Presentation on theme: "EOC REVIEW Punctuation and grammar rules to improve your scores on the English I EOC."— Presentation transcript:
EOC REVIEW Punctuation and grammar rules to improve your scores on the English I EOC
EOC Review Notes EOC TERMS Style is the particular way in which a writer uses language. Style reflects an author’s personality. Factors that contribute to an author’s style include level of formality, use of figurative language, diction or word choice, sentence patterns, and methods of organization. Tone is the author’s attitude toward both the subject and readers or listeners. In conversations, you can hear a speaker’s tone in the way words and phrases are spoken. When reading, you can “hear” tone in an author’s choice of words and details. The tone of a literary work can often be described with a single word such as: pompous, playful, serious, personal, sarcastic, or friendly. Perspective is the viewpoint or opinion an author expresses about the subject, either directly or indirectly. Bias occurs when a writer makes a one-sided presentation (for example, by ignoring relevant facts or by using emotional language that unfairly sways readers’ or listeners’ feelings). Purpose is the author’s reason for writing. Common purposes are to inform, to persuade, to honor, to entertain, to explain, and to warn.
Tricks for Passing the Editing and Composition section of the English I EOC Introduction The first section that you will encounter on the English I EOC is the editing and composition section. This part of the exam tests your reading and grammar skills. The problem with this section of the test is English teachers. English teachers are not the best test writers. In grammar and reading, there is often more than one right answer. Sometimes the answer choices given are very different from your own opinions. So even if you are great at grammar, this test can still be difficult. The good news is there are some short cuts you can use to outsmart the test makers and improve your score. Hint One: Be Familiar with the Test If you are familiar with the types of questions on the test, you won't waste time trying to figure out what the question is asking you to do. Instead you can go straight for the right answer. Try taking some practice tests before the real EOC. This way you can learn how the test is set-up. Over spring break take home one the EOC practice test books. You can get one from your English teacher. There is nothing worse than the feeling of looking at a test and having no idea what the test is asking of you. Don't be that person. Take some practice tests.
Hint Two: Avoiding Mass Confusion The test makers thought it would be a good idea to number all the sentences on the essays. This can cause big time confusion because it is easy to mix up the number of the sentence with the number of the question. Try highlighting the sentence that the question asks about. That way you won't waste time looking for the sentence over and over again. Remember you can mark all over the test booklet to help you find the answers. Hint Three: An Essay You Don't Have to Read Because this section is a grammar test and not a reading comprehension test, there is no reason to read the whole essay. You must simply read the sentences and paragraphs that the questions refer to. Some students, however, find it easier to read the whole essay first to scan for mistakes. If you like to read the essay before the questions, use a highlighter to mark any mistakes you find as you read. Try some practice tests to decide which style you like best. Hint Four: Why Can't They Just Say What They Mean? One of the problems students experience on the EOC is that they don't understand the question. Even great English students, sometimes have problems figuring out what a question means. Here are some key words that will help you figure out how to answer the questions correctly. Be sure to circle these words when you see them in a question. No matter what you are told, you can write on your test.
Key Words Fragment Question: Which sentence is a fragment? A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It is a missing a subject, verb, or complete thought. Often fragments start with words like when or if. The test wants you to find a incomplete sentence. All of the other answer choices will be complete sentences. You can spot the answer by crossing out all of the complete sentences first. Written Correctly How could this sentence be written correctly? This question wants you to find a complete sentence. All of the other choices will be sentence fragments. Simply eliminate all of the sentence fragments first, and you will be left with the correct answer. Sentence fragments and "written correctly' questions are usually right next to each other on the test and ask about the same sentences. Sometimes if you look closely the test will even give away an answer in the question. Run-on Which sentence is a run-on? This question wants you to find two sentences smashed together as one. Often a comma joins these sentences together. Remember a comma is not strong enough to join to complete sentences together. In this question all of the other answer choices will be complete sentences. To find the right answer look for a sentence that has two subjects and two verbs and is missing a coordinating conjunction.
