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Prehistory of the Papuan realm: the ASJP evidence Søren Wichmann Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

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Presentation on theme: "Prehistory of the Papuan realm: the ASJP evidence Søren Wichmann Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prehistory of the Papuan realm: the ASJP evidence Søren Wichmann Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

2 Introducing the Automated Similarity Judgment Program Database consisting of 40-item wordlists for 57% of the world’s languages Words are compared through a string dissimilarity measure, a version of the so-called Levenshtein or ‘edit’ distance Pairwise distances among languages are calculated as averages over the 40 lexical items Distances can be used for all sorts of things, including the generation of phylogenies and the calculation of diversity measures for the purpose of inferring homelands

3 Basic ASJP resources drawn upon for this presentation A classification of all 780 Papuan doculects in the database, representing 538 ISO codes and 7 languages not recognized by Ethnologue Identification of hypothetical homelands for 68 Papuan language families in the classification of Hammarström (2010)

4 What’s useful about ASJP trees? Known to accurately replicate uncontroversial mid-level subgroups Help to distinguish more believable from less believable phylogenetic clusters More consistent than the impressionistic way in which lexicostatistics was often carried out in the 60’s and 70’s and which still influences the way that historical relations among Papuan languages are thought about Can be produced in a manner of minutes / hours for several hundred / thousand languages

5 3 random examples of ASJP classifications (which are from different areas and which fit a page)

6 Nakh-Daghestanian

7 Uto-Aztecan

8 Sko

9 Contributions in this talk Contributions to the classification of Papuan languages – Tearing down: using the ASJP tree to distinguish more reliable from less reliable proposals – Building up: using the ASJP tree to find relations that are new or not yet fully established Contributions to other aspect of Papuan prehistory: – Viewing and interpreting the distribution of hypothetical homelands of 68 families in the HaHa classification

10 One random page from the ASJP classification of Papuan languages

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12 Strategy for tearing down Using a semi-conservative classification scheme such as that of Dryer (2005) find all cases where language families are uninterrupted and put them in the category ‘unproblematical’ Apply ASJP to the remaining languages and repeat Classify the remaining according to the highest- order standardly accepted groupings that correspond to uninterrupted segments of the ASJP tree

13 Unproblematical families and isolates (51) Amto-MusanKapauriSenagi AnemKayagar, KehuSentani Awin-PareKiwaianSulka ArafundiLavukaleveTofanma BiluaLeft MayTouo BosaviLepkiTurama-Kikorian Bulaka RiverLower MamberanoUsku BurmesoMairasiUpper Yuat DosoMolofWasi East BougainvilleMombunWest Bougainville East Bird’s HeadMonumboWest Bomberai East Geelvink BayMurkimWestern Fly East StricklandMorwapYale GapunNimboranYawa Gogodala-SukiOdiaiYele Inland GulfOksapminYareban KamulaSavosavoYuat

14 Initially problematical families Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of segments into which the families are segmented in the ASJP Papuan classification Indents are the broken up WALS genera Border (2) BORDER (2) Eleman (2) Kaure (2) KAURE (2) Kehu (2) Kwomtari-Fas (2) Kolopom (2) KOLOPOM (2) Kwalean (2) KWALEAN (2) Kwerba (4) KWERBA (3) Lakes Plain (2) Leonhard Schultze (2) LEONHARD SCHULTZE (2) Lower Sepik-Ramu (4) GRASS (2) Marind (2) Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers (5) MOREHEAD AND UPPER MARO RIVERS (5) Pauwasi (2) PAUWASI (2) Sepik (5) BIKSI (2) MIDDLE SEPIK (2) SEPIK HILL (2) UPPER SEPIK (2) Sko (2) Teberan-Pawaian (2) Trans-New Guinea (21) ANGAN (2) KOLANA-TANGLAPUI (2) MADANG (4) WEST TIMOR-ALOR-PANTAR (4) Tor-Orya (2) Torricelli (4) KOMBIO-ARAPESH (3) WAPEI-PALEI (6) West Papuan (4) NORTH-CENTRAL BIRD’S HEAD (2)

