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Instrument Ground Training Module 6 Randy Schoephoerster www.airtreknorth.com.

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1 Instrument Ground Training Module 6 Randy Schoephoerster

2 Agenda Airports, ATC and Airspace – Contact and Visual Approaches – SDF and LDA Approaches – Runway Visual Range – Missed Approaches – ILS Specifications & Approaches – Flying Approaches – ASR Approaches – Side Step – Timed Approaches from Holding – Instrument Approaches – DPs and STARs

3 CAUTION………………….. The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course. Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months. – FAA-G D www. sportys.com/faatest

4 CFR (d) Instrument Practical Test Requirements (d) Aeronautical experience for the instrument-airplane rating. A person who applies for an instrument-airplane rating must have logged: – (1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have been in an airplane; and – (2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instrument time in the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must have been received from an authorized instructor who holds an instrument- airplane rating, and the instrument time includes: (i) Three hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in an airplane that is appropriate to the instrument-airplane rating within 2 calendar months before the date of the practical test; and (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor, that is performed under instrument flight rules, when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic control facility, and that involves— – (A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways or by directed routing from an air traffic control facility; – (B) An instrument approach at each airport ; and – (C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems.

5 Approaches With Glideslopes – ILS – GPS (if you have the GPS equipment) Without Glideslopes – VOR – LDA – SDF

6 Types of Guidance Localizer – ILS – Localizer only – LDA – SDF GPS VOR

7 Localizer Coverage Area

8 SDF AND LDA APPROACHES LDA (localizer-type directional aid) is as useful and accurate as a localizer (3° to 6° course width). – The LDA is very similar to an instrument landing system (ILS), but it usually does not have a glide slope (i.e., it has only a localizer) and is not aligned with the runway. SDF (simplified directional facility) has a course width of either 6° or 12°. – SDF approaches may or may not be aligned with a runway (and their courses are wider). SDF does not have a glide slope.

9 RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR) RVR is an instrumentally derived value that represents the horizontal distance the pilot can see down the runway from the approach end. – It is based on the measurement of a transmissiometer near the touchdown point of the instrument runway and is reported in hundreds of feet. If RVR is inoperative and cannot be reported, convert the RVR minimum to ground visibility, and use that as the visibility minimum for takeoffs and landings. – See Legend 11 for a chart of RVR/visibility comparable values. The normal ILS visibility minimum is 1/2 SM, which is 2400 RVR.

10 ILS SPECIFICATIONS The ILS missed approach should be executed upon arrival at the DH on the glide slope if the visual reference requirements are not met. The normal decision height for a Category I ILS is 200 ft. AGL. – This is the height of the glide slope centerline at the middle marker. The amount of deflection and distance from the localizer and the glide slope for an ILS is presented as Figure 139. – A series of questions asks how far you are from the localizer or glide slope centerlines given certain types of deflection on your glide slope indicator. These questions require interpreting Figure 139.

11 ILS Approaches The direction of deflection of the localizer and glide slope bar shows where the actual course is located. You should “fly to the needles” or “fly the crosshair” to maintain a perfect course. – When the localizer bar is left of center and the glide slope bar is below center, you are right of the localizer course and above the glide slope course. To correct your course, “fly to the needles.” Make a left correction to intercept the localizer centerline and descend to intercept the glide slope centerline. – For each combination of localizer and glide slope deflection, use similar corrective actions. Compass locators, when used for the outer marker (OM) and middle marker (MM) of an ILS, transmit two-letter identification groups. – The outer compass locator (LOM) transmits the first two letters of the localizer identification group. – The middle compass locator (LMM) transmits the last two letters of the localizer identification group. – If the OM and/or MM are not compass locators, there is no two-letter identification transmission.

12 ILS An inner marker (IM) is identified by continual dots at the rate of 6 per second and a flashing white marker beacon. If DME is available on an ILS or localizer approach, the DME/TACAN channel will be indicated in the localizer frequency box on the instrument approach chart. Parallel (Dependent) ILS approaches provide aircraft a minimum of 1.5 mi. radar separation diagonally between successive aircraft on the adjacent localizer course. – Precision Runway Monitoring (PRM) is a RADAR system that has a high update rate and is able to monitor approaches to closely spaced parallel runways. The legend on the next page contains the ILS standard characteristics and terminology.

