3Question #1 carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids proteins Enzymes are classified as which of the following biological organic compounds?carbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsproteins
4Question #2 cell wall mitochondrion plasma membrane vacuole Some organelles have their own DNA that is distinct from the cell’s nuclear DNA. This is true of which organelle?cell wallmitochondrionplasma membranevacuole
5Question #3 egg embryo sperm zygote Pollen in plants is most similar to which type of cell in humans?eggembryospermzygote
6Question #4Protein synthesis occurs at which of the structures shown below? See figure on paper.IIIIIIIV
7Question #5 to maintain constant internal environment at a pH of 10 Why do cells need buffering agents?to maintain constant internal environment at a pH of 10to minimize the changes in pH of the internal environmentto function properly in an extremely basic internal environmentto function properly in an extremely acid internal environment
8Question #6 The cells survive best under acidic conditions. Consider this graph. Which statement best summarizes the information in the graph?The cells survive best under acidic conditions.The cells survive best under basic conditions.These cells would survive better in distilled water.The survival of these cells does not affect pH.
9Question #7 Water left the lettuce cells by diffusion. Placing wilted lettuce in cold water will make it crisp again. Which statement best describes what happens to restore the lettuce to its original condition?Water left the lettuce cells by diffusion.Water entered the cells of the lettuce by osmosis.Osmosis caused salts to enter the lettuce cells.Salts in the leaf caused water to leave the cells.
10Question #8 diffusion facilitated diffusion osmosis active transport Which cell process will move substances against a concentration gradient?diffusionfacilitated diffusionosmosisactive transport
11Question #9 enzyme fatty acid lipid starch Individuals who lack lactase are unable to break down the sugar lactose. Which term best describes lactase?enzymefatty acidlipidstarch
12Question #10 aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration chemosynthesis The bacteria that cause tetanus can survive in a puncture wound that has healed on the outer surface of the skin. Through what process do these bacteria acquire the energy they need to survive?aerobic respirationanaerobic respirationchemosynthesisphotosynthesis
13Question #11 aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration fermentation In terms of ATP production, which process results in the most stored energy?aerobic respirationanaerobic respirationfermentationphotosynthesis
14Question #12 Only aerobic respiration involves fermentation. Which statement best distinguishes aerobic from anaerobic respiration?Only aerobic respiration involves fermentation.Only anaerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria.Only aerobic respiration requires oxygen.Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide.
15Question #13Which most accurately describes the difference in ATP production between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration?Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration.Anaerobic respiration produces more ATP than aerobic respiration.Only anaerobic respiration produces measureable amounts of ATP.Anaerobic and aerobic respiration produce the same amount of ATP.
17A segment of a DNA strand has the following bases: TAC GAT Question #1A segment of a DNA strand has the following bases: TAC GATWhat is the complementary strand of DNA?UAG CAUTAG CATATG CTAAUG CUA
18Question #2 book: publisher truck: factory key: lock baker: pie Which relationship is most similar to the relationship below?tRNA:ribosomebook: publishertruck: factorykey: lockbaker: pie
19Question #3 replication nondisjunction transcription translation Before a cell goes through either mitosis or meiosis, which process must be carried out by the DNA in the nucleus?replicationnondisjunctiontranscriptiontranslation
20Question #4 cloning budding genetic stability genetic variation Sexual reproduction provides for what to occur?cloningbuddinggenetic stabilitygenetic variation
21Question #5 genetic recombination Which would most likely favor species survival in changing environmental conditions?genetic recombinationenergy involvement in gamete productionlength of life cyclenumber of offspring produced
22Question #6 mitosis meiosis spermatogenesis oogenesis Which term best describes the type of cell division in which parent cells produce daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cells?mitosismeiosisspermatogenesisoogenesis
23Question #7 cytoplasmic division environmental changes mutation What is the primary cause of variation in the offspring of sexually reproducing organisms?cytoplasmic divisionenvironmental changesmutationrecombination of alleles
24Question #8 meiosis budding mitosis regeneration Which is responsible for most genotypic and phenotypic variation among humans?meiosisbuddingmitosisregeneration
25Question #9 to determine the phenotypes of the parents In genetics research, what is the purpose of a test cross?to determine the phenotypes of the parentsto determine the genotypes of the parentsto determine whether or not two parents could produce viable offspringto determine how many offspring can be produced by two parents.