Combine How could sentences one and two best be combined to enhance conciseness and variety? These questions are hard. They want you to choose a compound sentence that does not change the meaning of the original sentences. Some of the answer choices will be run- on sentences or fragments and are easy to eliminate. Other answer choices will complete sentences, but they change the meaning of the sentences and must eliminate. You have to choose a correct sentence that keeps the meaning of the sentence the same. YUCK! Enhance and Conciseness How could sentences one and two best be combined to enhance conciseness and variety? Enhance is a fancy way of saying to make better. Conciseness means to make shorter and easier to read. You will see these to words in sentence combining questions. Sentence Varity How could sentences one and two best be combined to enhance conciseness and variety? Variety means to come up with different types of sentences. Often the correct answer might start with a subordinating conjunction (when, although, even though) or a prepositional phrase (to, at, during).
Improve Organization Which of the following improves the organization of the third paragraph? In this question the test wants you to rearrange sentences so that the paragraph will be easier to read. Be sure to read the whole paragraph through a couple of times before you may your decision. You might also want to highlight the sentences that are possible answer choices. Often the right answer will include moving a sentence to the end of the paragraph because it sums up the main ideas in the paragraph and makes a good conclusion. Main idea Which sentence best describes the main idea of this essay? The main idea of a paragraph or chapter is what the whole selection is about. It is the most important idea in the paragraph, chapter, or essay. In this question you have to choose the sentence that describes the whole essay not just a part of it. The rest of the answer choices will be supporting details that only tell about part of the essay.
FOUR WAYS TO COMBINE SENTENCES a. Use a period The girl liked the boy. The boy did not like the girl. B. Use a semicolon (S1; s2.) The girl liked the boy; the boy did not like the girl. C. Use a comma and a conjunction (S1, cc s2.) The girl liked the boy, but the boy did not like the girl. D. Use a semicolon, a transition word, and a comma (S1; t, s2.) The girl liked the boy; however, the boy did not like the girl. COMMA RULES a. Between two adjectives of equal rank The hot, sandy beach is beautiful. B. Between three or more parallel items in a series I like hiking, running, and bowling. Jennifer ate cereal, grapefruit, and bacon. I went to the mall, played with my dog, and ran six miles. C. After introductory phrases In the middle of the night, I got up to get some water. Under the large oak tree, we ate grapes and crackers. When I am late for school, my first period teacher gets angry. If you won’t leave me alone, I will go to the principal. As you can see, our football team is the best. Although I really like Italian food, Chinese is my favorite.
d. To introduce quotes or to end quotes and continue a thought John said, “Come here for a second.” “You are so funny,” Amy laughed. e. To set off nouns of direct address (in other words, to set off names when someone is talking to someone else and using his or her name) Tim, could you come here? Just listen, Maggie, and you will understand what I am talking about. I really want you to come back home, Ted. f. To set off nonessential information (extra information that is not needed to make the sentence a complete thought) The interstate, which was built in 1953, makes it easier to get to work. Morganton, located twenty miles from here, is overpopulated. The math teacher, I believe, is the best we have. This class, in my opinion, is very boring. g. To set off appositives (when something is renamed) Kim, a girl in my class, yelled at the teacher. Mrs. Jones, my third grade teacher, was really nice.
h. Between two sentences joined with a conjunction (FANBOYS = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) I like to play basketball, and I like to play football. Jennifer runs track, but she doesn’t play volleyball. I can go with you, or I can stay at John’s house. I will study, for I want to go to college. She does not like carrots, so she picked them out of her salad. i. Between a city and a state. I live in Asheville, North Carolina. I work in Marion, North Carolina. 3.CAPITALIZATION a. Capitalize proper nouns b. Capitalize all languages, continents, countries, cities, and nationalities American, British, German, New York, Russian, South America, Marion, Georgia, Vietnamese, etc. 4 WATCH FOR SPELLING ERRORS
5. PARALLELISM a. The same grammatical forms/structures must be used to balance related ideas in a sentence I like to run, to play, and to sing. I enjoy going to the mountains, traveling to the beach, and flying to the Bahamas. My parents promised to buy me a video camera and to let me use it on a field trip. 6. REMEMBER THE CORRECT FORM OF PRONOUNS a. These are not words: Hisself, Theirself, Theirselves, Themselfs b. These are the correct words: Himself and Themselves 7. “Lets” is NOT a word (you must use an apostrophe before the s!) a. Let’s = let us Let’s go to the mall. Let’s eat at McDonald’s. 8. PUNCTUATING TITLES a. Underline anything that can stand alone Novels Plays Epics CD Movies
b. Use quotations marks for anything that is shorter or is a part of something larger Short Stories Poems Songs Television Programs c. Some of the selections we read in English I are To Kill a Mockingbird, “The Scarlet Ibis,” The Odyssey, “Casey at the Bat,” and Romeo and Juliet. d. My favorite song is “Crash Into Me,” and my favorite album is Purple Rain. 9. VERB TENSE IN A PASSAGE a. Remember that most selections are written in present tense. If the verb in question is in past tense, quickly scan other verbs in the selection to see what tense they are in... Nine times out of ten, the passage will be written in present tense. 10. WRITE OUT NUMBERS a. Always write out numbers 1 – 10 I have one cat and two dogs. My family owns three cars.