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14 UNUSABLE ILS COMPONENTS ILS components include – Localizer – Glide slope – Outer marker – Middle marker – Approach lights If more than one component is unusable, each minimum is raised to the highest minimum required by any single component that is inoperative. A compass locator or precision approach radar (PAR) may be substituted for an inoperative OM or MM. – An inoperative MM does not change the landing minimums; thus, no substitution is necessary. When installed with the ILS and specified in the approach procedure, DME may be used in lieu of the OM. When the glide slope fails, the ILS reverts to a nonprecision localizer (LOC) approach. – The LOC MDA and visibility minimums will be used. If you are on the glide slope when the ILS fails and a VASI is in sight, you should continue the approach using the VASI and report the malfunction to ATC.

15 Flying the Approach Rate of descent on the glide slope is dependent on the airplane groundspeed because the descent must be constant relative to the distance traveled over the ground. – As groundspeed increases, the descent rate must increase. – As groundspeed decreases, the descent rate must decrease. If the airspeed is too fast and the glide slope and localizer are centered, you should initially reduce power. When you are being vectored for an ILS approach and are about to fly through the localizer, you should maintain your last assigned heading and question ATC rather than deviate from a clearance.

16 Flying the Approach If a wind shear changes from a headwind to a tailwind, the airspeed drops, the nose pitches down, and the vertical speed increases. You must initially increase power to resume normal approach speed. – Then power must be reduced as airspeed stabilizes so you can maintain the glide slope due to the increased groundspeed. – The tendency is to go below the glide slope. If a wind shear changes from a tailwind to a headwind (or even to calm), you must decrease your power initially and then increase it once you are through the shear to maintain the glide slope. – The tendency is to go above the glide slope. In tracking the localizer, you should have your drift correction established to maintain the localizer centerline before reaching the outer marker. – Then completion of the approach should be accomplished with heading corrections no greater than 2°.

17 ASR Approaches During airport surveillance radar (ASR) approaches, ATC provides headings, tells when to commence descent to MDA, gives the airplane’s position each mile on final from the runway, and indicates arrival at the MAP. Surveillance approaches may be used at airports for which civil radar instrument approach minimums have been published. ATC radar, when approved for approach control service, may be used for course guidance to the final approach, ASR and PAR approaches, and monitoring of non-radar approaches. During a no-gyro approach (i.e., when your gyroscopic instruments have failed), all turns prior to final approach should be made at the standard rate. – After being handed off to the final approach controller, all turns should be at one-half the standard rate.

18 Side Step from an Approach A side-step approach is an instrument approach to one runway until you can see a parallel runway and “side step” to land on the parallel runway. A side-step approach is used when a pilot – Executes an approach procedure serving one of two or more parallel runways that are separated by 1,200 ft. or less and then – Diverts to the other parallel runway using a straight-in approach. Execute a side-step procedure as soon as possible after the runway environment is in sight.

19 Holding A holding procedure is a predetermined maneuver which keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from ATC. Holding patterns are racetrack-shaped patterns based on a fix which is a radio navigation facility (VOR, ADF, or other NAVAID); an intersection of NAVAID bearings, radials, or a DME fix; or a waypoint (GPS or other RNAV equipment). Holding patterns consist of the following components (note that the fix is always at the end of the inbound leg): – A standard pattern means the turns in the holding pattern are to the right. – A nonstandard pattern means the turns in the holding pattern are to the left. ATC will specify in the holding clearance if left turns are to be made.

