trait is most likely sex- linked. Examples of sex-linked traits include hemophilia and colorblindness. Individuals that carry a trait and can pass it on to their offspring, but do not have any symptoms of the disease (they are physically normal) are called carriers.

182 DNA fingerprinting-match up pictures Cloning-creation of genetically identical organisms Gene therapy-replacing bad genes with good ones to help cure diseases Genetically modified crops-crops that have been genetically changed to become better ex: crops that are resistant to insects

183 1. A person with a defect in a gene that codes for a specific protein could be a candidate for which of the following?  A. cloning  B. DNA fingerprinting  C. gene therapy  D. protein injections

184 2. Strawberries have been created to resist the harmful effects of frost. This is an application of what?  A. genetic engineering  B. gene therapy  C. DNA fingerprinting  D. cloning

185 Electrophoresis-separates molecules based on size Human genome project-wanted to identify all human genes and determine all of the base pair sequences in all human chromosomes

186 Chromosomes-DNA wrapped in proteins Centromere-holds chromatids together to form the chromosomes Homologous chromosomes-matched pairs of chromosomes Genes-pieces of the DNAmolecule that code for specific proteins

187 1. A male has the genotype XY. Which parent is responsible for giving the son the Y chromosome?  A. mother  B. father  C. both mother and father  D. neither mother nor the mother

188 2. What is the difference between co-dominance and incomplete dominance?  A. Co-dominant traits are blended and incompletely dominant traits appear together  B. Co-dominant traits are recessive and incompletely dominant traits appear together  C. Co-dominant traits appear together and incompletely dominant traits are blended  D. Co-dominant traits are recessive and incompletely dominant traits are blended

189 DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid. It is double stranded, contains the sugar deoxyribose, and has the bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine. DNA has a double helix, or twisted ladder shape and it is made up nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of three things: 1. Phosphate 2. Sugar 3. Nitrogen base

190 The phosphate and sugar make up the backbone or rail of the nucleic acid ladder and the nitrogen bases provide the steps of the ladder. The nitrogen bases also provide the code for proteins.

191 DNA replication = copying the DNA. DNA replication is semi-conservative. Each molecule of DNA contains one new strand and one old strand.

192 RNA is ribonucleic acid. RNA is used to translate the code from the DNA molecule into protein. It is single stranded, contains the sugar ribose, and has the bases A, G, C, and U.

193 There are 3 types of RNA: Messenger RNA-carries information from nucleus to ribosome-made by RNA polymerase Ribosomal RNA-makes up the ribosome Transfer RNA-contains anticodon-brings amino acids to ribosome to assemble the protein

194 The flow of information in genetics is as follows: DNA  RNA  Proteins DNA  RNA is transcription and RNA  Proteins is translation. Translation occurs as the ribosome reads three-letter codes called codons. These codons code for specific amino acids that link up to form a protein.

195 When DNA is copied in a process called DNA replication, a complimentary strand must be made, and this is done by matching A (adenine) with T (thymine) and C (cytosine) with G (guanine). These nitrogen bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. DNA replication must occur before the cell divides. So the DNA strand the matches: AGTAC is TCATG and the strand that matches TTAAGGCC is AATTCCGG.

196 However, if we are transcribing from DNA to RNA, we must replace T with U. Therefore, the RNA that matches the DNA strand ATTGCAG is UAACGUC.

197 1. Protein synthesis begins with the manufacture of a molecule of  A. mRNA  B. rRNA  C tRNA  D nucleotide

198 2. Ribosomes are made of A mRNA B. rRNA C tRNA D protein

199 3. Proteins are made up of polypeptide chains. Polypeptide chains are composed of A. mRNA B. rRNA C. tRNA D. Amino acids

200 4. Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries  A. the mRNA to the ribosome  B. the nucleotide bases to the mRNA  C. an amino acid to the ribosome  D. an amino acid to the cytoplasm

201 5. Which of the following is the first step in protein synthesis?  A. tRNA bonds to an amino acid in the cytoplasm  B. DNA unravels to expose an mRNA segment  C. DNA unravels to expose a gene segment  D. mRNA bonds to tRNA

202 A mutation is a change in a genetic sequence. Mutation can occur as insertions, deletions, or inversions. Whole pieces of DNA can be added or subtracted, and when this happens the protein sequence changes as well, which leads to a malfunctioning protein and sometimes disease.