26Question #10 BBxbb Bbxbb BBxBb BbxBb Several matings between the same male black guinea pig and female brown guinea pig produce a total of 12 brown and 14 black guinea pigs. If black is dominant and brown is recessive, what are the genotypes of the parents?BBxbbBbxbbBBxBbBbxBb
27Question #11Most sex-linked, recessive traits- including hemophilia and color blindness-appear in males. This phenomenon is best explained by which statement?Males have an X chromosome with dominant genes.Most of the genes on the X and Y chromosomes of males are recessive.In males, the recessive sex-linked genes appear only on the Y chromosome.In males, the Y chromosome lacks the genes needed to mask the recessive genes on the X chromosome.
28Question #12Huntington’s disease is a dominant trait. What are the chances that a child will develop Huntington’s disease if one parent is heterozygous and the other is normal?0 out of 41 out of 42 out of 43 out of 4
29Question #13 0 red : 4 pink : 0 white 3 red : 0 pink : 1 white Some flowers show incomplete dominance. If RR = white and R’R’ = red, which phenotypic ratio would be expected in the offspring of two pink flowers?1red : 2 pink : 1 white0 red : 4 pink : 0 white3 red : 0 pink : 1 white4 red : 0 pink : 0 white
30Question #14 haploid heterozygous homozygous A couple has five children, all with blood type A. The mother’s blood type is O, and the father’s blood type is A. Based on this information, which describes the most probable genotype of the father?diploidhaploidheterozygoushomozygous
31Question #15A karyotype of a human female shows that she has only one sex chromosome. Which genotype would represent her genetic condition?XOXXXXYXYY
32Question #16 Suspect B Suspect C Suspect D The diagram below represents DNA fingerprints which are the result of gel electrophoresis done on several DNA samples found at a crime scene. (See figure) Which suspect is linked to the crime scene by the DNA analysis?Suspect ASuspect BSuspect CSuspect D
33Question #17 They had a few plants that were resistant to the disease. A plant nursery only grew one type of tomato plant. All of their tomato plants died from the same disease. What was most likely true of the tomato plant population?They had a lot of resistance to disease.They had a few plants that were resistant to the disease.They had too much variation in their genes.They had little variation in their genes.
34Question #18Most individuals of a certain species of bird have medium-length tails, but tail length ranges within the species from very short to very long. If a new predator arrives that preferred birds with medium-length tails, which graph describes the most likely result?
35Question #19 They lived on the ground. A paleontologist is comparing the fossilized remains of two primates. Both animals had a prehensile tail. What can be concluded from this evidence?They were not related.They lived on the ground.They evolved from a common ancestor.They had bipedal locomotion.
36Question #20 Resources become limited over long periods of time. Variation within species was important to the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution. Which statement dies individual variation help explain?Resources become limited over long periods of time.Populations often increase rapidly and without warning.Competition is fierce among members of different species.Some organisms survive and reproduce better than others.
37Question #21Variety within a species is most likely to result from which situation?severe weather conditions that might occur, such as hurricanes and blizzards.adaptation to local environmental characteristics by isolated populations of the species.the extinction of competing species over a broad range of habitatssex-specific coloring differences
38Question #22 absence of vestigial structures Which could be considered biochemical evidence of an evolutionary relationship?absence of vestigial structurespresence of embryonic gill slitssimilar anatomical structurespresence of identical proteins
39Question #23 similarity in behavior similarity in DNA Which is the best evidence of an evolutionary relationship between two organisms?similarity in behaviorsimilarity in DNAsimilarity in habitatsimilarity in niche
41Question #1 Bubo virginianus Haliaeetus leucocephalus Using the key provided, drawing III can be identified as which bird?Bubo virginianusHaliaeetus leucocephalusColinus virginianusAnas platyrhynchos
42Question #2 Cell A Cell B Cell C Cell D Which of the cells characterized in the chart below is prokaryotic?Cell ACell BCell CCell D
43Question #3 Animal Fungi Plant Protist An organism is eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, and has a cell wall. To which kingdom does it belong?AnimalFungiPlantProtist
44Question #4 endocrine and skeletal endocrine and digestive In order to maintain good health, a person’s normal glucose level must remain within a given range. Which two systems control the blood glucose level?endocrine and skeletalendocrine and digestivecirculatory and lymphaticdigestive and lymphatic
45Question #5 increasing surface area reducing transpiration The structure of the digestive tube in the grasshopper and earthworm consists of many folds. The folds affect the efficiency of food absorption by which of the following functions?increasing surface areareducing transpirationincreasing hormone secretionreducing storage of sugar
46Question #6 ferns mosses angiosperms gymnosperms How would the seeds in Figure 1 and Figure 2 be classified?fernsmossesangiospermsgymnosperms
47Question #7 fetusembryozygote Fetuszygoteembryo The fertilized eggs of most mammals follow a similar pattern of early development. Which sequence is the typical pattern, beginning with the earliest stage?fetusembryozygoteFetuszygoteembryoZygotefetusembryoZygoteembryofetus
48Question #8 It decreases blood flow. It provides protection. How is the folded structure of the villi in the small intestine related to the function of the villi?It decreases blood flow.It provides protection.It increases absorption.It provides support.