20 Timed Approaches from Holding A timed approach is one in which you are cleared to leave the final approach fix or outer marker at a specified future time. Timed approaches from a holding fix may be executed only under the following conditions: – A control tower is in operation at the airport where the approach is conducted. – Direct communication is maintained between pilot and approach control or center until the pilot is instructed to contact tower. – If more than one missed approach procedure is available, none may require a course reversal; i.e., the missed approach procedure must not take you back to the final approach fix. – If only one missed approach procedure is available, course reversal is not required and the reported ceiling and visibility must be greater than the highest circling minimum for the IAP. – When cleared for the approach, the pilot shall not execute a procedure turn. When making a timed approach from a holding fix at the outer marker, you should adjust the holding pattern to leave the final approach fix inbound at the assigned time

21 Holding You enter a holding pattern using one of three procedures as illustrated in the figure below. This illustrates a standard pattern; the same concept is used in a nonstandard pattern. – Parallel procedure. Fly a parallel holding course as in (a). Turn left and return to the holding fix or intercept the holding course. – Teardrop procedure. Proceed on an outbound track of 30° or less to the holding course; turn right to intercept the holding course, as in (b). – Direct entry procedure. Turn right and fly the pattern, as in (c).

22 Holding The best way to determine the entry method on the FAA knowledge test is to draw a holding pattern complete with the fix and inbound leg. – Through the fix, draw the 70° angle such that it intersects the outbound leg at about 1/3 of the outbound leg length. – Then, slightly shade the (a) area, which is the 110° angle between the extension of the inbound leg and the 70° line. – The (b) area is the 70° angle between the 70° line and the extension of the inbound leg. – EXAMPLE: In the above illustration, the inbound leg to the fix is 270°, and the outbound leg is 090°. If the fix is a VOR station, the following radials define which entry procedure to use: a) Parallel b) Teardrop c) Direct

23 Holding If the abeam position cannot be determined, start timing when the turn to outbound is complete (i.e., wings level). At an NDB (non-directional beacon), the timing for the outbound leg should be when abeam the fix. Maximum holding pattern airspeed (IAS) for all aircraft – From the minimum holding altitude (MHA) through 6,000 ft kt. – From 6,001 ft. through 14,000 ft kt. – From 14,001 ft. and above kt. When a holding pattern is used in lieu of a procedure turn, the holding maneuver must still be executed within the time or leg length specified in the profile view on the instrument approach procedure (IAP) chart. When more than one circuit of the holding pattern is needed to lose altitude or become better established on course, additional circuits can be made at the pilot’s discretion only if the pilot advises ATC and ATC approves.

24 Instrument Approach Charts Approach charts consist of several parts: – Top and bottom margin identification – Plan view – Profile view – Minimums section – Airport diagram

25 Instrument Approach Charts Initial approach fixes (IAF) identify the beginning of an initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure and are identified by the letters IAF on the plan view of approach charts.

26 Instrument Approach Charts Aircraft approach categories are listed as A, B, C, D, and E based upon 1.3 times the stall speed of the aircraft in the landing configuration at maximum certified gross landing weight (1.3 VS0).

27 Instrument Approach Charts The symbol “T” in a point-down black triangle indicates that takeoff minimums are not standard and/or departure minimums are published and you should consult alternative takeoff procedures

28 Instrument Approach Charts The symbol “A” in a point-up black triangle indicates that nonstandard minimums exist to list the airport as an IFR alternate. – Standard alternate minimums are for a non-precision approach and for a precision approach. An airport may not be qualified for alternate use if the NAVAIDs used for the final approach are unmonitored. If there is penetration of the obstacle identification surfaces (OIS), the published visibility for the ILS approach can be no lower than 3/4 SM. The absence of the procedure turn barb on the plan view on an approach chart indicates that a procedure turn is not authorized for that approach. – The term NoPT means that there is no procedure turn. A course reversal (procedure turn) is not required (or authorized) when radar vectors are being provided If you adhere to the minimum altitudes depicted on the IAP, you can be assured of terrain and obstacle clearance. Minimum safe-sector altitudes are depicted on approach charts. These provide at least 1,000 ft. of obstacle clearance within a 25-NM radius of the navigation facility upon which the procedure is predicated but do not necessarily ensure acceptable navigational signal coverage.