b. Write out numbers 10 – 99 if there is a choice a. Always write out any number that begins a sentence (even if it is larger than 100) Four hundred men marched through Berlin. One million dollars is the prize money. 11. INTERRUPTING WORDS a. Some words can function as both transition words and interrupters These transition words come between two complete sentences. They are preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma. 1. I like lasagna; however, spaghetti is my favorite food. 2. Jenna is pretty; moreover, she is homecoming queen. 3. I run cross country; furthermore, I run track. These interrupters simply interrupt the normal flow of the sentence and do not join two sentences. Commas surround them. 1. Sheila, however, is too loud. 2. I ran to the store, but John, however, walked. 3. However, the mall closes at nine.
12. DOUBLE NEGATIVES a. Do not use two negative words in one sentence Not, no, none, nothing, never, hardly, barely, scarcely couldn’t, shouldn’t, wouldn’t, won’t, can’t, couldn’t, don’t, doesn’t, wasn’t, isn’t, weren’t, aren’t 13. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT a. Singular subjects require singular verbs (singular verbs end in “s”) Ms. Ward wants her students to do well on the EOC. B. Plural subjects require plural verbs (plural verbs do not end in “s”) The students want to do well on the EOC. C. Make sure you identify the true subject / your subject will not come after the preposition “of” One of the girls wants to go to the dance. Many of the students want to go to the dance. 14. ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE VOICE a. Use active voice in writing b. Active Voice = subject comes before the verb Ms. Ward teaches her students English. C. Passive Voice = verb comes before the subject The students are taught English by Ms. Ward.
d. To find the subject, identify the verb and ask who or what is completing the action of the verb / make sure the sentence is active by determining if the subject appears before the verb in the sentence / if not, re-write the sentence by moving the subject in front of the verb and making the verb agree with the new subject 15. POSSESSIVE NOUNS a. Be sure apostrophes in possessive nouns are used correctly b. Rules for making nouns possessive Singular: add ‘s (cat’s tail) Plural that ends in “s”: add ‘ after the s (cats’ tails) Plural that doesn’t end in “s”: add ‘s (children’s books) c. Remember not to put apostrophes in possessive pronouns His, hers, yours, ours, theirs, its 16. INCORRECT USAGE a. Would of, should of, could of = INCORRECT! Would have, should have, could have 17. FRAGMENTS a. Group of words that does not express a complete thought b. Make sure the sentence has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought
18. RUN-ONS a. Two or more sentences joined incorrectly No punctuation or conjunctions No comma before coordinating conjunction Several sentences joined with conjunctions Two sentences joined with only a comma 19. COMMA SPLICE a. Incorrectly joining two sentences with only a comma b. Must put a conjunction after the comma I was sick on Monday, I stayed home from school. (comma splice) I was sick on Monday, so I stayed home from school. (correct) 20. Your = possessive pronoun (means belonging to you) You’re = contraction of “you are” a. Your mother wants you to call her. b. You’re going to do well on this test, right?
21. Their = possessive pronoun (means belonging to them) There = referring to a place or point They’re = contraction of “they are” a. Their mother wants them to come home. b. The tree over there is the one we want to climb. c. They’re coming to the movies with us tonight. 22. Its = possessive pronoun (means belonging to it) It’s = contraction of “it is” a. It’s a crying shame you failed that test. b. I have a dog. Its mother was a boxer, and its father was a golden lab.