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A Guide to Works Cited, Parenthetical Documentation, and Credible Sources.

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Presentation on theme: "A Guide to Works Cited, Parenthetical Documentation, and Credible Sources."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Guide to Works Cited, Parenthetical Documentation, and Credible Sources

2 Your MLA paper should:  Be typed on standard sized white printer paper (8 ½ by 11”)  Have 1” margins on all sides of the page.  Be double-spaced.  NOT have extra lines of space above or below the title of the paper or between paragraphs.  Have a centered title. Not bold. Not underlined. Just centered.

3  12 pt, easy-to-read font (Times New Roman).  Have the page number preceded by your last name in the upper right corner of each page.  Include, on the first page, this information in the heading in the following order: Your name, your instructor’s name, the course title, and the date.  Your heading is double-spaced.

4 1. Heading: Your name, Teacher’s Name, Course Name, Date 2. Title: Centered, no extra spacing, not bold/underlined 3. Text: Double-spaced. 12pt, easy-to-read font. 4. 1” Margins all around. 5. Header: Last name followed by page number.

5  Of course you have to cite your sources.  Of course you have to cite all direct quotations.  Of course you have to cite any ideas borrowed from a source.  Of course you have to cite ideas that you have paraphrased or summarized.  Of course you have to cite the source of a cartoon, graph, or visual that you didn’t create.

6  No, you don’t have to cite common knowledge.  Common knowledge = general information that your readers may know or could easily locate in any number of reference sources.  Ex: The World Trade Center was attacked on September 11, 2001.

7  Put direct quotes inside quotation marks.  After using a direct quote or ideas from a source place the author’s name and page number in parentheses.  You only use the author’s last name and the page number. NOTHING ELSE. Put the period outside of the parentheses. (Barrett 1).

8 Original Source: Future cars will provide drivers with concierge services, web-based information, and online email capabilities. - Matt Sundeen, “Cell Phones and Highway Safety: 2000 State Legislative Update,” p.1 In-Text Citation: Cars of the future will have “concierge services, web- based information, and online email capabilities” (Sundeen 1). ***Note that the period comes AFTER the parentheses.

9 If you used the author’s last name in your sentence, than you do not have to use it in your parenthetical documentation. In-Text Citation: Matt Sundeen points out that cars of the future will have “concierge services, web-based information, and online email capabilities” (1).

10 In general, an in-text citation should include the quote or paraphrased information, followed by parentheses with the author’s last name and page number, followed by a period after the parentheses. “The rate of violent crime in Phoenix is one and ½ times the national average” (Johnson 7). The only punctuation goes after the parentheses. No punctuation within the quotation No punctuation between the author and page number. You do not need the author’s name if he/she is mentioned in the lead-in. According to Dr. Jacob Milton, the average daily traffic delay in Phoenix is seven minutes a day (198).

11  A lead-in or signal phrase with the author’s name introduces the material you are going to quote.  If you use a lead in, you do not have to list the author’s name in the citation.  Smith declares that the newspaper industry is “quickly diminishing” (19).

12  If there are two authors, quote both last names, linked with ‘and’, in the in-text citation.  The unemployment rate in Phoenix is just over 10%” (Lawrence and Holly 194).  If you don’t have an author, list the title of the article and page number.  “There are almost three million people in the Phoenix urban area” (“Phoenix Living” 39).

13 ItalicsQuotation Marks NewspaperShort Story MovieTitles of magazine/newspaper articles BookTelevision Episode CDSong in an album

14 1.“Cowards die many times before their deaths.” (Shakespeare 143). 2.“Cowards die many times before their deaths.” (Shakespeare, 143). 3.“Cowards die many times before their deaths” (Shakespeare 143). 4.“Cowards die many times before their deaths” (Shakespeare, 143). 5.According to Shakespeare, “Cowards die many times before their deaths” (143). 6.Shakespeare wrote, “Cowards die many times before their deaths” (Shakespeare 143).

15  A Works Cited gives publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper.  Sources are alphabetized.  The first line of a source should be flush left. Any other lines of type for that entry should be indented.  The whole page should be double-spaced.

16  Place the Works Cited list on its own, separate page.  Start each entry flush with the left margin and indent subsequent lines 5 spaces (TAB).  List sources alphabetically by author or editor’s last name.  Sources should be alphabetized.  Titles of sources are either in quotation marks or italicized.

17  MLA formatting requires every works cited entry to identify the medium (type) of publication.  i.e. print, web  MLA does NOT require the html address to be included in the works cited entries.  If you read a source and did not use it in your paper, you do not need to include it in the Works Cited.  The date you accessed a source should be written out Day Month Year:  18 February 2011


19  If there are more than three authors for a source, include only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (This is Latin. It means “and others”).  Ex: The study was extended for two years, and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al. 35).

20  If you access information online, your citation should always include the date you accessed the information.

21  Definition: 1.capable of being believed; believable: a credible statement. 2.worthy of belief or confidence; trustworthy: a credible witness.  Credibility is important!  If your research is flawed, so is your argument.  If you use credible sources, you can believe them, and your readers can believe you.

22  Most books you find in library nonfiction are credible.  Most large newspapers are credible. ◦ New York Times ◦ U.S.A. Today ◦ Washington Post  Scholarly journals are usually credible. ◦ JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association)  Most government publications are credible.  Reputable organizations are usually credible. ◦ American Cancer Society ◦ World Health Organization ◦ American Red Cross  Most information from colleges is credible. ◦.edu websites

23  You can automatically rule out:  Wikipedia  Facebook  Geocities  Personal Blogs  Friendster  Personal sites

24  The internet offers the BEST information on MANY topics.  The internet offers the WORST information on MOST topics.  You can use internet resources for research papers, but you have to be careful.

25  Ways to tell a credible internet source:  Looks professional ▪ The website doesn’t look like it was made by a 4-year- old with a crayon ▪ All or most links are working  Information offered is easy to verify ▪ The website offers links to where they found their information ▪ The sources of their information is also credible

26  It is easy to contact the owners of the website for more information or to ask questions  The site is up to date ▪ Information from 1991 is not “recent”  There are no errors ▪ The site uses proper spelling and grammar  The website is appropriate ▪ There is no inappropriate language, graphics, or photos

27  Mountain Ridge and DVUSD pay for services from credible academic sites. They are available to all students and teachers!  Visit the media center or log on to the MRHS website and visit the media center page to get info on accessing ProQuest, Opposing Viewpoints, and more.

28  These guidelines are not 100%  When in doubt, ask for help from a teacher or our librarian  If you’re still not sure, DON’T use it

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