29 Instrument Approach Charts When being radar-vectored to an instrument approach, you should comply with the last assigned altitude until the airplane is established on a segment of a published route or IAP and you have been cleared for the approach, after which you should continue descents to the listed minimum altitudes. When simultaneous approaches are in progress, each pilot will be advised to monitor the tower frequency to receive advisories and instructions. When straight-in minimums are not published, you can make a straight-in landing if the active runway is in sight, there is sufficient time to make a normal landing, and you have been cleared to land. If you are doing an approach in a category B airplane but maintaining a speed faster than the maximum specified for that category, you should use category C minimums.

30 Instrument Approaches When an instrument approach procedure involves a procedure turn, the maximum allowable indicated airspeed is 200 kt. When a DME is inoperative, there will be no code tone (identifier) broadcast. On instrument approach segments, the minimum altitudes are indicated on the plan view and profile view, which you are expected to be able to interpret and specify on the FAA instrument rating knowledge test. When holding patterns exist in lieu of outbound procedure turns, the length of the outbound leg may be indicated as a distance rather than time. This information is given in both the plan view and the profile view of the approach chart.

31 Instrument Approaches On some RNAV approach charts, the distance from the MAP to another more prominent way point located along the extended final approach course may be shown in the profile and plan views. RNAV waypoints, when used for an instrument approach, contain boxes in which the latitude and longitude are listed on the first line and the VOR direction and distance are listed on the second line. RNAV approaches require an approved RNAV receiver; no other navigation equipment is specifically required. On procedure turns, there may be a distance limitation from a NAVAID, and procedural turns should be made entirely on the side of the inbound radial or bearing to which the procedural turn arrow points. If a teardrop turn is depicted, only a teardrop course reversal can be executed.

32 Instrument Approaches If you are not able to identify a NAVAID marking a descent to a lower altitude on a non-precision approach, you cannot descend to the next lower altitude. The MAP of a precision approach is arrival at the DH on the glide slope. The appropriate approach and tower frequencies are indicated at the top of the plan view. When a marker beacon receiver becomes inoperative and you cannot identify the MM during an ILS approach, you should use the published minimums. A second VOR receiver may be needed when doing a localizer approach with a final step-down fix to be identified by a VOR radial.

33 Instrument Approaches Some non-precision approaches will allow descents to lower altitudes at specified DME distances. – The advantage of DME can be determined by comparing the two MDA values. The minimum navigation equipment required for a VOR/DME approach is one VOR receiver and DME Restrictions to circle-to-land procedures are found below the minimums section of the IAP chart.

34 Instrument Approaches The height above touchdown (HAT) is the height of the MDA or DH above the touchdown zone. It is the smaller numbers that appear after the MDA or DH. The numbers in parentheses are military minimums. The minimums section of the approach chart provides the MDA or DH and the visibility (expressed as RVR or SM). When making an LOC approach to the primary airport of the Class B airspace, the aircraft must be equipped with – Two-way radio communication – Mode C transponder – VOR

35 Instrument Approaches When the glide slope becomes inoperative during an ILS approach, the approach becomes a non-precision LOC approach. – The LOC minimums then apply. The final approach fix (FAF) for a precision approach is identified on the approach chart by a lightning bolt (n). – The intercept altitude is indicated next to the symbol. On a non-precision approach, the distance from the FAF to the MAP is indicated below the airport diagram. If a runway has a displaced threshold, the distance available for landing will be shown by a notation in the airport diagram. For example, “Rwy 21 ldg 5957’” signifies that 5,957 ft. of the total length of runway 21 are available for landing. A category C aircraft must use category C minimums, even if using category B approach speed. Legends 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 concern instrument approaches

