2A runner is competing in a 10km track meet and just before completing the race, the runner is nearly out of breath and the energy needed to finish the race. Which cell structure is most affected by the lack of energy?A. NucleusB. RibosomeC. MitochondriaD. Plasma Membrane
4What can be used to distinguish between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? A. Only eukaryotic cells come from preexisting cells.B. Only prokaryotic cells are the smallest unit of living organisms.C. Only prokaryotic cells contain ribosomes.D. Only eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles.
5D. Only eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles.
6Explain how many of the cells in an individual can be very different from one another in terms of structure and function, even though they descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic material.
7DNA is the same in every cell within an organism which is obtained when the egg cell and sperm cell unite. Cell differentiate as different parts of the DNA is turned on and turned off. The parts that are turned on and off have to do with the environmental influence of cells around the cell
8Nerve cells and bone cells are specialized cells that descend from the same single cell (fertilized egg). Which statement best explains how each type of cell results in a different structure with a specialized function?A. Nerve cells and bone cells begin with the same structure; however, bone cells harden overtime.B. Nerve cells and bone cells receive different DNA that determines the structure and function that each will perform.C. Nerve cells and bone cells receive the same DNA; however only specific parts of the DNA are activated in each cell.D. Nerve cells and bone cells receive the same DNA; however, bone cells receive more to make the protective outer covering.
9C. Nerve Cells and Bone cells receive te same DNA; however only specific parts of the DNA are activated in each cell
10A. More molecules will be on side B than side A. The diagram below shows the same type of molecule on side A and side B. Over time what is the likely result?Side BA. More molecules will be on side B than side A.B. More molecules will be on side A than side B.C. Equal number of molecules will be on side A&B.D. All of the molecules will move towards the membrane.Side A
11c. Equal number of molecules will be on Side A & B
12A student observes a typical onion root tip where many of the cells have just successfully completed mitosis. Which statement best explains what must have happened to result in cells that only have half as many chromosomes as all of the other cells in the same section of the tip?A. The parent cell completed mitosis after undergoing interphase.B. The parent cell completed mitosis after undergoing cytokinesis.C. The parent cell completed mitosis before undergoing cytokinesis.D. The parent cell completed mitosis before undergoing interphase.
13D. The parent cell completed mitosis before undergoing interphase
14Cell cycle checkpoints are proteins that monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. Which statement best describes what would most likely happen if a cell is permitted to progress to mitosis without the preparation stage of interphase?A. The new cells would have all of the organelles except the nucleus.B. The new cells would have all of the organelles except the mitochondria.C. The number of chromosomes in the daughter cells would be the same as the number of chromosomes in the parent cell.D. The number of chromosomes in the daughter cells would be different from the number of chromosomes in the parent cell.
15D. The number of chromosomes in the daughter cells would be different from the number of chromosomes in the parent cell.
16A single celled organism is placed in fresh water A single celled organism is placed in fresh water. The contractile vacuole pumps excess water out of the cell. How does this action help the organism survive?A. It helps the organism maintain a stable internal environment.B. It helps the organism communicate with other cells.C. It helps the organism reproduce.D. It helps the organism convert energy.
17a. It Helps the organism maintain a stable internal environment
18The diagram shows a glass container covered with plastic. The diagram shows a thriving ecosystem. Analyze the flow of energy and cycling of matter between the environment and the organisms.Use your analysis of the system and briefly teel how carbon is related to the flow of energy and cycling of matter between the environment and the organisms.In your answer include the following information:Name the carbon compound that is exchanged between pants and their environment and tell how it is significant to maintaining the health a stability of the ecosystem.Describe how plants use carbon from the atmosphere to create more complex molecules.Describe how animals that eat plants change these molecules and return carbon to the atmosphere.Describe the direction of flow of energy through the ecosystem.
19Radiant energy from the light allows plants, which are autotrophs or producers to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose, an organic form of chemical energy, and oxygen which is released into the air through the stomates underneath the leaf. In plants and plant-like protists photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast. The process of photosynthesis allows not only the plants to have food but also heterotrophs to have a chemical form of energy, glucose, because they must consume there food. Because only 10% of the energy moves to the next trophic level due to organisms high usage of energy in metabolism and maintaining homeostasis, there always must be more autotrophs than heterotrophs for an ecosystem to be in balance.Heterotrophs, autotrophs, and decomposers (a type of heterotroph) must then break down glucose to make energy through the process of cellular respiration. Aerobic respiration, which requires oxygen made in photosynthesis is the most efficient form of respiration because glucose is broken all the way down into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic organisms. Anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is not present and only releases 2ATP. The carbon dioxide that is released by the animal is then diffused into the leaf so that more photosynthesis can take place. Decomposers in the soil break down dead organisms releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as well and recycling carbon.
20If more snails are added to the ecosystem, what effect would that have on the plants in the container?
