Presentation on theme: " Egypt vs. Israel Redux June 5-11, 1967. 1948 war—still humiliating for Arabs, still present in political talk 1956 Suez Crisis—while Nasser “won”"— Presentation transcript:
1948 war—still humiliating for Arabs, still present in political talk 1956 Suez Crisis—while Nasser “won” the Suez Canal ultimately, and the British & French were humiliated, Israel had invaded During the 1960s there were frequent clashes along the Jordanian-Israeli border, and between Syria & Israel Still, Arab unity and inter-Arab affairs were more prominent and potentially flammable than anything with Israel Nasser’s attempt at Arab unity (the United Arab Republic)
After the 1948 war, these were the agreed upon borders Mark your map with Jordan’s occupation area and Egypt’s too
May 1967 USSR & Syria gave out false intelligence saying Israel was preparing a military attack against Syria Nasser responded as a show of Arab unity and his Pan-Arab leadership role, by deploying troops in the Sinai Pro-Nasser, anti-Israel demonstrations in several cities o Nasser was tempted to continue his brinkmanship: “the practice of causing or allowing a situation to become extremely dangerous in order to get the results that you want” “going to the brink” Nasser requested all UN forces leave the Sinai—they listened & left Nasser occupied Sharm al-Sheik and blockaded Israeli shipping
Nasser’s army was bogged down in Yemen’s civil war and unprepared to fight Israel He probably believed the US or USSR would step in to help But instead, other Arab leaders jumped on board and Egypt, Jordan, and Iraq formed a fast alliance Israel couldn’t allow the straits to be blockaded or for Nasser to build up an alliance Early morning June 5, 1967 Israeli air force attacked Egyptian air bases and destroyed most of their air force while it was still on the ground
Later on June 5, Syria and Jordan joined the fight and Israel destroyed their air forces immediately Jordan attacked Jerusalem (see map) and when Israel forced them to retreat, Jordan abandoned the West Bank to Israeli occupation “with undisputed control of the air” Israel defeated Egypt in the Sinai and advanced to the east bank of the Suez Then Israel turned full force to Syria and took the long disputed territory of the Golan Heights A ceasefire was signed on June 11 in the Golan Heights In 6 days Israel had defeated 3 Arab states “a resounding triumph for Israel, a humiliating disaster for the Arab forces, and a shattering blow to Nasserism.”
Use the website on your paper to complete the Arab Threats and War sections.
War started June 5, and on June 6 Israeli Foreign Minister Eban flew to New York (UN Headquarters) to work on a ceasefire deal Later that day, a resolution was passed that Israel and Jordan accepted, but Egypt, Syria, and Iraq rejected; fighting continued When Israel reached the Suez Canal on June 8, Nasser had to admit defeat—also, foreign press had broken through and reported the truth that his army was decimated Israel continued on to Golan Heights to secure Syria’s loss Ceasefire signed there on June 10, effective until Oct 1973 Important changes: flying to foreign countries mid-war to make deals, the UN resolution actually mattered (LoN?), Cold War alliances determined outcome
Use the same website to complete the Immediate Aftermath section.
Israel gained Gaza, Golan Heights, and West Bank= 3 ½ times its original size Because of this, Israel was now the country with the largest Palestinian population—refugees from 1948 now lived within Israel’s borders o Refugees were relatively well treated Palestinian nationalist identities were reawakened by the defeat o The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO, 1964) ramped up terrorist activities against Israelis Jews in Arab countries were immediately persecuted—raids on Jewish towns, survivors imprisoned
In 132 hours: Arabs lost 25 people to Israel’s 1; Egypt lost 10-15,000 men Material losses were extreme for the Arabs: 85% of Egypt’s military hardware was destroyed Israel ended up capturing thousands of Arab soldiers as well as hundreds of tanks, guns, vehicles
Israel got to pick the name of the war Options considered: The War of Daring The War of Salvation The War of the Sons of Light Six-Day War was chosen because it took God six days to create the earth…
June 9 (Egypt’s demise was set) "I have taken a decision," he announced, "for which I need your support. I have decided to withdraw totally and for good from all official posts and political roles, and to return to the ranks of the masses, to perform my duties in their midst, like any other citizen.“ Immediately people took to the streets and begged Nasser to stay President. He did.
From 1967-1970 when Nasser died, he proclaimed Egypt at a state of war with Israel called the War of Attrition Mostly centered around the Suez Canal (remember Israel won the whole Sinai in the Six-Day War) The USSR helped Egypt, as well as the PLO & Jordan A ceasefire was signed after Nasser died of a heart attack in September 1970, no land decisions were made (In 1973 the Yom Kippur War would cause Israel to give the Sinai back to Egypt.)
“As you know, we have not been able to realize all our dreams during the last 17 years because of a variety of problems: the occupation, the 1967 aggression, etc. My dream above all is the development of the country, electricity in the villages and work for everybody. I have no personal dream. I have no personal life. There is nothing personal about me.”