203 Insertion  AGCTTC  AGCAAAATTC (+AAAA) Deletion  AGCTTC  AGTC (-CT) Inversion  AGCTTC  ATTCGC

204 Nondisjunction-when chromosomes fail to separate Three copies of chromosome 21 = down syndrome  caused by nondisjunction

205 1. Down’s syndrome is caused by  A. hemophilia  B. thyroid disease  C. chromosome mutation-nondisjunction  D. injury during pregnancy


207 Darwin-came up with theory of natural selection- mechanism of evolution-1859 published On the Origin of Species

208 Jean Baptiste Lamarck, believed that physical features increased in size because of use or decreased in size because of disuse. His theories suggested that the organism’s life determined what traits got passed onto offspring.

209 A heavy influence on Darwin’s theories was the book Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell, which explained that the surface of the Earth changed slowly over many years. Another influence was the work of Thomas Malthus, who wrote that human populations can increase faster than the food supply.

210 Populations breed rapidly  But populations don’t grow unchecked  Most organisms in a population die without breeding

211 EVOLUTION-the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. EVOLUTION-the change in the gene pool over time FITNESS-the physical traits and behaviors that enable organisms to survive and reproduce in their environment

212 COMMON DESCENT-all species have common ancestors ADAPTATION-process that enables organisms to become better suited to their environments Adaptation TAKE PLACE OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME!!! (EX: Darwin’s Finches)Only surviving (well adapted) organisms pass on their traits.

213 1. The capsid coating on a virus serves to  A. identify the capsid of another virus to breed  B. identify a receptor site on a prospective host cell  C. identify necessary food items in the host cell  D. assist in locomotion of the virus in the host cell

214 2. Ideas about evolution  A. have already been thought  B. are perfect and need no refinement  C. may change based on new data  D. only involve animals

215 The process by which new species form is called speciation. Geographic isolation plays a large role in speciation. Each environment is different with different pressures and challenges. organisms to adapt and change in response to their specific environment. If these populations become different enough they may even form separate species-which cannot interbreed.

216 ARTIFICIAL SELECTION-Humans make sure that only individuals with more desirable traits produce offspring NATURAL SELECTION-The process in nature where the most fit organisms produce more offspring

217 NS: If variation of a trait within a population has a genetic basis, and some variants have greater survival and reproduction, then, over time, the favored trait will predominate in the population. Survival of the Fittest-Individuals whose traits are well suited to the environment survive and reproduce. Those who aren’t suited, die!!! (or leave fewer offspring)

218 On what does natural selection operate? Phenotypic variation What is the cause of phenotypic variation? GENETIC MUTATIONS and CROSSING OVER Gene pool-a common group of genes shared by a population

219 1. If two organisms evolve in response to each other, which evolutionary pattern is demonstrated?  A. natural selection  B. gradualistic method  C. co-evolution  D. adaptive radiation

220 2. Natural selection states that individuals  A. with adaptive traits are more likely to survive  B. on the bottom level of a hierarchy have the greatest reproductive success  C. demonstrating altruistic behavior are the ones with the most mutations  D. remain unchanged over a period of time

221 What happens if two species share the same niche for too long? Extinction or Evolution Divergent Evolution-(aka Adaptive Radiation) different species diverge from a common ancestor CONVERGENT EVOLUTION-creation of organisms that are similar in appearance and behavior (bats, birds, butterflies)

222 Relative Dating—lower levels of rock are older than higher levels (not exact) Absolute Dating—the actual age of a sample using radiometric dating According to scientists, the earth is about 4.5 billion years old.

223 Fossil Record- represents the preserved collective history of the earth’s organisms. Present-Day Evidence for Evolution: DNA Similarity Biogeography Homologous Structures Vestigial Structures Embryos

224 Biogeography-The study of patterns of geographical distribution of plants and animals across Earth, and the changes in those distributions over time

225 Homologous structures-parts in different organisms that develop from the same ancestral body part Ex: wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale Vestigial structures- structures that have little or no purpose in the present, but did in the past Examples: Human appendix, Tonsils, Small vertebrae in humans, Leg bones in snakes

226 EMBRYO-organisms in the early stages of development.

227 1. viruses  A. can eat and metabolize food  B. can reproduce only when inside a host cell  C. can reproduce on their own at anytime  D. eat and metabolize food only when inside a host cell

228 2. Certain insects and plants evolving together are examples of…  A. co-evolution  B. convergent evolution  C. divergent evolution  D. parallel evolution

229 3. The human appendix was once useful, but no longer has a function. The appendix is an example of…  A. a homologous structure  B. a vestigial structure  C. a vital organ  D. a mutation

230 4. evidence of evolution includes  A. cave drawings, ancient stories, and ceremonial rites  B. homologous structures, DNA, and embryonic evidence  C. eukaryotes, symbiosis, and competition  D. nephrons, antibodies, and homeostasis


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