21Because snails are consumers, they would eat the plants decreasing the population. If two many snails are added to the ecosystem, food resources which are the plants would become limiting factors. Competition would occur between the snails. Carrying capacity would be reached in the ecosystem.
22A. Adaptations in response to different environmental factors. CharacteristicsInsect-Pollinated PlantsWind and Water Pollinated PlantsAppearanceOften colorfulPlainReproductive PartsSometimes hiddenExposedThe differences in the above characteristics of flower species most likely resulted fromA. Adaptations in response to different environmental factors.B. Parasitism which did not harm the host species.C. Defensive mutations allowing concealment of species.D. Mutualism between different plant species.
23A. Adaptations in response to different environmental factors.
24During extreme conditions like drought or high heat, frogs will dig a hole in the soil and bury themselves in the soil and bury themselves. Sometimes frogs will shed a layer of skin, wrap it around themselves for more protection, and wait for rain. How does this adaptation aid the frogs?A. This adaptation aids in the survival of frogs.B. This adaptation attracts other frogs for mating.C. This adaptation helps the frog find food.D. This adaptation aids in the growth of frogs.
25A. This adaptation aids in the survival of frogs.
26Darwin’s studies of finches on the Galapagos Islands suggest that the finches’ differences in beak structure were most directly due toA. Acquired characteristics in the parent finchesB. Mating behaviors of the different finch speciesC. The size of the island where the finches liveD. Adaptations of the finches to different environments
27d. Adaptations of the finches to different environments.
28Below is a picture of a Viceroy and a Monarch butterfly. To birds, the Monarch butterfly looks like the Viceroy butterfly. The Monarch butterfly is distasteful to birds; however, the Viceroy butterfly is not. Once a bird tastes a Monarch butterfly, it will not attempt to eat a Viceroy butterfly. How is this adaptation an advantage to the Viceroy butterfly?A. This adaptation aids in the survival of the Viceroy butterfly.B. This adaptation attracts other Viceroy butterflies for mating.C. This adaptation helps the Viceroy butterfly find food.D. This adaptation aids in the growth of the Viceroy butterfly.
29a. This adaptation aids in the survival of the viceroy butterfly.
30Classify the relationship between flowering plants and bees, where the plant provides the bee with food and the bee spreads pollen for the plant.A. CommensalismB. MutualismC. ParasitismD. Predation
32The graph below represents the changes in deer population on an island over time. Identify major areas on the graph that represent population changes and discuss reasons theses changes have occurred.
33Initially population growth on the island is slow even though there are plenty of resources because the number of deer reproducing is low. Exponential growth occurs during the steep sloped section of the graph. During this time there are plenty of biotic and abiotic factors to sustain the population. The graph reaches a peak in which resources such as food, water, space, even disease impact the population. Competition occurs because the organisms have the same habitat and niche. The graph levels off at carrying capacity, the highest number of organisms that an ecosystem can maintain.
34Which of the following has contributed most to the overall warming of the Earth’s atmosphere? A. The burning of fossil fuelsB. The depletion of the ozoneC. The occurrence of acid rainD. The melting of the polar ice caps.
36What benefit does recycling provide for the biosphere?
37Recycling allows reuse of limited resources Recycling allows reuse of limited resources. Without recycling there would be extensive amounts of trash which are problematic as well as lack of resources like aluminum, plastic, and glass which are non-biodegradable. Biodegradable materials allow carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous to be returned to the soil and atmosphere by fungi and bacteria, enriching soil allowing for better producer growth.
38If a strand of DNA is CTGCAT, what is the sequence of nucleotides in the complementary strand? A. GACGTAB. CTGCATC. AGTACGD. GACGUA
40This chart represents amino acids that are coded from different combinations of mRNA codons. Which amino acid sequence can be coded from the DNA sequence CAG TAG CGA?A. Valine-Isoleucine-GlycineB. Valine-Aspartic Acid-AlanineC. Valine-Isoleucine-AlanineD. Valine-Phenylalanine-Alanine
42Which of the following changes in DNA is likely to have the greatest effect on the resulting peptide?A. In a strand of DNA, one C is changed to a TB. A “G” is inserted at the beginning of a geneC. A “G” is inserted at the end of a geneD. In a strand of DNA, one T is changed to a C
44Why is the process of meiosis important to sexual reproduction? A. It provides genetic variation in offspring.B. It doubles the number of chromosomes in offspring.C. It reduces the number of alleles from parent to offspring.D. It produces a hybrid of all genetic traits in offspring.
46A parent with Type A blood and a parent with Type O blood have a child A parent with Type A blood and a parent with Type O blood have a child. Which of the following is a possible genotype of their offspring?A. IAIAB. IAIBC. IBiD. ii
48Why do identical twins become less alike as they grow older? A. Because the environment plays a role in influencing individualsB. Because the genetic makeup of the individuals changesC. Because the individuals’ cells undergo mitosisD. Because the number of recessive alleles exceeds the number of dominant alleles.