49Question #9 increasing food intake decreasing exercise Many factors can affect human fetal development. Which would have the most damaging effect on fetal development?increasing food intakedecreasing exercisesmoking cigarettesincreasing exercise
50Question #10 lung cancer hemophilia cystic fibrosis sickle cell anemia Which would most likely be caused by environmental conditions?lung cancerhemophiliacystic fibrosissickle cell anemia
51Question #11Which statement about animal behavior is most accurate?Innate behaviors can be changes as a result of individual experiences.Innate behaviors are generally complex and require time to perfect.A complex nervous system is necessary for learned behavior.Learned behaviors are acquired as a result of individual experience.
52Question #12Which of these organisms will most likely show a positive phototactic response?
53Question #13 commensalism mutualism parasitism predation Bacteria living in nodules on the roots of legumes have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a water-soluble form that plants can use. The bacteria absorb sugar from the plants’ roots. Which describes the relationship between the bacteria and the legume plant?commensalismmutualismparasitismpredation
54Question #14 Euglena show a positive response to light. Euglena are one-celled organisms containing chlorophyll. A culture of Euglena is placed into a beaker in a dark room with a flashlight shining on one side, as show in the diagram. The Euglena gather on one side of the beaker. What can be inferred about Euglena from this experiment?Euglena show a positive response to light.Euglena show a positive response to darknessEuglena show a negative response to lightEuglena do not react to light
55Question #15 increased competition for limited resources Which is an advantage of social grouping?increased competition for limited resourcesincreased chance of detection by predatorsincreased protection from predatorsincreased risk of minor infections
56Question #16 camouflage hibernation migration mimicry Estivation is a period of inactivity for animals experiencing conditions of extreme heat. Estivation serves the same function as which activity practiced by animals in cold environmental conditions?camouflagehibernationmigrationmimicry
58Question #1 decreased birth rate and increased death rate Which situation would result in the greatest increase in the human population?decreased birth rate and increased death rateincreased infant mortality and decreased death ratedecreased death rate and increased birth rateincreased birth rate and increased infant mortality
59Question #2A local scientist has studied the population distribution of a species of snail that lives on the sandy beaches of an island. The island experiences a volcanic eruption. The data from the scientist’s study of the snail population is summarized below. Prior to the volcanic eruption, which of the following could explain why the percentage of black snails was so much lower than the percentage of light brown snails?The black color made them more likely to find food successfully.The allele for black color is lethal in the homozygous condition.The black snails were easier for predators to locate on the light-colored beach.The light brown snails were better than the black snails at using all the variable resources.
60Question #3 the amount of rainfall the size of the deer In a forest ecosystem, which is an abiotic factor?the amount of rainfallthe size of the deerthe type of treesthe number of birds
61Question #4 interaction A interaction B interaction C interaction D A community is studied and several interactions are observed and recorded. Which type of interaction could illustrate the process of mutualism?interaction Ainteraction Binteraction Cinteraction D
62Question #5 cellular respiration decomposition photosynthesis In the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted into organic material by which process?cellular respirationdecompositionphotosynthesistranspiration
63Question #6 Energy transfer efficiency is high. Why do ecosystems rarely contain more than a few trophic levels?Energy transfer efficiency is high.Energy transfer efficiency is low.Energy amounts remain constant.Energy cannot flow through levels.
64Question #7 oxygen carbon dioxide nitrogen hydrogen sulfide Recent climate data suggests a global warming trend. The most likely cause could be an increase in which gas?oxygencarbon dioxidenitrogenhydrogen sulfide
65Question #8 fish population shore vegetation algae growth Silt and nutrients from eroding farmland flow into a lake. As a result, which will most likely increase first?fish populationshore vegetationalgae growthdissolved oxygen