36 DPs and STARs DPs (instrument departure procedures), STARs (standard terminal arrival routes), and visual approaches are all routinely assigned by ATC as appropriate. DPs and STARs are issued to simplify clearance delivery procedures when ATC deems it appropriate unless you have requested “no DP” or “no STAR” in the remarks section of your flight plan. –Less desirably, pilots may refuse DPs and STARs when they are part of a clearance. When a DP requires a minimum climb rate of a specified number of ft. per NM, you may be requested to convert the climb rate into feet per minute. –Use the Rate of Climb Table in Legend 16.Legend 16 –Another method is first to divide the groundspeed by 60 to get the NM per min. Then multiply NM per min. by the required climb rate per NM to determine climb rate in feet per minute (fpm). EXAMPLE: If 200 ft. per NM is required to a specified altitude and your groundspeed is 120 kt., you will be traveling 2 NM/min. (120 NM/60 min.), which will require a minimum climb rate of 400 fpm (200 required ft./NM × 2 NM/min.). – To accept a DP, you must have at least a textual description of it. – Preferred IFR routes are correlated with DPs and STARs and may be defined by airways, jet routes, and direct routes between NAVAIDs. – The departure route description of a DP explains the departure procedures. It also explains the route to be used if communication is lost. – Legend 17 concerns DPs (formerly known as SIDs) and STARs Legend 17

37 GPS Approaches If receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) is not available when setting up a GPS approach, you must select another type of navigation and approach system. When you are using GPS for navigation and instrument approaches, any required alternate airport must have an approved instrument approach procedure, other than GPS, which is anticipated to be operational and available at the estimated time of arrival (ETA) and which the airplane is equipped to fly.

38 GPS Approaches A fly-over waypoint is depicted on an approach plate’s plan view as a four-pointed star enclosed in a circle. – A fly-over waypoint precludes any turn until the waypoint is over flown and is followed by either an intercept maneuver of the next flight segment or direct flight to the next waypoint. – This type of waypoint is used to denote a missed approach point, a missed approach holding point, or other specific points in space that must be flown over.

39 GPS Approaches If you examine the plan view of the approach plate, you will see a box, usually in the lower left corner, that depicts the minimum safe altitude(s) (MSA) for a given segment of the approach coverage area. – This notation gives you an obstacle clearance altitude while also telling you when you may begin descending to the indicated altitude when cleared to a specific waypoint.

40 GPS Approaches Baro-VNAV is a navigational system that presents computed vertical guidance based on barometric altitude. – Cold temperatures have a pronounced effect on Baro- VNAV operations because barometric altimeters will substantially over-read in very low temperatures. – For this reason, a minimum temperature limitation is published for each procedure for which Baro-VNAV minimums are published. At this published temperature, the use of Baro-VNAV is not authorized to the LNAV/VNAV DA. – On Figure 152 the note “Baro-VNAV NA below –20°C (– 5°F)” implies that the approach may not be flown at all using Baro-VNAV when the temperature is below –20°C.

41 CONTACT AND VISUAL APPROACHES You may request a contact approach if there is 1 SM flight visibility and you can operate clear of clouds to the destination airport. – A contact approach is an alternative to a standard instrument approach procedure (SIAP). – ATC will assign a contact approach only upon request if the reported visibility is at least 1 mile. ATC may assign a visual approach to an airport or authorize you to follow other airplanes for a landing if the approach can be accomplished in VFR. – You must have the airport or the preceding aircraft in sight. – Visual approaches can be assigned by ATC; contact approaches cannot. – On visual approaches, radar service is automatically terminated when the aircraft is instructed to contact the tower.

42 MISSED APPROACHES When executing a missed approach prior to the missed approach point (MAP), continue the approach to the MAP at or above the minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision height (DH) before executing any turns. If you lose visual reference in a circle to land from an instrument approach, you should make a climbing turn toward your landing runway to become established on the missed approach course. Plan View Profile View 400ft ceiling Wind 5kts 120deg

43 Agenda Airports, ATC and Airspace – Contact and Visual Approaches – SDF and LDA Approaches – Runway Visual Range – Missed Approaches – ILS Specifications & Approaches – Flying Approaches – ASR Approaches – Side Step – Timed Approaches from Holding – Instrument Approaches – DPs and STARs

44 Instrument Ground Training Module 6 Randy Schoephoerster


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