49A. Because the environment plays a role in influencing individuals
50Himalayan rabbits carry the C gene, which is required for the development of pigments in the fur, skin, and eyes. Specifically, the C gene is maximally active from 15ᵒC to 25ᵒC(Figure 1)and inactive above 35ᵒC (Figure 2). This gene expression produces rabbits with a distinctive coat coloring.Below is a picture of two Himalayan rabbits.Why do these Himalayan rabbits exhibit different colors of fur?A. The environment determines whether the gene for cuf pigmentationis expressed.B. The genetic makeup of the rabbits changeC. The rabbit’s color changed in order to attract a mate.D. The rabbit’s cells undergo mitosis.
51A. The environment determines whether the gene for fur pigmentation is expressed
52The diagram shows DNA fingerprinting from a daughter horse, the mother horse, and four possible fathers. Which horse is most likely the father?Horse 1Horse 2Horse 3Horse 4
54How is the process of gene therapy used to treat cystic fibrosis? A. By replacing the abnormal gene with a copy of the normal gene.B. By removing a portion of the abnormal geneC. By adding a nitrogen base to the beginning of the DNA sequenceD. By inducing a mutation.
55a. By replacing the abnormal gene with a copy of the normal gene
56Should there be laws to regulate stem cell research Should there be laws to regulate stem cell research? Justify your answer.
57Different things you can discuss would be embryonic vs Different things you can discuss would be embryonic vs. adult stem cells, Potential for disease because of not being able to control the cell cycle once inserted into the new organism, do your stem cells belong to once they are in the lab, are they available for research at this point, are they available for use to people that you are a close match to
58Species A and Species B share similarities in DNA sequence Species A and Species B share similarities in DNA sequence. What would this suggest about their evolutionary relationship?A. Species A developed before species B.B. Species A and B share s recent common ancestor.C. Species A and B are unrelated.D. Species B developed before species A.
59B. Species A and B share a recent common ancestor.
60During the Industrial Revolution, there were two variations of English Peppered Moths, those with light color and those with dark color. The soot from the factories covered the trees. Data was collected to measure the percentage of each type of moth in the area. It was noted that the percentage of dark colored moths increased over time, while the percentage of light colored moths decreased. What is the likely explanation for this change?A. The presence of a mutation changed the color of the English Peppered Moths.B. The presence of the dark colored variation increased the likelihood for survival for the English Peppered MothsC. The presence of the light colored variation increased the likelihood for survival of the English Peppered MothsD. The presence of an acquired trait changed the color of the English Peppered Moths.
61B. The presence of the dark-colored variation increased the likelihood for survival of the English-peppered moths.
62Why are incidences of sickle cell anemia more common in areas known for high occurrence of malaria?
63Sickle cell anemia is more common in areas known to have malaria because of stabilizing selection. People that are carriers of the trait for sickle cell, or are heterozygous for the trait, do not get malaria because the sporozoan protist will not grow in sickled cells. When two heterozygous individuals are crossed the offspring have a 25% chance of getting sickle cell, a 50% chance of being immune to malaria and a 25% chance of not having sickle cell but being able to get malaria.
64A researcher sprays a new pesticide on thousands of insects of the same species that live in a large field. A few of the insects survive. What can be concluded by the researcher?A. The species of insects will likely become resistant to the pesticide.B. The ideal interval between the first and second applicztio s of the pesticide should be increased.C. The pesticide has no effect on the species.D. The concentration of the pesticide was too weak.
65A. The species of insects will likely become resistant to the pesticide.
66How did organisms like the euglena, which are heterotrophic and autotrophic change the classification system?
67Protists fall into 3 categories: animal like , plant like and fungal like. Euglena are unicellular and eukaryotic so they fall into the kingdom protista. Because they have flagella and are heterotrophic, they are more like the animal like protists which have a phylum of their own. Because they have chloroplasts and can photosynthesize they are also autotrophic which makes them more plantlike which has a phylum all its own. They have to have their own class because they take on characteristics of both organisms but because they move, they are listed as a protozoan.
68Using the key provided, drawing three can be identified as which bird? 1a. Larger than 40cm………………………………………..21b. Not larger than 40 cm……………………………………42a. Hooked beak……………………………………………..32b. Beak not hooked………………………………………….Phasianus colchicus3a. Feathers over eyes that look like ear……………………....Bubo virgianus3b. No feathers that look like ears…………………………Haliaeetus leucocephalu4a. Head one solid color of feathers…………………………….54b. Head not solid color of feathers ………………………… Colinus virginianus5a. Bill Flat…………………………………………………….Anus platyrhynchos5b. Bill pointes……………………………………………… Archiliachus colubris