15 After removing unproblematical families Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of segments into which the families are segmented in the ASJP Papuan classification Indents are the broken up WALS genera √ Border Eleman (2) Kaure (2) KAURE (2) Kwomtari-Fas (2) Kolopom (2) Kwalean (2) Kwerba (4) KWERBA (3) √ Lakes Plain Leonhard Schultze (2) LEONHARD SCHULTZE (2) Lower Sepik-Ramu (4) GRASS (2) Marind (2) Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers (5) MOREHEAD AND UPPER MARO RIVERS (5) Pauwasi (2) PAUWASI (2) Sepik (5) BIKSI (2) MIDDLE SEPIK (2) SEPIK HILL (2) UPPER SEPIK (2) Sko (2) Teberan-Pawaian (2) Trans-New Guinea (21) ANGAN (2) KOLANA-TANGLAPUI (2) MADANG (4) WEST TIMOR-ALOR-PANTAR (4) Tor-Orya (2) Torricelli (4) KOMBIO-ARAPESH (3) WAPEI-PALEI (6) West Papuan (4) NORTH-CENTRAL BIRD’S HEAD (2)

16 Slightly reduced list of problematical families Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of segments into which the families are segmented in the ASJP Papuan classification Indents are the broken up WALS genera Eleman (2) Kaure (2) KAURE (2) Kwomtari-Fas (2) Kolopom (2) Kwalean (2) Kwerba (4) KWERBA (3) Leonhard Schultze (2) LEONHARD SCHULTZE (2) Lower Sepik-Ramu (4) GRASS (2) Marind (2) Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers (5) MOREHEAD AND UPPER MARO RIVERS (5) Pauwasi (2) PAUWASI (2) Sepik (5) BIKSI (2) MIDDLE SEPIK (2) SEPIK HILL (2) UPPER SEPIK (2) Sko (2) Teberan-Pawaian (2) Trans-New Guinea (21) ANGAN (2) KOLANA-TANGLAPUI (2) MADANG (4) WEST TIMOR-ALOR-PANTAR (4) Tor-Orya (2) Torricelli (4) KOMBIO-ARAPESH (3) WAPEI-PALEI (6) West Papuan (4) NORTH-CENTRAL BIRD’S HEAD (2)

17 Building up again Isolate cases where a family is split because of one or two intruders which might actually be related

18 Sko Bunak Molmo One

19 ISAKA{Sko} we numu louse e*y* leaf siy skin ta blood si breast ni path pili MOLMO_ONE{Tor} minE, mo moni sila tape soli nimna plEni Isaka / Molmo One comparisons ASJPcode: * = nasalization E = ε

20 Teberan-Pawaian

21 BIKARU{Sep}DARIBI{Teb}FOLOPA{Teb} louse leaf skin bone ear breast water fire road night nowmi yoku kha heli holi monu ami mawu sia yu nu yali yau no*u* dili oro ami wa sia tu* be huli doi saku seka*i diri we*i si tu* Bikaru / Teberan-Pawaian comparisons

22 Tor-Orya & Kwerba Tor-Orya Kwerba NB: Already a recognized Ethnologue family, so no further details here

23 Parts (!) of the Wapei-Palei Subgroup of Torricelli

24 KUKWO{Tor} I kupm~ we ment~o dog nmp~a bone tpm~uNk~ul ear nuNk~ulkN~ tongue ek melip hand wam breast ma liver walpm~ see ari sun takN~ni water hu AIKU{Tor} um mian yimbak ykilia yngul yalip pamb~am yman zmbal3m ari tan sulm Kukwo / Aiku comparisons ASJPcode: ~ = preceding two symbols are a unit N = ŋ 3 = schwa

25 Slightly more reduced list of problematical families Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of segments into which the families are segmented in the ASJP Papuan classification Indents are the broken up WALS genera Eleman (2) Kaure (2) KAURE (2) Kwomtari-Fas (2) Kolopom (2) Kwalean (2) Kwerba (4) KWERBA (3) Leonhard Schultze (2) LEONHARD SCHULTZE (2) Lower Sepik-Ramu (4) GRASS (2) Marind (2) Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers (5) MOREHEAD AND UPPER MARO RIVERS (5) Pauwasi (2) PAUWASI (2) Sepik (5) BIKSI (2) MIDDLE SEPIK (2) SEPIK HILL (2) UPPER SEPIK (2) Trans-New Guinea (21) ANGAN (2) KOLANA-TANGLAPUI (2) MADANG (4) WEST TIMOR-ALOR-PANTAR (4) Torricelli (4) KOMBIO-ARAPESH (3) WAPEI-PALEI (6) West Papuan (4) NORTH-CENTRAL BIRD’S HEAD (2)

26 Building up further Go through the ASJP tree and find possible, not standardly recognized relations Check for geography Inspect word lists If promising do more in-depth studies

27 Saberi (“Kwerba”) & Kapauri (isolate)

28 KAPAURI{isol.} tooth wanu tongue mEnu knee n3voli see huwarE7 water bu SABERI{Kwerba} wana memu nabone fa boware bu, buq Kapauri / Saberi comparisons ASJPcode: 7 = glottal stop

29 Savosavo and Bilua NB: Both recognized as Central Solomons in Ethnologue, so no further detail here

30 Murkim (isol.) & Lepki (isol.) & Kimki (“Sepik, Biksi”)

31 Murkim (isol.) & Lepki (isol.) & Kimki (“Sepik, Biksi”) comparisons Milki MurkimLepkiKimki Two Person Fish Dog Louse Tree Leaf Skin Bone Ear Nose Tooth Tongue Knee Breast kais ra kan sai im yamul bw~aik yaith~ kok bw~i mo*a kal prouk balka mom kaisi ra yakEn nim ya nabai yit kow bw~i mogw~an kal braw kolbw~I nom sa nim bw~aik ith~ibah kw~ar bw~a arbag ubrig

32 Murkim (isol.) & Lepki (isol.) & Kimki (“Sepik, Biksi”) comparisons (cont.) Milki MurkimLepkiKimki hear sun star water fire path mountain night name pao kaya7kalo ili kel yo msan li disla ibe ofao Endi kEl yaoala masin tiTa basko* kaiya ide ble aib

33 Dagan (“TNG, Dagan”) & Kolopom (“TNG, Kolopom)

34 Dagan & Kolopom comparisons Daga{Dagan}Ndom{Kolopom} I you we two person hand hear sun stone ne ge nu de orup nanip anu wan goat ne xe ni th~ef ref tan mu wen mat

35 Kamula & Pare (both “TNG” but different groups)

36 Kamula & Pare comparisons KamulaPare I you we two louse ear eye tongue knee hand see hear stone name nE* wE* diE depiomEtE iyo molo inoma tE oLuma to (‘arm’) ele tolo ewoLo hi no* go nigi diyabo o mogo kinemo tE oumu atowe ded wodala iebo hi ASJPcode = L lateral other than l

37 Second part: homelands Method (Wichmann et al. 2010): – Find the language in a family that has the highest diversity index and assign the homeland of the family to this language – Calculate the diversity indices by taking the average of the ratio L/G between the target language and all other language (L = linguistic distance, G = geographical distance)

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39 NB: 66 slides showing homelands of various small families taken out here to make the file smaller

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43 The smallest distance from each Papuan homeland to all other Papuan homelands: Mean: 87 km (82 km without outlier) Standard deviation: 69 km (52 km without outlier) Quantifying territoriality

44 References Dryer, Matthew Genealogical language list. In: Haspelmath, Martin, Matthew Dryer, David Gil, and Bernard Comrie (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hammarström, Harald A full-scale test of the language farming hypothesis. Diachronica 27: Wichmann, Søren, André Müller, and Viveka Velupillai Homelands of the world’s language families: A quantitative approach. Diachronica 27:


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